Publications

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2010
Elaish, M. S. A. N., Studies on some immunosuppressive viral infections in chicken, : Cairo University, 2010. Abstract
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2013
Awe, O. O., A. Ali, M. Elaish, M. Ibrahim, M. Murgia, M. Pantin-Jackwood, Y. M. Saif, and C. W. Lee, "Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens", Avian Dis, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 650-6, 2013. AbstractWebsite
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Awe, O. O., A. Ali, M. Elaish, M. Ibrahim, M. Murgia, M. Pantin-Jackwood, Y. M. Saif, and C. W. Lee, "Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens", Avian Dis, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 650-6, 2013. AbstractWebsite
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Awe, O. O., A. Ali, M. Elaish, M. Ibrahim, M. Murgia, M. Pantin-Jackwood, Y. M. Saif, and C. - W. Lee, "Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens", Avian diseases, vol. 57, issue 3: American Association of Avian Pathologists 953 College Station Road, Athens …, pp. 650-656, 2013. Abstract
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Awe, O. O., A. Ali, M. Elaish, M. Ibrahim, M. Murgia, M. Pantin-Jackwood, Y. M. Saif, and C. W. Lee, "Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens", Avian Dis, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 650-6, 2013. AbstractWebsite
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Awe, O. O., A. Ali, M. Elaish, M. Ibrahim, M. Murgia, M. Pantin-Jackwood, Y. M. Saif, and C. - W. Lee, "Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens", Avian diseases, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 650-656, 2013. Abstract
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Awe, O. O., A. Ali, M. Elaish, M. Ibrahim, M. Murgia, M. Pantin-Jackwood, Y. M. Saif, and C. W. Lee, "Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens", Avian Dis, vol. 57, issue 3, pp. 650-6, 2013. AbstractWebsite

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated.

Awe, O. O., A. Ali, M. Elaish, M. Ibrahim, M. Murgia, M. Pantin-Jackwood, Y. M. Saif, and C. - W. Lee, Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens, , vol. 57, issue 3: American Association of Avian Pathologists 953 College Station Road, Athens …, pp. 650 - 656, 2013. Abstract
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2015
Awe, O. O., K. I. Kang, M. Ibrahim, A. Ali, M. Elaish, Y. M. Saif, and C. W. Lee, "Age-Related Susceptibility of Turkeys to Enteric Viruses", Avian Dis, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 207-12, 2015. AbstractWebsite
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Awe, O. O., K. -il Kang, M. Ibrahim, A. Ali, M. Elaish, Y. M. Saif, and C. - W. Lee, "Age-related susceptibility of turkeys to enteric viruses", Avian diseases, vol. 59, issue 2: American Association of Avian Pathologists 953 College Station Road, Athens …, pp. 207-212, 2015. Abstract
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Awe, O. O., K. I. Kang, M. Ibrahim, A. Ali, M. Elaish, Y. M. Saif, and C. W. Lee, "Age-Related Susceptibility of Turkeys to Enteric Viruses", Avian Dis, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 207-12, 2015. AbstractWebsite
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Awe, O. O., K. -il Kang, M. Ibrahim, A. Ali, M. Elaish, Y. M. Saif, and C. - W. Lee, "Age-related susceptibility of turkeys to enteric viruses", Avian diseases, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 207-212, 2015. Abstract
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Elaish, M., K. I. Kang, M. Xia, A. Ali, S. A. Shany, L. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. W. Lee, "Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus P particle-M2e chimeric vaccine in chickens", Vaccine, vol. 33, no. 38, pp. 4901-9, 2015. AbstractWebsite
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Elaish, M., K. I. Kang, M. Xia, A. Ali, S. A. S. Shany, L. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. W. Lee, "Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus P particle-M2e chimeric vaccine in chickens", Vaccine, vol. 33, issue 38: Elsevier, pp. 4901-4909, 2015. Abstract
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Elaish, M., K. I. Kang, M. Xia, A. Ali, S. A. S. Shany, L. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. W. Lee, "Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus P particle-M2e chimeric vaccine in chickens", Vaccine, vol. 33, no. 38, pp. 4901-4909, 2015. Abstract
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Awe, O. O., K. I. Kang, M. Ibrahim, A. Ali, M. Elaish, Y. M. Saif, and C. W. Lee, "Age-Related Susceptibility of Turkeys to Enteric Viruses", Avian Dis, vol. 59, issue 2, pp. 207-12, 2015. AbstractWebsite

