Saad, M. A. E. - L., Fahmy M. I. M., Al-Shorbagy M., ASSAF N. A. G. L. A. A., Hegazy A. A. E. - A., & El-Yamany M. F. (2019).  Nateglinide Exerts Neuroprotective Effects via Downregulation of HIF-1α/TIM-3 Inflammatory Pathway and Promotion of Caveolin-1 Expression in the Rat's Hippocampus Subjected to Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.. Inflammation. Abstract

Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and motor disabilities all over the world. It is a muti-factorial disorder associated with inflammatory, apoptotic, and oxidative responses. Nateglinide (NAT), an insulinotropic agent used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, recently showed potential anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. The aim of our study was to elucidate the unique neuroprotective role of NAT in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced stroke in rats. Fifty-six male rats were divided to 4 groups (n = 14 in each group): the sham-operated group, sham receiving NAT (50 mg/kg/day, p.o) group, ischemia/reperfusion (IR) group, and IR receiving NAT group (50 mg/kg/day, p.o). MCAO caused potent deficits in motor and behavioral functions of the rats. Significant increase in inflammatory and apoptotic biomarkers has been observed in rats' hippocampi. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway was significantly stimulated causing activation of series inflammatory biomarkers ending up neuro-inflammatory milieu. Pretreatment with NAT preserved rats' normal behavioral and motor functions. Moreover, NAT opposed the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) resulting in downregulation of more inflammatory mediators namely, NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β), and the anti-survival gene PMAIP-1. NAT stimulated caveolin-1 (Cav-1) which prevented expression of oxidative biomarkers, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and hamper the activation of apoptotic biomarker caspase-3. In conclusion, our work postulated that NAT exhibited its neuroprotective effects in rats with ischemic stroke via attenuation of different unique oxidative, apoptotic, and inflammatory pathways.

Radwan, A., El-Lakkany N. M., William S., El-Feky G. S., Al-Shorbagy M. Y., Saleh S., et al. (2019).  A novel praziquantel solid lipid nanoparticle formulation shows enhanced bioavailability and antischistosomal efficacy against murine S. mansoni infection.. Parasites & vectors. 12(1), 304. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is responsible for a considerable global disease burden. This work aimed to improve the therapeutic outcome of the only available antischistosomal drug worldwide, praziquantel (PZQ), by incorporating it into a novel carrier, "solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs)", to enhance its solubility, bioavailability and efficacy. A simple, cost-effective method was used to prepare SLN-PZQ.

RESULTS: Compared to market PZQ (M-PZQ), SLN-PZQ was more bioavailable, as denoted by higher serum concentrations in both normal and infected mice where elevated K, AUC, C, and t with a decrease in k were demonstrated. The AUC for SLN-PZQ in normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected groups was almost nine- and eight-fold higher, respectively, than that for M-PZQ in corresponding groups. In normal and S. mansoni-infected mice, SLN-PZQ was detectable in serum at 24 h, while M-PZQ completely vanished 8 h post-treatment. Additionally, enhanced absorption with extended residence time was recorded for SLN-PZQ. Compared to M-PZQ, SLN-PZQ revealed superior antischistosomal activity coupled with enhanced bioavailability in all treated groups where higher percentages of worm reduction were recorded with all dosages tested. This effect was especially evident at the lower dose levels. The ED of SLN-PZQ was 5.29-fold lower than that of M-PZQ, with a significantly higher reduction in both the hepatic and intestinal tissue egg loads of all treated groups and almost complete disappearance of immature deposited eggs (clearly evident at the low dose levels).

CONCLUSIONS: SLN-PZQ demonstrated enhanced PZQ bioavailability and antischistosomal efficacy with a safe profile despite the prolonged residence in the systemic circulation.

