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Zidan, Y. E., El Hadidi, N.M.N., and R. M., "The essence of the Maqsura in Islamic architecture as a modern trend to preserve it as an archaeological cultural heritage in its own right", International Journal of Advanced Studies in World Archaeology, vol. 4, issue 2, pp. 112-124 , 2022. ijaswa_volume_4_issue_2_pages_112-124.pdf
Elkhial, M. M., and El Hadidi, N.M.N., "Multi-Instrumental Investigation and Analysis of a Unique Ancient Egyptian Wooden Obelisk (New Kingdom) at the Grand Egyptian Museum", SCIENTIFIC CULTURE, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 1-14, 2022. Abstract8_1_1_elkhial_and_hadidi.pdf

An ancient Egyptian wooden obelisk heavily invaded by insects has been received at the Fumigation Labora-tory at the Grand Egyptian Museum. The conservation treatment presumed conducting a modified atmos-phere treatment for pest control and some stabilization interventions, thus, certain physicochemical tests were necessary. The multi-instrumental investigations and analyses conducted included optical microscopy (OM), digital microscopy (DM), technical imaging (TI), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) to identify the wooden substrate and pigment traces. The aim was to identify the constituents of the obelisk to undertake the minimal necessary interventions and to stabilize its state of conservation using the most suitable intervention materials and techniques. Archaeological background, historical significance, and manufacturing technique of obelisk was reported. Results showed that the obelisk was made of Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa) wood and contains traces of white pigment identified as gypsum, blue pigment identified as Egyptian blue, and black pigment identified as bone ivory.

Sharaf, L., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and W. I. Saber, "Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of Basil Essential Oil in the Preservation of Ficus sycomorus Wood", Advanced Research in Conservation Science, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 1-12, 2022.
Gomaa, M. M., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and R. Hamdi, "Study and conservation of a heritage artifact composed of plant fibers and embroidered with colored wool thread", International Journal of Advanced Studies in World Archaeology, vol. 5, issue 2, pp. 105-129 , 2022. ijaswa_volume_5_issue_2_pages_105-128.pdf
Hamed, N. G., El Hadidi, N.M.N., R. Hamdy, and M. Ghanam, "Study on the deterioration features of an archaeological basket made of palm fronds at the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization", JARCH_Volume 11_Issue 2022_Pages 449-461, vol. 11, issue 2022, pp. 440-451, 2022. Abstractjarch_volume_11_issue_2022_pages_449-461.pdf

One of the baskets preserved in the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization, that appears to be suffering from various deterioration aspects was chosen for this paper, in order to document and record the different features of damage, as a preliminary step for its treatment and conservation. The basket, which is registered under no. 71 at the museum, was one of the finds from the excavations of Cairo University. The documentation of the basket included photography, Photoshop and AutoCAD figures, in which the aspects of deterioration are featured so that non-specialists can easily identify the decay of the basket.
Fragments that had fallen off the basket were used to identify the plants that had been used for making the basket. By comparing the fragile samples under the microscope with fresh fibers of plants that were commonly used throughout the ancient Egyptian periods for making baskets, it was possible to prove that the basket was composed of palm fronds. The wide distribution of date palms in ancient Egypt has been previously confirmed, according to numerous archaeological discoveries, since prehistoric times. Seeds and dates, as well as products manufactured from different parts of the date palm tree have been found on archaeological sites; e.g. baskets, mats, sieves, brushes, ropes and fruit-bearing stems, in addition to the frequent appearance of two types of palm trees in ancient Egyptian mural paintings and inscriptions.
The results of the examination and analysis of the basket indicated that the palm fronds, that had been used in manufacturing the basket have distinctive chemical and physical characteristics, and by studying these characteristics and the extent of the deterioration that occurred over the centuries, it was possible to specify the chemical changes of the functional groups of the plant fibers with the aid of FTIR analysis. These results should aid, in the near future, conservators to perform various treatments to strengthen decayed fibers using some appropriate natural materials, and then prepare reports in which they document the stages of “before - during - after” conservation, which could be a reference for anyone working in the field of plant fiber conservation and treatment.

