Ecological Study

Abdel-Razik, M. S. M., M. E. Rabbat, N. M. K. Elden, and H. Y. Ali, Ecological Study, , 2015.


Infant and child mortality are indicators of population wellbeing. Although Child
mortality rates are declining in Egypt, national averages mask regional disparities. Hence,
identification and quantification of factors contributing to mortality, at the local level through
ecological correlation studies could provide a guide to more focused public health interventions for
reducing mortality. The study aims to improve child health and decrease child mortality rate through
recognition of ecological/environmental factors predicting child mortality among municipalities in
Giza governorate.
METHODOLOGY: Ecological cross sectional study adopting the municipalities (n=215) as unit of
analysis. The study was conducted to examine associations between child mortality and some human
development indicators.
RESULTS: Highly significant negative correlation between U5MR and access to water (r=-0.966)
was found. Access to sanitation and access to electricity were negatively correlated with U5MR with
r=-0.955 and - 0.905 respectively. The results for IMR were similar to those for U5MR. An increase
of one percent access of household to safe water predicts a decrease by 1.05 and 0.78 in U5MR
and IMR (R2=0.97 and 0.98; P≤0.001) respectively. This relationship retained its significance in the
multivariate analysis: an increase often percent access to safe water predicted a decrease by 10.3 and
7.7 in U5MR and infant deaths respectively (P≤0.001). U5MR and IMR decrease significantly (by 0.82
and 0.61deaths respectively) with increase access to sanitation by 1%.
CONCLUSION:Access to safe water and sanitation are strong predictors of U5MR and IMR. Increased
coverage of households by safe water has the greatest impact on the reduction of children mortality
rate. Therefore, the study recommends advocacy to ensure coverage of household with safe water and
sanitation system.

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