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Abdrabou, A., N. M. N. El Hadidi, S. A. M. Hamed, and M. Abdallah, "Multidisciplinary approach for the investigation and analysis of a gilded wooden bed of King Tutankhamun", Journal of Archaeological Science Reports, vol. 21, pp. 553-564, 2018. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes for the first time in detail the investigation of a gilded wooden bed from king Tutankhamun's funerary collection since the discovery of the tomb in 1922; with the aim of identifying the botanical species of wood and the chemical composition of the materials used in the preparatory gilding layers and also the materials used in the previous treatments interventions. The botanical species of wood and textile were identified by observing the thin sections under an optical transmission light microscope; the gilding materials layered on the wood surface and the previous treatment materials were analyzed by several scientific and analytical measures including visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL), optical microscopy (OM), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cross-sections of gilding layers were also performed and studied by OM and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The microscopic observation of wood thin sections made it possible to identify the wood used in the legs and angle brackets as Acacia sp, whereas Tamarix sp was used for the foot boards. Four preparation layers were observed on the wood surface via micro-stratigraphic analysis. An interesting black layer made of carbon (from vegetable and animal origin) was found between the wood surface and woven linen layer, the white preparation layer was identified as calcium carbonate and the coarse paste layer proved tobe a mixture of calcite, quartz and hematite. The organic binder was composed of a protein-based material, most probably animal glue. Additionally, different materials were identified from previous treatments interventions. The analyses provided detailed information concerning the original materials and the materials added during the previous treatment interventions, which need to be considered when applying a future conservation plan.

Ali, El Hadidi, N.M.N., Moussa, and Botros, W., "Experimental study to assess alternative supports for extensively deteriorated wooden Icons", Shedet, vol. 10, issue 10, pp. 261-278, 2023. shedet_volume_10_issue_10_pages_261-278.pdf
Attia, M., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and A. Abdel Hamied, "دراسة تحليلية للمواد المستخدمة فى صناعة تابوت خشبى ملون يعود للعصر البطلمى", The Center of the Studies of Papyrus and Engravings Journal, Ain Shams University, 2018. Abstract

يتناول البحث دراسة تابوت خشبي ملون تم العثور عليه بالمقبرة رقم 35 بمنطقة الواقفة بواحة باريس بمحافظة الوادي الجديد - مصر، وذلك بناءا على ما ورد في سجل وارد الآثار الخاص بمتحف آثار الوادي الجديد و المحفوظ الآن به التابوت و مسجل تحت رقم 2610/39. تركز الدراسة على استخدام منهج متعدد الفحوص و التحاليل للتعرف على المواد التي استخدمت في صناعة هذا التابوت من نوع الخشب و كذلك أرضية التصوير المستخدمة و طبقة اللون المطبقة على أرضية التصوير سابقة الذكر و أخيراً الوسيط المستخدم، حيث تم استخدام التصوير الفوتوغرافي، المجهر الرقمي USB digital microscopy، المجهر الضوئي Optical microscopy، التصوير بالأشعة تحت الحمراء (IR)، التحليل الطيقي بالأشعة تحت الحمراء (FTIR )، التحليل بطربقة حيود الأشعة السينية (XRD)، حيث أن أهم ما تم التوصل إليه البحث أن اللون الأصفر المستخدم في التابوت عبارة عن مادتان مختلفتان التركيب الأولى هي أصفر الأربمنت (كبريتيد الزرنيخ As2S3)، والثانية هي أصفر الجوثيت (أكسيد الحديد المائي Fe2O3.nH2O)، كما تم تحديد التوزيع المكاني لمادة اللون الأزرق وهي الأزرق المصري في التابوت بالكامل دون أخذ عينات باستخدام تقنية التصوير بالأشعة تحت الحمراء (IR) ، بالإضافة إلى التعرف على جميع المواد المستخدمة في صناعة التابوت (موضوع البحث).

