Mutations in six nephrosis genes delineate a pathogenic pathway amenable to treatment., Ashraf, Shazia, Kudo Hiroki, Rao Jia, Kikuchi Atsuo, Widmeier Eugen, Lawson Jennifer A., Tan Weizhen, Hermle Tobias, Warejko Jillian K., Shril Shirlee, et al. , Nature communications, 2018 05 17, Volume 9, Issue 1, p.1960, (2018) Abstract

No efficient treatment exists for nephrotic syndrome (NS), a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here we show mutations in six different genes (MAGI2, TNS2, DLC1, CDK20, ITSN1, ITSN2) as causing NS in 17 families with partially treatment-sensitive NS (pTSNS). These proteins interact and we delineate their roles in Rho-like small GTPase (RLSG) activity, and demonstrate deficiency for mutants of pTSNS patients. We find that CDK20 regulates DLC1. Knockdown of MAGI2, DLC1, or CDK20 in cultured podocytes reduces migration rate. Treatment with dexamethasone abolishes RhoA activation by knockdown of DLC1 or CDK20 indicating that steroid treatment in patients with pTSNS and mutations in these genes is mediated by this RLSG module. Furthermore, we discover ITSN1 and ITSN2 as podocytic guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Cdc42. We generate Itsn2-L knockout mice that recapitulate the mild NS phenotype. We, thus, define a functional network of RhoA regulation, thereby revealing potential therapeutic targets.

Risk Factors for Early Dialysis Dependency in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease., Burgmaier, Kathrin, Kunzmann Kevin, Ariceta Gema, Bergmann Carsten, Buescher Anja Katrin, Burgmaier Mathias, Dursun Ismail, Duzova Ali, Eid Loai, Erger Florian, et al. , The Journal of pediatrics, 2018 Aug, Volume 199, p.22-28.e6, (2018) Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for dialysis within the first year of life in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) as a basis for parental counseling after prenatal and perinatal diagnosis.

STUDY DESIGN: A dataset comprising 385 patients from the ARegPKD international registry study was analyzed for potential risk markers for dialysis during the first year of life.

RESULTS: Thirty-six out of 385 children (9.4%) commenced dialysis in the first year of life. According to multivariable Cox regression analysis, the presence of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, prenatal kidney enlargement, a low Apgar score, and the need for postnatal breathing support were independently associated with an increased hazard ratio for requiring dialysis within the first year of life. The increased risk associated with Apgar score and perinatal assisted breathing was time-dependent and vanished after 5 and 8 months of life, respectively. The predicted probabilities for early dialysis varied from 1.5% (95% CI, 0.5%-4.1%) for patients with ARPKD with no prenatal sonographic abnormalities to 32.3% (95% CI, 22.2%-44.5%) in cases of documented oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, renal cysts, and enlarged kidneys.

CONCLUSIONS: This study, which identified risk factors associated with onset of dialysis in ARPKD in the first year of life, may be helpful in prenatal parental counseling in cases of suspected ARPKD.

Molecular Basis of Cystinosis: Geographic Distribution, Functional Consequences of Mutations in the CTNS Gene, and Potential for Repair., David, Dries, Berlingerio Sante Princiero, Elmonem Mohamed A., Arcolino Fanny Oliveira, neveen soliman, van den Heuvel Bert, Gijsbers Rik, and Levtchenko Elena , Nephron, 2018 Dec 14, Volume 141, Issue 2, p.1-14, (2018) Abstract

Mutations in the CTNS gene encoding the lysosomal membrane cystine transporter cystinosin are the cause of cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. More than 140 CTNS mutations have been reported worldwide. Recent studies have discovered that cystinosin exerts other key cellular functions beyond cystine transport such as regulation of oxidative state, lysosomal dynamics and autophagy. Here, we review the different mutations described in the CTNS gene and the geographical distribution of incidence. In addition, the characteristics of the various mutations in relation to the functions of cystinosin needs to be further elucidated. In this review, we highlight the functional consequences of the different mutations in correlation with the clinical phenotypes. Moreover, we propose how this understanding would be fundamental for the development of new technologies through targeted gene therapy, holding promises for a possible cure of the kidney and extra-renal phenotypes of cystinosis.