Choucry, A. M., Al-Shorbagy M. Y., Attia A. S., & El-Abhar H. S. (2019).  Pharmacological Manipulation of Trk, p75NTR, and NGF Balance Restores Memory Deficit in Global Ischemia/Reperfusion Model in Rats.. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN. 68(1), 78-90. Abstract

Long-term memory impairment is reported in more than 50% of cardiac arrest survivors. Monosialoganglioside (GM1) provided neuroprotection in experimental models of stroke but failed to replicate its promise clinically for unknown reasons. GM1 stimulates the release of nerve growth factor (NGF), which is synthesized as a precursor protein (pro-NGF) that either mediates apoptosis through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) or is cleaved by the protease furin (FUR) to yield mature NGF, the latter supporting survival through tropomyosin kinase receptor (Trk). The flavanol epicatechin (EPI) inhibits p75NTR-mediated signaling and apoptosis by pro-NGF. The aim of the current work is to test whether these two drugs affect, or communicate with, each other in the setting of CNS injuries. Using the two-vessel occlusion model of global ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), we tested if pharmacological modulation of Trk, p75NTR, and NGF balance with GM1, EPI, and their combination, can correct the memory deficit that follows this insult. Finally, we tested if FUR insufficiency and/or p75NTR-mediated apoptosis negatively affect the neurotherapeutic effect of GM1. Key proteins for Trk and p75NTR, FUR, and both forms of NGF were assessed. All treatment regiments successfully improved spatial memory retention and acquisition. A week after the insult, most Trk and p75NTR proteins were normal, but pro/mature NGF ratio remained sharply elevated and was associated with the poorest memory performance. Pharmacological correction of this balance was achieved by reinforcing Trk and p75NTR signaling. GM1 increased FUR levels, while concomitant administration of EPI weakened GM1 effect on pro-survival Trk and p75NTR mediators. GM1 neuroprotection is therefore not limited by FUR but could be dependent on p75NTR. Graphical Abstract "."

Hassan, N. F., Nada S. A., Hassan A., El-Ansary M. R., Al-Shorbagy M. Y., & Abdelsalam R. M. (2019).  Saroglitazar Deactivates the Hepatic LPS/TLR4 Signaling Pathway and Ameliorates Adipocyte Dysfunction in Rats with High-Fat Emulsion/LPS Model-Induced Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis.. Inflammation. Abstract

The most epidemic liver disorder non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis and inflammation with hepatocellular damage. Recently, it is predictable to be the extensive cause for liver transplantation. The absence of an approved therapeutic agent for NASH is the reason for investigating saroglitazar (SAR) which showed promising effects as a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist in recent studies on NASH. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of SAR on NASH induced in rats by the administration of high-fat emulsion (HFE) and small doses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for 5 weeks. Rats were divided into three groups: negative control group (saline and standard rodent chow), model group (HFE(10 ml/kg/day, oral gavage) + LPS(0.5 mg/kg/week, i.p)), and SAR-treated group (HFE(10 ml/kg/day, oral gavage) + LPS(0.5 mg/kg/week, i.p.) + SAR(4 mg/kg/day, oral gavage) starting at week 3.Treatment with SAR successfully ameliorated the damaging effects of HFE with LPS, by counteracting body weight gain and biochemically by normalization of liver function parameters activity, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR) score, lipid profile levels, and histopathological examination. Significant changes in adipokine levels were perceived, resulting in a significant decline in serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level concurrent with adiponectin normalization. The positive effects observed for SAR on NASH are due to the downregulation of the LPS/TLR4 pathway, as indicated by the suppression of hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NF-κB, TNF-α, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression. In conclusion, this work verified that SAR ameliorates NASH through deactivation of the hepatic LPS/TLR4 pathway and inhibition of adipocyte dysfunction.