Attia, M., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and A. Abdel Hamied, "دارسة علمية لبيئات تزييف خشب السنط و الجميز لتحقيق الاثري منها", The Center of the Studies of Papyrus and Engravings Journal, Ain Shams University, 2018.
Badr, N. M., M. F. ALI, N. M. N. El Hadidi, and M. ABDELRAHMAN, "Further Investigation of a Ptolemaic Wooden Coffin Lid from Abusir el-Meleq in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo", Ancient Egyptian Coffins Past • Present • Future, Cambridge, Oxbow Books, 2019. Abstract

Investigations in the basement of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo led to the rediscovery of a coffin lid of unknown provenance belonging to smA-tAwy son of iaH-ms (JE.36806). The lid was covered with two textile layers made from linen that do not belong to the coffin lid. According to the excavation Journal of Otto Rubensohn, the coffin was found in a family tomb at Abusir el-Meleq, Northern Middle Egypt. This study aims to confirm that the coffin lid dates back to the Ptolemaic period and that its base is exhibited at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo with a different number (TR. 25/8/19/3). Non-destructive methods (Portable X-ray radiography, Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI), Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) were used to identify tool marks and carpentry technology used during the Ptolemaic era in ancient Egypt. The lid was composed of six pieces of Tamarix sp. wood that were joined together with scarf joints and wooden dowels. Only the outer surface of the lid was covered with ground preparation layers that had been applied directly on the wooden support by brush, hiding any tool marks that were clearly obvious in the inner side of the lid. The detailed study of the coffin that was made in the necropolis workshop is a good example of woodworking techniques applied during that period.

Badr, N. M., M. F. ALI, N. M. N. El Hadidi, and G. Naeem, "Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt", Conservar Património, vol. 29, pp. 11-24, 2018. Abstractnor_-_identification_of_materials.pdfWebsite

A wooden coffin lid, of unknown provenance, with ground and colored layers and an ancient textile, was found at the Egyptian Museum basement in Cairo (JE 36806). The information obtained leads to the conclusion that the coffin lid dates back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt (332-30 BC), whereas the textile does not belong to the coffin lid. Portable x-ray radiography, photography, optical microscopy, reflected light USB microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the deterioration and the structure of the coffin lid and to understand how it was made in the necropolis workshop.

Crestini, C., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and G. Palleschi, "Characterisation of archaeological wood: A case study on the deterioration of a coffin", Microchemical Journal, vol. 92, issue 2, pp. 150-154, 2009. deterioration_of_a_coffin.pdf
Darwish, S. S., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and M. Mansour, "The Effect of Fungal Decay on Ficus sycomorus Wood", International Journal of Conservation Science , vol. 4, issue 3, pp. 271-282, 2013. ijcs-13-26-darwish.pdf
Darwish, S. S., and N. M. N. El Hadidi, "The Effect of Solvents on the Chemical Composition of Archaeological Wood", Giza Through Ages, Studies in Conservation, Environment and Tourism, vol 2, Cairo University, Faculty of Archaeology , pp. 85-100, 2008. the_effect_of_solvents_on_the_chemical_composition.pdf
El Ganainy, B., El Hadidi, N.M.N., and M. F. Mohamed, "Comparison between the effects of natural and accelerated light ageing on pine wood", Journal of the Faculty of Archaeology (JARCH), vol. 16, issue 27, pp. 1567-1579 , 2024.
El Hadidi, N. M. N., "The Cheops Boat – 50 Years Later", Conservation of Historic Wooden Structures (vol 1), Florence, Alter Ego Ing Arch S.r.L., pp. 452-457, 2005. cheops.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., M. Fawzy, Y. Zidan, and M. Rabie, "The Effect Of Carbogel Poultices On Pine Wood", EJARS, vol. 10, issue 2, pp. 113-121, 2020. ejars_-_carbogel.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., and S. A. M. Hamed, "The effect of Preparation layers on the Anatomical Structure and Chemical Composition of Native Egyptian Wood", First Vatican Coffin Conference, Vatican Museums Conference Halls, 22 June 2013 , 2017. Abstracthadidi_hamed.pdf