Several different enteric viruses have been identified as the causes of gastrointestinal infections in poultry. Enteric virus infections are well characterized in poults, but limited studies have been conducted in older birds. The susceptibility of 2-, 7-, 12-, 30-, and 52-wk-old turkeys to turkey coronavirus (TCoV) and turkey astrovirus (TAstV) was evaluated, as well as the effect of combined infection of TAstV and TCoV in 2-wk-old poults and turkey hens. From cloacal swabs and intestines, TCoV was consistently detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR throughout the experimental period (1-21 days postinoculation [DPI]) from all age groups. In contrast, the last detection point of TAstV gradually decreased to 21, 16, and 12 DPI in birds inoculated at 2, 7, and 12 wk of age, respectively, and viral RNA was rarely detected from cloacal swabs or intestinal contents in turkey hens within 3 DPI. Infection with TAstV alone did not affect body weight in poults or egg production in hens. The combined infection of TAstV and TCoV did not induce more severe clinical signs and pathology than the TCoV infection alone. However, a severe prolonged decrease in egg production (about 50%) was observed in turkey hens in the combined infection group compared with a transient egg production drop in the TCoV-infected hens alone. The underlying mechanism regarding the age-related TAstV susceptibility and the pathogenesis of the TAstV and TCoV coinfection in layer hens needs to be further elucidated.

Awe, O. O., K. -il Kang, M. Ibrahim, A. Ali, M. Elaish, Y. M. Saif, and C. - W. Lee, Age-related susceptibility of turkeys to enteric viruses, , vol. 59, issue 2: American Association of Avian Pathologists 953 College Station Road, Athens …, pp. 207 - 212, 2015. Abstract
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Elaish, M., K. I. Kang, M. Xia, A. Ali, S. A. Shany, L. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. W. Lee, "Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus P particle-M2e chimeric vaccine in chickens", Vaccine, vol. 33, issue 38, pp. 4901-9, 2015. AbstractWebsite

The ectodomain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved across strains and has been shown to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine in the mouse model. In this study, we tested immune response and protective efficacy of a chimeric norovirus P particle containing the avian M2e protein against challenges with three avian influenza (AI) viruses (H5N2, H6N2, H7N2) in chickens. Two-week-old specific pathogen free chickens were vaccinated 3 times with an M2e-P particle (M2e-PP) vaccine via the subcutaneous (SQ) route with oil adjuvant, and transmucosal routes (intranasal, IN; eye drop, ED; microspray, MS) without adjuvant. M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route induced significant IgG antibody responses which were increased by each booster vaccination. In groups vaccinated via IN, ED or MS, neither IgG nor IgA responses were detected from sera or nasal washes of immunized birds. The M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route significantly reduced the virus shedding in the trachea and the cloaca for all three challenge viruses. Despite the absence of detectable IgG and IgA responses in birds vaccinated with the M2e-PP via intranasal routes, a similar level of reduction in virus shedding was observed in the IN group compared to the SQ group. Our results supports that the universal vaccine approach using M2e-based vaccine can provide cross-protection against challenge viruses among different HA subtypes although the efficacy of the vaccine should be enhanced further to be practical. Better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of an M2e-based vaccine in chickens.

Elaish, M., K. I. Kang, M. Xia, A. Ali, S. A. S. Shany, L. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. W. Lee, Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus P particle-M2e chimeric vaccine in chickens, , vol. 33, issue 38: Elsevier, pp. 4901 - 4909, 2015. Abstract
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2016
Hiremath, J., K. I. Kang, M. Xia, M. Elaish, B. Binjawadagi, K. Ouyang, S. Dhakal, J. Arcos, J. B. Torrelles, X. Jiang, et al., "Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs", PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. e0151922, 2016. AbstractWebsite
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Hiremath, J., K. I. Kang, M. Xia, M. Elaish, B. Binjawadagi, K. Ouyang, S. Dhakal, J. Arcos, J. B. Torrelles, X. Jiang, et al., "Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs", PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. e0151922, 2016. AbstractWebsite
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Hiremath, J., K. -il Kang, M. Xia, M. Elaish, B. Binjawadagi, K. Ouyang, S. Dhakal, J. Arcos, J. B. Torrelles, and X. Jiang, "Entrapment of H1N1 influenza virus derived conserved peptides in PLGA nanoparticles enhances T cell response and vaccine efficacy in pigs", PLoS One, vol. 11, issue 4: Public Library of Science, 2016. Abstract
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Hiremath, J., K. -il Kang, M. Xia, M. Elaish, B. Binjawadagi, K. Ouyang, S. Dhakal, J. Arcos, J. B. Torrelles, and X. Jiang, Entrapment of H1N1 influenza virus derived conserved peptides in PLGA nanoparticles enhances T cell response and vaccine efficacy in pigs, , vol. 11, issue 4: Public Library of Science San Francisco, CA USA, pp. e0151922, 2016. Abstract
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