Saad, M. A., El-Sahhar A. E., Arab H. H., & Al-Shorbagy M. Y. (2019).  Nicorandil abates arthritic perturbations induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in rats via conquering TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6 signaling pathway.. Life sciences. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease which poses a need to explore effective yet safe pharmacotherapeutic options. The current work aimed to study the therapeutic role of nicorandil in controlling RA.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis model was applied by injecting 400 μL of CFA in the right hind paw at day 0 and day 7. Four groups of rats were used as follows: normal-control (CTRL), CFA-induced arthritis (ART), CFA-induced arthritis treated with diclofenac (DIC) and CFA-induced arthritis treated with nicorandil (NIC). Both NIC and DIC were administered at day 14 for two weeks. Paw volume, knee joint diameter, pain behavior assessment as well as body weight were all periodically recorded throughout the experimental period. Following the sacrifice of animals at day 28, gene expressions of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-κB) were quantified in hind paws tissue. Finally, the serum levels of the inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) together with the histopathological examination of sections in the rat hind paw were recorded.

RESULTS: Both NIC and DIC proved promising anti-arthritic potential mediated, at least in part through switching off TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6 axis as well as downstream TRAF6 dependent activated MAP kinases and NF-κB.

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Nicorandil, via interfering with TLR4 signaling, sheds light on a potential clinical role of the drug in pursuit for safe and effective regimens for RA.

Ibrahim, S. M., Al-Shorbagy M. Y., Abdallah D. M., & El-Abhar H. S. (2018).  Activation of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Ameliorates Zymosan-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in BALB/c Mice.. Scientific reports. 8(1), 16814. Abstract

Zymosan, a natural compound, provokes acute peritonitis and multiple organ dysfunction that affects the kidney, beside other organs via exaggerated inflammatory response. The aim of the present study is to test the role of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by zymosan in BALB/c mice, using galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, known to act via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) to stimulate CAP. Galantamine verified its anti-inflammatory effect by elevating acetylcholine (ACh) level, while abating the interleukin-6/ janus kinase 2 (Y1007/1008)/ signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Y705) (IL-6/ pY(1007/1008)-JAK2/ pY705-STAT3) inflammatory axis, with a consequent inhibition in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). This effect entails also the nuclear factor-kappa B (p65)/ high mobility group box protein-1/ (NF-κB (p65)/ HMGB-1) signaling pathway. Furthermore, the reno-curattive effect of galantamine was associated by a reduction in plasma creatinine (Cr), cystatin (Cys)-C, IL-18, and renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), as well as an improved histopathological structure. Blocking the α7 nAChR by methyllycaconitine abolished the beneficial effect of galantamine to document the involvement of this receptor and the CAP in the amelioration of AKI induced by zymosan.

Abdelhameid, M. K., Ryad N., Al-Shorbagy M. Y., Mohammed M. R., Ismail M. M., & Elmeligie S. (2018).  Design, Synthesis and Screening of 4,6-Diaryl Pyridine and Pyrimidine Derivatives as Potential Cytotoxic Molecules.. Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin. 66(10), 939-952. Abstract

A new series of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives is designed and synthesized as potential antitumor molecules. The tested compounds show promising in vitro cytotoxic activity against HL-60 cell line as eight compounds: 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21 exhibit potent cytotoxic activity in sub-micromolar concentration higher than the combretastatin A4 (CA-4). Compound 21 shows a cytotoxic activity 5-fold more potent than CA-4 on HL-60 cells. DNA-Flow cytometry cell cycle analysis and annexin-V assay on HL-60 cells show that compounds 4, 18 and 21 exhibit potent cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G/M phase and pro-apoptotic inducing activities. The percentage inhibition assay of β-tubulin polymerization on HL-60 cells shows that the antitumor activity of the tested compounds appears to correlate well with its ability to inhibit β-tubulin polymerization. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbene assay (ELlSA) measurement for compound 21 shows apoptotic inducing activities through significant up regulation of p53, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 proteins parallel to down regulation of the level of survivin proteins.