The effect of the chemical reaction between preparation layers and wood was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The changes in the anatomical structure and chemical composition in three native Egyptian hardwood types; Ficus sycomorus, Acacia sp., Tamarix sp.; due to the chemical effect of six preparation layers with different components commonly employed in the past to cover the wood surface were characterized and identified. The results obtained from both the SEM and FTIR techniques were almost compatible. The decay patterns of chemical attack in the three types of wood depended on the percentage of lignin and carbohydrates within each type, but the components of the preparation layers caused similar structural and chemical changes according to the acidity or alkalinity of the layer. The results showed that calcium carbonate (chalk) affected and degraded lignin more readily than carbohydrates due to its alkalinity, whereas gypsum, which is acidic, tended to degrade carbohydrates more aggressively than lignin. When the two minerals are used together in the preparation layer this leads to severe degradation in wood structure resulting in embrittlement and loss of wood integrity in the wood surface that lay directly beneath the preparation layer.

El Hadidi, N. M. N., "2g Wood: A Suitable amount of wood that can be taken from an archaeological artifact for analysis", Chem.03, Cairo University, Faculty of Archaeology, 2004. 2g_wood.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., and S. S. Darwish, "Chemical Changes of Archaeological Wood", Chem.05 , Cairo University , Faculty of Science, 2008. chemical_changes_of__archaeological_wood.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., and R. Hamdy, "Basketry accessories: footwear, bags and fans in ancient Egypt", Journal of Archaeological Science , vol. 38, pp. 1050-1061, 2011. accessories.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., "Decay of softwood in archaeological wooden artifacts", Studies in Conservation, vol. 62, issue 2, pp. 83-95, 2017. AbstractWebsite

Hardwoods and softwoods were used side by side throughout Egyptian history, and import of softwoods that had an attractive color and texture was common. Over the decades, artifacts based on hardwoods and softwoods underwent deterioration phenomena, sometimes reaching either a level of brittleness or turning into a wood powder that may easily crumble. These levels of decay/degradation are often difficult to handle in terms of conservation treatments. To study or identify the reasons for decay has always been a point of interest for conservation purposes, but to assess decay and choose an appropriate treatment according to the state of preservation for the sake of keeping an artifact intact has become a subject of major importance. It is difficult at times to understand the deterioration process, because hardwoods and softwoods are different in structure, properties, and chemical composition. For this preliminary study, decayed samples from three commonly used softwood types, cypress (Cupressus sp.), cedar (Cedrus sp.), and pine (Pinus sp.), were identified and chosen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples indicated the degree of decay. Decayed and non-aged samples of the same wood type were
analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and all the major carbohydrate and lignin bands were recorded. The strong hydrogen bonded (O–H) stretching absorption associated with water linked by hydrogen bonds to the –OH groups of cellulose and hemicelluloses in all decayed samples increased with decay. The brown powdery, fragile samples that had been evidently affected by microbial decay had a higher amount of lignin. The lignin/carbohydrate ratio was calculated and results compared. The increase of either lignin percentage or extractives in some of the samples had caused a darkening of color in both cypress and cedar samples, but the pine sample did not have the same texture and appearance. In cases where lignin percentage decreased the samples changed into a slightly lighter color. FTIR results explained the decay phenomena observed in SEM micrographs and helped assess wood decay and also confirmed results that had been previously obtained while applying traditional chemical analysis on wood.