Rabou, A., El Hadidi, N.M.N., Hamed, and M. A. Betiha, "Experimental study on the efficacy of cleaning systems for the removal of previous conservation treatments from Tutankhamuns' gilded wooden bed", International Journal of Conservation Science , vol. 12, issue 2, pp. 403-416, 2021. ijcs-21-30_abdrabou.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., M. Fawzy, Y. Zidan, and M. Rabie, "The Effect Of Carbogel Poultices On Pine Wood", EJARS, vol. 10, issue 2, pp. 113-121, 2020. ejars_-_carbogel.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., H. Abdel-Monem, F. M., and G. G. Hashem, "Retreatment and conservation of a wooden panel previously treated with bees wax", Advanced Research in Conservation Science, vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 88-65, 2020. arcs_volume_1_issue_2_pages_48-65.pdf
Hamed, S. A. M., and E. H. N. M. N., "The Use of SEM-EDX Investigations in Estimating The Penetration Depth of Preparation Layers Within Wood Structure ", Advanced Research in Conservation Science, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 1-15, 2020. arcs_volume_1_issue_1_pages_1-15.pdf
El Hadidi, N. M. N., S. Darwish, M. Ragab, and A. E. R. M. Abd El Razek, S., "Beyond the Visible, Merging scientific analysis and Traditional methods for the documentation of the anthropoid coffin of Amenemhât", Ancient Egyptian Coffins Past • Present • Future, Cambridge, Oxbow Books, 2019. Abstract

This study focuses on one of the early examples of using the human shape in the third inner coffin. An ancient Egyptian anthropoid wooden coffin belonging to the Egyptian prince Amenemhât from the Middle Kingdom, Twelfth Dynasty - was found in Deir El Bersha, Egypt in separate parts (Kamal 1902, 14) in 1900 and was reconstructed sometime after it was transferred to the Museum in 1916.
The aim of this study is to document the structure and materials used in making the coffin. Preliminary investigations confirm that the anthropoid coffin of Amenemhât was made of sidr wood (Ziziphus sp.), the use of which has been documented only infrequently in complete wooden coffins.
The feasibility, effectiveness, and overall value of portable X-radiography were proven during the study of the coffin. It helped identify both the structure and the previous incompatible conservation, in which a large number of screws and nails had been used to reconnect the wooden elements. The detached wooden parts that had been joined together were covered with a paste to hide the previous restoration. On the left side of the head animal glue and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) were identified using XRD and FTIR spectroscopy.
Digital photography and ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) imaging were used in the documentation of the wooden coffin.
Samples were studied under both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to obtain a more detailed observation of the condition and physical characteristics of the wood.

Badr, N. M., M. F. ALI, N. M. N. El Hadidi, and M. ABDELRAHMAN, "Further Investigation of a Ptolemaic Wooden Coffin Lid from Abusir el-Meleq in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo", Ancient Egyptian Coffins Past • Present • Future, Cambridge, Oxbow Books, 2019. Abstract

Investigations in the basement of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo led to the rediscovery of a coffin lid of unknown provenance belonging to smA-tAwy son of iaH-ms (JE.36806). The lid was covered with two textile layers made from linen that do not belong to the coffin lid. According to the excavation Journal of Otto Rubensohn, the coffin was found in a family tomb at Abusir el-Meleq, Northern Middle Egypt. This study aims to confirm that the coffin lid dates back to the Ptolemaic period and that its base is exhibited at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo with a different number (TR. 25/8/19/3). Non-destructive methods (Portable X-ray radiography, Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI), Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) were used to identify tool marks and carpentry technology used during the Ptolemaic era in ancient Egypt. The lid was composed of six pieces of Tamarix sp. wood that were joined together with scarf joints and wooden dowels. Only the outer surface of the lid was covered with ground preparation layers that had been applied directly on the wooden support by brush, hiding any tool marks that were clearly obvious in the inner side of the lid. The detailed study of the coffin that was made in the necropolis workshop is a good example of woodworking techniques applied during that period.

