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El Ganainy, B., El Hadidi, N.M.N., and M. F. Mohamed, "Comparison between the effects of natural and accelerated light ageing on pine wood", Journal of the Faculty of Archaeology (JARCH), vol. 16, issue 27, pp. 1567-1579 , 2024.
Hamouda, A.S., El Hadidi, N.M.N., Hamed, and M. Abdel-Aziz, "Coupling of SEM-EDX and Raman spectroscopy to investigate painted preparation layers on two wooden statuettes from Ptolemaic era", Egyptian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 66, issue SI 13, pp. 117 - 126, 2023. ejchem_volume_66_issue_13_pages_117-126.pdf
Younis, S.M., El Hadidi, N.M.N., S. S. Darwish, and M. F. Mohamed, "Enhancing the mechanical strength of Klucel E/CNC composites for the conservation of wooden artifacts", Egyptian Journal of Archaeological and Restoration Studies "EJARS", vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 13-26, 2023. ejars_volume_13_issue_1_pages_13-26.pdf
Montaser, E. M., El Hadidi, N.M.N., and E. A. Amin, "Evaluation of wood gap fillers composed of microcrystalline cellulose, paper pulp, and glass micro balloons", Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 52, issue 4, pp. 422-430, 2023. AbstractWebsite

This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of using filling materials that are used to fill gaps in wooden objects, and their
response to changes in the surrounding environment to evaluate wood gap fillers and choose the best material. As a wide variety of materials, but
most of them were unsuitable for filler mixtures. Specific materials were used, which can adapt to changes in wood size in response to changes in
humidity. This research discusses the results of experiments that were conducted to determine how gap fillers composed of glass microballoons,
microcrystalline cellulose and paper pulp fills are mixed with Klucel G, Paraloid B-72 and methyl cellulose as binders, and respond in various

Ali, El Hadidi, N.M.N., Moussa, and Botros, W., "Experimental study to assess alternative supports for extensively deteriorated wooden Icons", Shedet, vol. 10, issue 10, pp. 261-278, 2023. shedet_volume_10_issue_10_pages_261-278.pdf
Gawish, M., El Hadidi, N.M.N., E. Naggar, and Ebeid, N., "A Mamluk Copy of Fawaed El Mawaad: Investigation and Analytical Approach,", Advanced Research in Conservation Science, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 54-70, 2023. arcs_volume_4_issue_1_pages_54-70.pdf
Younis, S.M., El Hadidi, N.M.N., Darwish, and M. F. Mohamed, "Preliminary study on the strength enhancement of Klucel E with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) for the conservation of wooden artifacts", Journal of Cultural Heritage , vol. 60, pp. 41-49, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Four concentrations of Klucel E and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposite were prepared by adding 10, 20, 30, and 50 ml of 2% (wt./v) CNF to 3% (wt./v) of Klucel E to obtain a 100 ml. final volume of the composite. The composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scan- ning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The addition of CNF to Klucel E improved the mechanical properties of the prepared composites; namely the composite which contains 50% CNF showed an improvement in tensile strength by 102% compared to pure Klucel E. Additionally, Young’s modulus, and hardness increased dramatically with the increase of CNF within the composite. To fur- ther evaluate the nanocomposites, CNF 30% and CNF 50%, were used to treat aged wood specimens. The compression strength of the untreated and treated specimen was measured, where the sample treated with Klucel E/30% CNF composite showed the highest compression strength value with an improvement of 14.5% compared to the untreated wood sample.

Zidan, Y. E., El Hadidi, N.M.N., and R. M., "The essence of the Maqsura in Islamic architecture as a modern trend to preserve it as an archaeological cultural heritage in its own right", International Journal of Advanced Studies in World Archaeology, vol. 4, issue 2, pp. 112-124 , 2022. ijaswa_volume_4_issue_2_pages_112-124.pdf
Elkhial, M. M., and El Hadidi, N.M.N., "Multi-Instrumental Investigation and Analysis of a Unique Ancient Egyptian Wooden Obelisk (New Kingdom) at the Grand Egyptian Museum", SCIENTIFIC CULTURE, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 1-14, 2022. Abstract8_1_1_elkhial_and_hadidi.pdf

An ancient Egyptian wooden obelisk heavily invaded by insects has been received at the Fumigation Labora-tory at the Grand Egyptian Museum. The conservation treatment presumed conducting a modified atmos-phere treatment for pest control and some stabilization interventions, thus, certain physicochemical tests were necessary. The multi-instrumental investigations and analyses conducted included optical microscopy (OM), digital microscopy (DM), technical imaging (TI), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) to identify the wooden substrate and pigment traces. The aim was to identify the constituents of the obelisk to undertake the minimal necessary interventions and to stabilize its state of conservation using the most suitable intervention materials and techniques. Archaeological background, historical significance, and manufacturing technique of obelisk was reported. Results showed that the obelisk was made of Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa) wood and contains traces of white pigment identified as gypsum, blue pigment identified as Egyptian blue, and black pigment identified as bone ivory.