El Hadidi, N. M. N., "Changing Research Trends in the field of Archaeological Wood at the Conservation Department - Faculty of Archaeology – Cairo University", Studies in Conservation, vol. 60, issue 3, pp. 143-154, 2015. Abstract

Since 1980, a lot of research in the field of treatment and conservation of archaeological wood has been ongoing at the Conservation Department - Faculty of Archaeology – Cairo University. Materials and methods used in conservation have been changing gradually during the years worldwide. However, studies are still insufficient and there are a lot of problems related to consolidation theories and materials that need to be solved. To change our research trends and find good applicable solutions, it was necessary to study critically previous research studies on Egyptian archaeological and historical wood. The M.A. and PhD theses in the field of wood conservation at Cairo University are all written in Arabic, and that is a reason why the findings are not accessible to conservators or archaeologists around the world. At the time of their submission they were relatively good, but while writing this review some of the ideas or theories may not be acceptable now. Undoubtedly past research and continuously arising problems have helped set new research trends.
This review includes a brief history of the Conservation Department at Cairo University and five main focal points of past research, namely; types of wood used throughout Egyptian history, assessment of wood decay; wood properties and composition; treatment and conservation of decorated wood; evaluation of chemicals and polymers used in the treatment of archaeological wood and composite objects containing wood.

El Hadidi, N. M. N., S. Darwish, M. Ragab, and A. E. R. M. Abd El Razek, S., "Beyond the Visible, Merging scientific analysis and Traditional methods for the documentation of the anthropoid coffin of Amenemhât", Ancient Egyptian Coffins Past • Present • Future, Cambridge, Oxbow Books, 2019. Abstract

This study focuses on one of the early examples of using the human shape in the third inner coffin. An ancient Egyptian anthropoid wooden coffin belonging to the Egyptian prince Amenemhât from the Middle Kingdom, Twelfth Dynasty - was found in Deir El Bersha, Egypt in separate parts (Kamal 1902, 14) in 1900 and was reconstructed sometime after it was transferred to the Museum in 1916.
The aim of this study is to document the structure and materials used in making the coffin. Preliminary investigations confirm that the anthropoid coffin of Amenemhât was made of sidr wood (Ziziphus sp.), the use of which has been documented only infrequently in complete wooden coffins.
The feasibility, effectiveness, and overall value of portable X-radiography were proven during the study of the coffin. It helped identify both the structure and the previous incompatible conservation, in which a large number of screws and nails had been used to reconnect the wooden elements. The detached wooden parts that had been joined together were covered with a paste to hide the previous restoration. On the left side of the head animal glue and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) were identified using XRD and FTIR spectroscopy.
Digital photography and ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) imaging were used in the documentation of the wooden coffin.
Samples were studied under both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to obtain a more detailed observation of the condition and physical characteristics of the wood.

El Hadidi, N. M. N., H. Abdel-Monem, F. M., and G. G. Hashem, "Retreatment and conservation of a wooden panel previously treated with bees wax", Advanced Research in Conservation Science, vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 88-65, 2020. arcs_volume_1_issue_2_pages_48-65.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., and S. S. Darwish, "Preliminary study on the different effects of consolidation treatments in heartwood and sapwood of a decayed gymnosperm wood", Journal of Archaeological and Restoration Studies "EJARS", vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 1-11, 2014. Abstractheartwood_and_sapwood_treatment.pdf

The aim of this research is to study and compare the different effects of some natural and synthetic polymers dissolved in different solvents on sapwood and heartwood samples taken from an archaeological decayed Cupressus sempervirens, a gymnosperm wood that had been often imported into Egypt throughout history. Five commonly used adhesives were chosen for this purpose: Paraloid B 72 dissolved in acetone (3% w/v), Methyl cellulose dissolved in water (1.5% w/v), Funori dissolved in ethyl alcohol 70% (3% w/v), Gum Arabic dissolved in water (3% w/v) and Poly vinyl acetate (PVAc) diluted in water (50% v/v). Untreated sapwood and heartwood samples and treated sapwood samples were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS). For monitoring the chemical changes and modifications, which occurred in the wood due to the chemical effects of the consolidants, untreated and treated sapwood and heartwood samples were analyzed with an FTIR spectrometer.

El Hadidi, N. M. N., and S. S. Darwish, "The use of acids and bases in cleaning archaeological wood", Giza Through Ages, Studies in Conservation, Environment and Tourism, vol. 2, Cairo University, Faculty of Archaeology , pp. 43-60, 2008. acids_and_alkalis.pdf