Abdelhameid, M. K., Labib M. B., Negmeldin A. T., Al-Shorbagy M., & Mohammed M. R. (2018).  Design, synthesis, and screening of ortho-amino thiophene carboxamide derivatives on hepatocellular carcinomaas VEGFR-2Inhibitors.. Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry. 33(1), 1472-1493. Abstract

In this work, design, synthesis, and screening of thiophene carboxamides 4-13 and 16-23 as dual vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and mitotic inhibitors was reported. All compounds were screened against two gastrointestinal solid cancer cells, HepG-2 and HCT-116 cell lines. The most active cytotoxic derivatives 5 and 21 displayed 2.3- and 1.7-fold higher cytotoxicity than Sorafenib against HepG-2 cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses for compounds 5 and 21 showed cells accumulation in the sub-G1 phase, and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The apoptotic inducing activities of compounds 5 and 21were correlated to the elevation of p53, increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and increase in caspase-3/7.Compounds 5 and 21 showed potent inhibition againstVEGFR-2 (IC = 0.59 and 1.29 μM) and β-tubulin polymerization (73% and 86% inhibition at their IC values).Molecular docking was performed with VEGFR-2 and tubulin binding sites to explain the displayed inhibitory activities.

Ali, R. M., Al-Shorbagy M. Y., Helmy M. W., & El-Abhar H. S. (2018).  Role of Wnt4/β-catenin, Ang II/TGFβ, ACE2, NF-κB, and IL-18 in attenuating renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats treated with Vit D and pioglitazone.. European journal of pharmacology. 831, 68-76. Abstract

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI) remains a critical clinical situation. Several evidence revealed the potential reno-protective effects of Vitamin D and/or pioglitazone, on renal I/RI. This study addresses the possible involvement of the Wnt4/β-catenin signaling, p-S536NF-κBp65, PPARγ, Ang II/TGF-β, and ACE2 as potential effectors to vitamin D and pioglitazone-mediated renoprotective effects. Two sets of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30 rat each), were randomized into sham, I/R, Vit D "alfacalcidol" (5 ng/kg/day), pioglitazone (5 mg/kg/day), and Vit D + pioglitazone groups. In all groups renal biochemical parameters, as well as inflammatory and structural profiles were assessed, besides the expression/contents of Wnt4/β-catenin and pS536-NF-κBp65. All treatments started 7 days before I/RI and animals were killed 24 h after I/RI in the first set, while those in the 2nd set continued their treatments for 14 days. After 24 h, all pre-treatments impeded theI/R effect on neutrophils recruitment, p-S536NF-κBp65, IL-18, NGAL, caspase-3, AngII, ACE-2, PPARγ and TGF-β, besides the expression of Wnt4 and ACE-2 with notable reflection on histological changes. Two weeks after I/RI, except a marked up regulation in Wnt4 expression and a striking elevation in the β-catenin content, the magnitude of the injurious events was relatively less pronounced, an effect that was mostly augmented by the different treatments. The current study pledges a promising and novel reno-protective role of the administration of Vit D and pioglitazone entailing a potential involvement of ICAM-1, MPO, NF-κB, Ang II, ACE2, TGFβ, and a modulation of Wnt4/β-catenin pathway.

Al-Ghobashy, M. A., ElMeshad A. N., Abdelsalam R. M., Nooh M. M., Al-Shorbagy M. Y., & Laible G. (2017).  Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Recombinant Human Myelin Basic Protein Nano Therapeutic Vaccine in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice Animal Model.. Scientific reports. 7, 46468. Abstract

Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. Following optimization of nanoformulation, discrete spherical, rough-surfaced rhMBP NPs with high entrapment efficiency and controlled release pattern were obtained. Results indicated that rhMBP was loaded into and electrostatically adsorbed onto the surface of NPs. Subcutaneous administration of free or rhMBP NPs before EAE-induction reduced the average behavioral score in EAE mice and showed only mild histological alterations and preservation of myelin sheath, with rhMBP NPs showing increased protection. Moreover, analysis of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10) in mice brains revealed that pretreatment with free or rhMBP NPs significantly protected against induced inflammation.

IN CONCLUSION: i) rhMBP ameliorated EAE symptoms in EAE animal model, ii) nanoformulation significantly enhanced efficacy of rhMBP as a therapeutic vaccine and iii) clinical investigations are required to demonstrate the activity of rhMBP NPs as a therapeutic vaccine for MS.