Combined liver-kidney transplantation for primary hyperoxaluria type I in children: Single Center Experience., Kotb, Magd A., Hamza Alaa F., Abd El Kader Hesham, El Monayeri Magda, Mosallam Dalia S., Ali Nazira, Basanti ChristineWilliam Shaker, Bazaraa Hafez, Rahman Hany Abdel, Nabhan Marwa M., et al. , Pediatric transplantation, 2018 Nov 26, p.e13313, (2018) Abstract

Primary hyperoxalurias are rare inborn errors of metabolism with deficiency of hepatic enzymes that lead to excessive urinary oxalate excretion and overproduction of oxalate which is deposited in various organs. Hyperoxaluria results in serious morbid-ity, end stage kidney disease (ESKD), and mortality if left untreated. Combined liver kidney transplantation (CLKT) is recognized as a management of ESKD for children with hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). This study aimed to report outcome of CLKT in a pediatric cohort of PH1 patients, through retrospective analysis of data of 8 children (2 girls and 6 boys) who presented by PH1 to Wadi El Nil Pediatric Living Related Liver Transplant Unit during 2001-2017. Mean age at transplant was 8.2 ± 4 years. Only three of the children underwent confirmatory genotyping. Three patients died prior to surgery on waiting list. The first attempt at CLKT was consecutive, and despite initial successful liver transplant, the girl died of biliary peritonitis prior to scheduled renal transplant. Of the four who underwent simultaneous CLKT, only two survived and are well, one with insignificant complications, and other suffered from abdominal Burkitt lymphoma managed by excision and resection anastomosis, four cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. The other two died, one due to uncontrollable bleeding within 36 hours of procedure, while the other died awaiting renal transplant after loss of renal graft to recurrent renal oxalosis 6 months post-transplant. PH1 with ESKD is a rare disease; simultaneous CLKT offers good quality of life for afflicted children. Graft shortage and renal graft loss to oxalosis challenge the outcome.

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Causative Mutations in Families with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract., van der Ven, Amelie T., Connaughton Dervla M., Ityel Hadas, Mann Nina, Nakayama Makiko, Chen Jing, Vivante Asaf, Hwang Daw-Yang, Schulz Julian, Braun Daniela A., et al. , Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, 2018 Sep, Volume 29, Issue 9, p.2348-2361, (2018) Abstract

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most prevalent cause of kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Previous gene panel studies showed monogenic causation in up to 12% of patients with CAKUT.

METHODS: We applied whole-exome sequencing to analyze the genotypes of individuals from 232 families with CAKUT, evaluating for mutations in single genes known to cause human CAKUT and genes known to cause CAKUT in mice. In consanguineous or multiplex families, we additionally performed a search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT.

RESULTS: In 29 families (13%), we detected a causative mutation in a known gene for isolated or syndromic CAKUT that sufficiently explained the patient's CAKUT phenotype. In three families (1%), we detected a mutation in a gene reported to cause a phenocopy of CAKUT. In 15 of 155 families with isolated CAKUT, we detected deleterious mutations in syndromic CAKUT genes. Our additional search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT in consanguineous and multiplex families revealed a potential single, novel monogenic CAKUT gene in 19 of 232 families (8%).

CONCLUSIONS: We identified monogenic mutations in a known human CAKUT gene or CAKUT phenocopy gene as the cause of disease in 14% of the CAKUT families in this study. Whole-exome sequencing provides an etiologic diagnosis in a high fraction of patients with CAKUT and will provide a new basis for the mechanistic understanding of CAKUT.

Endemic bladder calculi in children., Soliman, Neveen A., and Rizvi Adibul Hasan S. , Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany), 2016 Nov 15, (2017) Abstract

Urinary calculi are being recognized more frequently in children and the urinary bladder is the most common site for stone formation in the lower urinary tract. Bladder calculi are grouped into three basic categories: primary idiopathic/endemic, secondary, and migrant. The incidence of vesical calculi has declined significantly in the last 70 years in developed nations owing to improvements in nutrition and socioeconomic conditions, but it is still high in developing nations. Primary idiopathic/endemic bladder calculi typically occur in children, in the absence of urinary tract infection (UTI), urinary stasis, or foreign body, and diet lacking in animal proteins is the major contributor factor. Comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies are critical for improving the quality of life of diseased children, in addition to helping to eradicate, or at least decrease, the incidence of endemic bladder calculi in developing nations.

Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery., Scott, Eric M., Halees Anason, Itan Yuval, Spencer Emily G., He Yupeng, Azab Mostafa Abdellateef, Gabriel Stacey B., Belkadi Aziz, Boisson Bertrand, Abel Laurent, et al. , Nature genetics, 2016 09, Volume 48, Issue 9, p.1071-6, (2016) Abstract

The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Persian Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease. Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity rates were an order of magnitude above those in other sampled populations, and the GME population exhibited an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) but showed no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized 'genetic purging'. Applying this database to unsolved recessive conditions in the GME population reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by four- to sevenfold. These results show variegated genetic architecture in GME populations and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics.