Sharaf, L., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and W. I. Saber, "Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of Basil Essential Oil in the Preservation of Ficus sycomorus Wood", Advanced Research in Conservation Science, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 1-12, 2022.
Gomaa, M. M., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and R. Hamdi, "Study and conservation of a heritage artifact composed of plant fibers and embroidered with colored wool thread", International Journal of Advanced Studies in World Archaeology, vol. 5, issue 2, pp. 105-129 , 2022. ijaswa_volume_5_issue_2_pages_105-128.pdf
Hamed, N. G., El Hadidi, N.M.N., R. Hamdy, and M. Ghanam, "Study on the deterioration features of an archaeological basket made of palm fronds at the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization", JARCH_Volume 11_Issue 2022_Pages 449-461, vol. 11, issue 2022, pp. 440-451, 2022. Abstractjarch_volume_11_issue_2022_pages_449-461.pdf

One of the baskets preserved in the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization, that appears to be suffering from various deterioration aspects was chosen for this paper, in order to document and record the different features of damage, as a preliminary step for its treatment and conservation. The basket, which is registered under no. 71 at the museum, was one of the finds from the excavations of Cairo University. The documentation of the basket included photography, Photoshop and AutoCAD figures, in which the aspects of deterioration are featured so that non-specialists can easily identify the decay of the basket.
Fragments that had fallen off the basket were used to identify the plants that had been used for making the basket. By comparing the fragile samples under the microscope with fresh fibers of plants that were commonly used throughout the ancient Egyptian periods for making baskets, it was possible to prove that the basket was composed of palm fronds. The wide distribution of date palms in ancient Egypt has been previously confirmed, according to numerous archaeological discoveries, since prehistoric times. Seeds and dates, as well as products manufactured from different parts of the date palm tree have been found on archaeological sites; e.g. baskets, mats, sieves, brushes, ropes and fruit-bearing stems, in addition to the frequent appearance of two types of palm trees in ancient Egyptian mural paintings and inscriptions.
The results of the examination and analysis of the basket indicated that the palm fronds, that had been used in manufacturing the basket have distinctive chemical and physical characteristics, and by studying these characteristics and the extent of the deterioration that occurred over the centuries, it was possible to specify the chemical changes of the functional groups of the plant fibers with the aid of FTIR analysis. These results should aid, in the near future, conservators to perform various treatments to strengthen decayed fibers using some appropriate natural materials, and then prepare reports in which they document the stages of “before - during - after” conservation, which could be a reference for anyone working in the field of plant fiber conservation and treatment.

Rabou, A., El Hadidi, N.M.N., Hamed, and M. A. Betiha, "Experimental study on the efficacy of cleaning systems for the removal of previous conservation treatments from Tutankhamuns' gilded wooden bed", International Journal of Conservation Science , vol. 12, issue 2, pp. 403-416, 2021. ijcs-21-30_abdrabou.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., M. Fawzy, Y. Zidan, and M. Rabie, "The Effect Of Carbogel Poultices On Pine Wood", EJARS, vol. 10, issue 2, pp. 113-121, 2020. ejars_-_carbogel.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., H. Abdel-Monem, F. M., and G. G. Hashem, "Retreatment and conservation of a wooden panel previously treated with bees wax", Advanced Research in Conservation Science, vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 88-65, 2020. arcs_volume_1_issue_2_pages_48-65.pdf
Hamed, S. A. M., and E. H. N. M. N., "The Use of SEM-EDX Investigations in Estimating The Penetration Depth of Preparation Layers Within Wood Structure ", Advanced Research in Conservation Science, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 1-15, 2020. arcs_volume_1_issue_1_pages_1-15.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., S. Darwish, M. Ragab, and A. E. R. M. Abd El Razek, S., "Beyond the Visible, Merging scientific analysis and Traditional methods for the documentation of the anthropoid coffin of Amenemhât", Ancient Egyptian Coffins Past • Present • Future, Cambridge, Oxbow Books, 2019. Abstract

This study focuses on one of the early examples of using the human shape in the third inner coffin. An ancient Egyptian anthropoid wooden coffin belonging to the Egyptian prince Amenemhât from the Middle Kingdom, Twelfth Dynasty - was found in Deir El Bersha, Egypt in separate parts (Kamal 1902, 14) in 1900 and was reconstructed sometime after it was transferred to the Museum in 1916.
The aim of this study is to document the structure and materials used in making the coffin. Preliminary investigations confirm that the anthropoid coffin of Amenemhât was made of sidr wood (Ziziphus sp.), the use of which has been documented only infrequently in complete wooden coffins.
The feasibility, effectiveness, and overall value of portable X-radiography were proven during the study of the coffin. It helped identify both the structure and the previous incompatible conservation, in which a large number of screws and nails had been used to reconnect the wooden elements. The detached wooden parts that had been joined together were covered with a paste to hide the previous restoration. On the left side of the head animal glue and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) were identified using XRD and FTIR spectroscopy.
Digital photography and ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) imaging were used in the documentation of the wooden coffin.
Samples were studied under both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to obtain a more detailed observation of the condition and physical characteristics of the wood.