Shreif, M. M., A. A. Sakr, M. F. ALI, and N. M. N. El Hadidi, "Scientific Investigation of Pigments and Binding from wood ceiling, Abdel Rahman Kathkad, Ottoman Period, Cairo", Journal of Science and Arts, vol. 1, issue 46, pp. 163-176, 2019. scientific_investigation_of_pigments_and_binding_from_wood_ceiling.pdf
Zidan, Y.;, N. M. N.; El Hadidi, and M. Rabie, "تطبيق كمادة الدك 1000 لتنظيف القطعة الخشبية رقم 42 بالمخزن المتحفي بالقرنة الأقصر", Sixth International Conference of Archaeology and Heritage in Authenticity, Risks and Challenges, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, 2-4 December, 2018.
Moataz, N., El Hadidi, N.M.N., and R. S. Hamdy, "علاج و صيانة آله موسيقيه (قيثاره) بالمتحف المصرى بالتحرير", Sixth International Conference of Archaeology and Heritage in Authenticity, Risks and Challenges, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, 2 – 4 December, 2018.
Badr, N. M., M. F. ALI, N. M. N. El Hadidi, and G. Naeem, "Identification of materials used in a wooden coffin lid covered with composite layers dating back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt", Conservar Património, vol. 29, pp. 11-24, 2018. Abstractnor_-_identification_of_materials.pdfWebsite

A wooden coffin lid, of unknown provenance, with ground and colored layers and an ancient textile, was found at the Egyptian Museum basement in Cairo (JE 36806). The information obtained leads to the conclusion that the coffin lid dates back to the Ptolemaic period in Egypt (332-30 BC), whereas the textile does not belong to the coffin lid. Portable x-ray radiography, photography, optical microscopy, reflected light USB microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the deterioration and the structure of the coffin lid and to understand how it was made in the necropolis workshop.

Abdrabou, A., N. M. N. El Hadidi, S. A. M. Hamed, and M. Abdallah, "Multidisciplinary approach for the investigation and analysis of a gilded wooden bed of King Tutankhamun", Journal of Archaeological Science Reports, vol. 21, pp. 553-564, 2018. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes for the first time in detail the investigation of a gilded wooden bed from king Tutankhamun's funerary collection since the discovery of the tomb in 1922; with the aim of identifying the botanical species of wood and the chemical composition of the materials used in the preparatory gilding layers and also the materials used in the previous treatments interventions. The botanical species of wood and textile were identified by observing the thin sections under an optical transmission light microscope; the gilding materials layered on the wood surface and the previous treatment materials were analyzed by several scientific and analytical measures including visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL), optical microscopy (OM), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cross-sections of gilding layers were also performed and studied by OM and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The microscopic observation of wood thin sections made it possible to identify the wood used in the legs and angle brackets as Acacia sp, whereas Tamarix sp was used for the foot boards. Four preparation layers were observed on the wood surface via micro-stratigraphic analysis. An interesting black layer made of carbon (from vegetable and animal origin) was found between the wood surface and woven linen layer, the white preparation layer was identified as calcium carbonate and the coarse paste layer proved tobe a mixture of calcite, quartz and hematite. The organic binder was composed of a protein-based material, most probably animal glue. Additionally, different materials were identified from previous treatments interventions. The analyses provided detailed information concerning the original materials and the materials added during the previous treatment interventions, which need to be considered when applying a future conservation plan.

Attia, M., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and A. Abdel Hamied, "دارسة علمية لبيئات تزييف خشب السنط و الجميز لتحقيق الاثري منها", The Center of the Studies of Papyrus and Engravings Journal, Ain Shams University, 2018.
Attia, M., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and A. Abdel Hamied, "دراسة تحليلية للمواد المستخدمة فى صناعة تابوت خشبى ملون يعود للعصر البطلمى", The Center of the Studies of Papyrus and Engravings Journal, Ain Shams University, 2018. Abstract