A homozygous missense variant in VWA2, encoding an interactor of the Fraser-complex, in a patient with vesicoureteral reflux., van der Ven, Amelie T., Kobbe Birgit, Kohl Stefan, Shril Shirlee, Pogoda Hans-Martin, Imhof Thomas, Ityel Hadas, Vivante Asaf, Chen Jing, Hwang Daw-Yang, et al. , PloS one, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 1, p.e0191224, (2018) Abstract

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause (40-50%) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. About 40 monogenic causes of CAKUT have so far been discovered. To date less than 20% of CAKUT cases can be explained by mutations in these 40 genes. To identify additional monogenic causes of CAKUT, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and homozygosity mapping (HM) in a patient with CAKUT from Indian origin and consanguineous descent. We identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1336C>T, p.Arg446Cys) in the gene Von Willebrand factor A domain containing 2 (VWA2). With immunohistochemistry studies on kidneys of newborn (P1) mice, we show that Vwa2 and Fraser extracellular matrix complex subunit 1 (Fras1) co-localize in the nephrogenic zone of the renal cortex. We identified a pronounced expression of Vwa2 in the basement membrane of the ureteric bud (UB) and derivatives of the metanephric mesenchyme (MM). By applying in vitro assays, we demonstrate that the Arg446Cys mutation decreases translocation of monomeric VWA2 protein and increases translocation of aggregated VWA2 protein into the extracellular space. This is potentially due to the additional, unpaired cysteine residue in the mutated protein that is used for intermolecular disulfide bond formation. VWA2 is a known, direct interactor of FRAS1 of the Fraser-Complex (FC). FC-encoding genes and interacting proteins have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic and/or isolated CAKUT phenotypes in humans. VWA2 therefore constitutes a very strong candidate in the search for novel CAKUT-causing genes. Our results from in vitro experiments indicate a dose-dependent neomorphic effect of the Arg446Cys homozygous mutation in VWA2.

Whole Exome Sequencing of Patients with Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome., Warejko, Jillian K., Tan Weizhen, Daga Ankana, Schapiro David, Lawson Jennifer A., Shril Shirlee, Lovric Svjetlana, Ashraf Shazia, Rao Jia, Hermle Tobias, et al. , Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, 2018 Jan 06, Volume 13, Issue 1, p.53-62, (2018) Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome overwhelmingly progresses to ESRD. More than 30 monogenic genes have been identified to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. We previously detected causative mutations using targeted panel sequencing in 30% of patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Panel sequencing has a number of limitations when compared with whole exome sequencing. We employed whole exome sequencing to detect monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in an international cohort of 300 families.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Three hundred thirty-five individuals with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome from 300 families were recruited from April of 1998 to June of 2016. Age of onset was restricted to <25 years of age. Exome data were evaluated for 33 known monogenic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes.

RESULTS: In 74 of 300 families (25%), we identified a causative mutation in one of 20 genes known to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. In 11 families (3.7%), we detected a mutation in a gene that causes a phenocopy of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This is consistent with our previously published identification of mutations using a panel approach. We detected a causative mutation in a known steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome gene in 38% of consanguineous families and in 13% of nonconsanguineous families, and 48% of children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. A total of 68 different mutations were detected in 20 of 33 steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes. Fifteen of these mutations were novel.,,, andwere the most common genes in which we detected a mutation. In another 28% of families, we detected mutations in one or more candidate genes for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS: Whole exome sequencing is a sensitive approach toward diagnosis of monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. A molecular genetic diagnosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome may have important consequences for the management of treatment and kidney transplantation in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Whole exome sequencing frequently detects a monogenic cause in early onset nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis., Daga, Ankana, Majmundar Amar J., Braun Daniela A., Gee Heon Yung, Lawson Jennifer A., Shril Shirlee, Jobst-Schwan Tilman, Vivante Asaf, Schapiro David, Tan Weizhen, et al. , Kidney international, 2018 Jan, Volume 93, Issue 1, p.204-213, (2018) Abstract

The incidence of nephrolithiasis continues to rise. Previously, we showed that a monogenic cause could be detected in 11.4% of individuals with adult-onset nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis and in 16.7-20.8% of individuals with onset before 18 years of age, using gene panel sequencing of 30 genes known to cause nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis. To overcome the limitations of panel sequencing, we utilized whole exome sequencing in 51 families, who presented before age 25 years with at least one renal stone or with a renal ultrasound finding of nephrocalcinosis to identify the underlying molecular genetic cause of disease. In 15 of 51 families, we detected a monogenic causative mutation by whole exome sequencing. A mutation in seven recessive genes (AGXT, ATP6V1B1, CLDN16, CLDN19, GRHPR, SLC3A1, SLC12A1), in one dominant gene (SLC9A3R1), and in one gene (SLC34A1) with both recessive and dominant inheritance was detected. Seven of the 19 different mutations were not previously described as disease-causing. In one family, a causative mutation in one of 117 genes that may represent phenocopies of nephrolithiasis-causing genes was detected. In nine of 15 families, the genetic diagnosis may have specific implications for stone management and prevention. Several factors that correlated with the higher detection rate in our cohort were younger age at onset of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis, presence of multiple affected members in a family, and presence of consanguinity. Thus, we established whole exome sequencing as an efficient approach toward a molecular genetic diagnosis in individuals with nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis who manifest before age 25 years.

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