Badr, N. M., M. F. ALI, N. M. N. El Hadidi, and M. ABDELRAHMAN, "Further Investigation of a Ptolemaic Wooden Coffin Lid from Abusir el-Meleq in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo", Ancient Egyptian Coffins Past • Present • Future, Cambridge, Oxbow Books, 2019. Abstract

Investigations in the basement of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo led to the rediscovery of a coffin lid of unknown provenance belonging to smA-tAwy son of iaH-ms (JE.36806). The lid was covered with two textile layers made from linen that do not belong to the coffin lid. According to the excavation Journal of Otto Rubensohn, the coffin was found in a family tomb at Abusir el-Meleq, Northern Middle Egypt. This study aims to confirm that the coffin lid dates back to the Ptolemaic period and that its base is exhibited at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo with a different number (TR. 25/8/19/3). Non-destructive methods (Portable X-ray radiography, Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI), Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) were used to identify tool marks and carpentry technology used during the Ptolemaic era in ancient Egypt. The lid was composed of six pieces of Tamarix sp. wood that were joined together with scarf joints and wooden dowels. Only the outer surface of the lid was covered with ground preparation layers that had been applied directly on the wooden support by brush, hiding any tool marks that were clearly obvious in the inner side of the lid. The detailed study of the coffin that was made in the necropolis workshop is a good example of woodworking techniques applied during that period.

Shreif, M. M., A. A. Sakr, M. F. ALI, and N. M. N. El Hadidi, "Scientific Investigation of Pigments and Binding from wood ceiling, Abdel Rahman Kathkad, Ottoman Period, Cairo", Journal of Science and Arts, vol. 1, issue 46, pp. 163-176, 2019. scientific_investigation_of_pigments_and_binding_from_wood_ceiling.pdf
Zidan, Y.;, N. M. N.; El Hadidi, and M. Rabie, "تطبيق كمادة الدك 1000 لتنظيف القطعة الخشبية رقم 42 بالمخزن المتحفي بالقرنة الأقصر", Sixth International Conference of Archaeology and Heritage in Authenticity, Risks and Challenges, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, 2-4 December, 2018.
Moataz, N., El Hadidi, N.M.N., and R. S. Hamdy, "علاج و صيانة آله موسيقيه (قيثاره) بالمتحف المصرى بالتحرير", Sixth International Conference of Archaeology and Heritage in Authenticity, Risks and Challenges, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, 2 – 4 December, 2018.
Badr, N. M., M. F. ALI, N. M. N. El Hadidi, and G. Naeem, "Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt", Conservar Património, vol. 29, pp. 11-24, 2018. Abstractnor_-_identification_of_materials.pdfWebsite

A wooden coffin lid, of unknown provenance, with ground and colored layers and an ancient textile, was found at the Egyptian Museum basement in Cairo (JE 36806). The information obtained leads to the conclusion that the coffin lid dates back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt (332-30 BC), whereas the textile does not belong to the coffin lid. Portable x-ray radiography, photography, optical microscopy, reflected light USB microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the deterioration and the structure of the coffin lid and to understand how it was made in the necropolis workshop.

Abdrabou, A., N. M. N. El Hadidi, S. A. M. Hamed, and M. Abdallah, "Multidisciplinary approach for the investigation and analysis of a gilded wooden bed of King Tutankhamun", Journal of Archaeological Science Reports, vol. 21, pp. 553-564, 2018. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes for the first time in detail the investigation of a gilded wooden bed from king Tutankhamun's funerary collection since the discovery of the tomb in 1922; with the aim of identifying the botanical species of wood and the chemical composition of the materials used in the preparatory gilding layers and also the materials used in the previous treatments interventions. The botanical species of wood and textile were identified by observing the thin sections under an optical transmission light microscope; the gilding materials layered on the wood surface and the previous treatment materials were analyzed by several scientific and analytical measures including visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL), optical microscopy (OM), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cross-sections of gilding layers were also performed and studied by OM and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The microscopic observation of wood thin sections made it possible to identify the wood used in the legs and angle brackets as Acacia sp, whereas Tamarix sp was used for the foot boards. Four preparation layers were observed on the wood surface via micro-stratigraphic analysis. An interesting black layer made of carbon (from vegetable and animal origin) was found between the wood surface and woven linen layer, the white preparation layer was identified as calcium carbonate and the coarse paste layer proved tobe a mixture of calcite, quartz and hematite. The organic binder was composed of a protein-based material, most probably animal glue. Additionally, different materials were identified from previous treatments interventions. The analyses provided detailed information concerning the original materials and the materials added during the previous treatment interventions, which need to be considered when applying a future conservation plan.