يتناول البحث دراسة تابوت خشبي ملون تم العثور عليه بالمقبرة رقم 35 بمنطقة الواقفة بواحة باريس بمحافظة الوادي الجديد - مصر، وذلك بناءا على ما ورد في سجل وارد الآثار الخاص بمتحف آثار الوادي الجديد و المحفوظ الآن به التابوت و مسجل تحت رقم 2610/39. تركز الدراسة على استخدام منهج متعدد الفحوص و التحاليل للتعرف على المواد التي استخدمت في صناعة هذا التابوت من نوع الخشب و كذلك أرضية التصوير المستخدمة و طبقة اللون المطبقة على أرضية التصوير سابقة الذكر و أخيراً الوسيط المستخدم، حيث تم استخدام التصوير الفوتوغرافي، المجهر الرقمي USB digital microscopy، المجهر الضوئي Optical microscopy، التصوير بالأشعة تحت الحمراء (IR)، التحليل الطيقي بالأشعة تحت الحمراء (FTIR )، التحليل بطربقة حيود الأشعة السينية (XRD)، حيث أن أهم ما تم التوصل إليه البحث أن اللون الأصفر المستخدم في التابوت عبارة عن مادتان مختلفتان التركيب الأولى هي أصفر الأربمنت (كبريتيد الزرنيخ As2S3)، والثانية هي أصفر الجوثيت (أكسيد الحديد المائي Fe2O3.nH2O)، كما تم تحديد التوزيع المكاني لمادة اللون الأزرق وهي الأزرق المصري في التابوت بالكامل دون أخذ عينات باستخدام تقنية التصوير بالأشعة تحت الحمراء (IR) ، بالإضافة إلى التعرف على جميع المواد المستخدمة في صناعة التابوت (موضوع البحث).

El Hadidi, N. M. N., and S. A. M. Hamed, "The effect of Preparation layers on the Anatomical Structure and Chemical Composition of Native Egyptian Wood", First Vatican Coffin Conference, Vatican Museums Conference Halls, 22 June 2013 , 2017. Abstracthadidi_hamed.pdf

The effect of the chemical reaction between preparation layers and wood was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The changes in the anatomical structure and chemical composition in three native Egyptian hardwood types; Ficus sycomorus, Acacia sp., Tamarix sp.; due to the chemical effect of six preparation layers with different components commonly employed in the past to cover the wood surface were characterized and identified. The results obtained from both the SEM and FTIR techniques were almost compatible. The decay patterns of chemical attack in the three types of wood depended on the percentage of lignin and carbohydrates within each type, but the components of the preparation layers caused similar structural and chemical changes according to the acidity or alkalinity of the layer. The results showed that calcium carbonate (chalk) affected and degraded lignin more readily than carbohydrates due to its alkalinity, whereas gypsum, which is acidic, tended to degrade carbohydrates more aggressively than lignin. When the two minerals are used together in the preparation layer this leads to severe degradation in wood structure resulting in embrittlement and loss of wood integrity in the wood surface that lay directly beneath the preparation layer.

El Hadidi, N. M. N., "Decay of softwood in archaeological wooden artifacts", Studies in Conservation, vol. 62, issue 2, pp. 83-95, 2017. AbstractWebsite

Hardwoods and softwoods were used side by side throughout Egyptian history, and import of softwoods that had an attractive color and texture was common. Over the decades, artifacts based on hardwoods and softwoods underwent deterioration phenomena, sometimes reaching either a level of brittleness or turning into a wood powder that may easily crumble. These levels of decay/degradation are often difficult to handle in terms of conservation treatments. To study or identify the reasons for decay has always been a point of interest for conservation purposes, but to assess decay and choose an appropriate treatment according to the state of preservation for the sake of keeping an artifact intact has become a subject of major importance. It is difficult at times to understand the deterioration process, because hardwoods and softwoods are different in structure, properties, and chemical composition. For this preliminary study, decayed samples from three commonly used softwood types, cypress (Cupressus sp.), cedar (Cedrus sp.), and pine (Pinus sp.), were identified and chosen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples indicated the degree of decay. Decayed and non-aged samples of the same wood type were
analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and all the major carbohydrate and lignin bands were recorded. The strong hydrogen bonded (O–H) stretching absorption associated with water linked by hydrogen bonds to the –OH groups of cellulose and hemicelluloses in all decayed samples increased with decay. The brown powdery, fragile samples that had been evidently affected by microbial decay had a higher amount of lignin. The lignin/carbohydrate ratio was calculated and results compared. The increase of either lignin percentage or extractives in some of the samples had caused a darkening of color in both cypress and cedar samples, but the pine sample did not have the same texture and appearance. In cases where lignin percentage decreased the samples changed into a slightly lighter color. FTIR results explained the decay phenomena observed in SEM micrographs and helped assess wood decay and also confirmed results that had been previously obtained while applying traditional chemical analysis on wood.

