Ambroxol attenuates cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity via inhibition of p-JNK/p-ERK.

Bishr, A., N. Sallam, M. Nour El-Din, A. S. Awad, and S. A. Kenawy, "Ambroxol attenuates cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity via inhibition of p-JNK/p-ERK.", Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, vol. 97, issue 1, pp. 55-64, 2019.


Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are important drawbacks of cisplatin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of ambroxol in 2 different doses (35 and 70 mg/kg, i.p.) to protect liver and kidney from damage induced by a single dose of cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in comparison with N-acetylcysteine (250 mg/kg, i.p.). Inflammatory, oxidative stress, and apoptotic biomarkers were investigated to show the influence of ambroxol on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Ambroxol decreased the elevated activity of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) and kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine). Ambroxol mitigated cisplatin inflammatory damage by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and nuclear factor kappa-B and elevation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. Moreover, ambroxol inhibited oxidative damage indicated by reduction of malondialdehyde and replenished the store of reduced glutathione likely by upregulating glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. Elevation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) were attenuated by ambroxol associated with a decrease in the expression of caspase-3; these results were consistent with histopathological results. These results recommend ambroxol to be co-administered with cisplatin in cancer patients to ameliorate liver and kidney damage, and this was confirmed by MTT assay.