Salem, N., Zidan, Y. E., Mansour, M. M. A., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and W. A. A. Abo Elgat, "Antifungal activities of two essential oils used in the treatment of three commercial woods deteriorated by five common mold fungi", International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 106, pp. 88-96, 2016. Abstractinternational_biodeterioration__biodegradation_106.pdfWebsite

In the past ten years natural extracts have been used as important potential applications to prevent mold growth on in-service wood. The growth of fungal hyphae of five common mold fungi (Alternaria alternata,
Fusarium subglutinans, Chaetomium globosum, Aspergillus niger, and Trichoderma viride) on wood
surface of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus rigida and Fagus sylvatica treated with the essential oil (EO) of P. rigida
(wood) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (leaves) was visually estimated. EOs were applied by vapor method
and the mold growth inhibition was measured. The chemical constituents of the EOs was analyzed by
GC/MS, which referred to the presence of a-terpineol (34.49%), borneol (17.57%), and fenchyl alcohol
(14.20%) as the major components in P. rigida wood oil, and eucalyptol (60.32%), a-pinene (13.65%), and g-terpinene (8.77%) in E. camaldulensis leaves. Complete inhibition against the growth of A. alternata,
F. subglutinans, C. globosum, and A. niger except of T. viride by applying P. rigida wood EO at 5000 ppm and
complete growth with all the studied fungi except of C. globosum at 156.25 ppm was found. Good inhibitions
against C. globosum at 5000 ppm and 156.25 ppm and no inhibition against A. niger and T. viride
and little inhibition against F. subglutinans at high concentration was found by the application of EO from
E. camaldulensis leaves. These findings support the potential use of the EOs for wood protection against
mold infestation for surface-treatment or fumigation of wood products

Salem, N., Zidan, Y. E., Mansour, M. M. A., and W. A. A. El Hadidi, N.M.N. Abo Elgat, "Evaluation of usage three natural extracts applied to three commercial wood species against five common molds", International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 110, pp. 206-226, 2016. Abstractinternational_biodeterioration__biodegradation_110.pdfWebsite

Natural extracts have become of high interest in the past ten years for their inhibiting the growth of
molds over wood and wood products surfaces in service or during the storage of building materials. In
the present study, the antifungal effects of three natural extracts applied to three woods against five
common molds were assessed. The growth of fungal hyphae of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium subglutinans,
Chaetomium globosum, Aspergillus niger, and Trichoderma viride on the surfaces of Pinus sylvestris,
Pinus rigida and Fagus sylvatica woods treated with extracts of Pinus rigida (heartwood),
Eucalyptus camaldulensis (leaves) and Costus speciosus (rhizomes) was visually estimated. GC/MS and
FTIR analyses were used to identify the chemical constituents and the functional groups of extracts. aterpineol
(24.91%), borneol (10.95%), terpin hydrate (9.60%), D-fenchyl alcohol (5.99%), and limonene
glycol (5.05%), which are the main constituents of P. rigida heartwood methanol extract. The main
chemical compounds of methanol extract from Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves were spathulenol
(18.89%), cryptone (5.79%), 4,6,6-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-3-oxatricyclo[,4)]octane
(5.79%), (3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-(E)-acetaldehyde (5.57%), and ascaridole (4.32%).The main constituents identified in the distilled water extract from Costus speciosus rhizomes were meso-erythritol (12.21%), methyl-2-methyl-1,3-oxothiolan-2-yl-ketone (11.61%), (all-Z)-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid-methyl ester (9.74%), diosgenin (5.07%), 2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one (4.43%), 3′,4′,7-trimethylquercetin (3.17%), and digitoxin (2.77%). Wood specimens treated at the level of 2% concentration of P. rigida heartwood extract observed good inhibition to the mold growth under laboratory conditions. These findings support the potential use of natural extracts for natural wood protection against mold infestation for surface treatment of wood. The results indicate that wood extracts may be useful for reducing the incidence of mold on wood products, but none of the materials evaluated completely inhibited the test fungi. These extracts may provide a useful value-added application for by-products of lumber production from these species.