Antiparasitic and immunomodulating effects of nitazoxanide, ivermectin and selenium on Cryptosporidium infection in diabetic mice

Citation:
FAHMY, M. A., A. A. Abdel Aal, S. I. HASSAN, M. A. Shalaby, M. A. M. Ismail, R. A. KHAIRY, M. A. Badawi, A. A. AFIFE, and H. O. FADL, "Antiparasitic and immunomodulating effects of nitazoxanide, ivermectin and selenium on Cryptosporidium infection in diabetic mice ", Braz J Vet Parasitol, vol. 30, issue 4, pp. 1 - 16, 2021.

Abstract:

The present work aims to investigate the antiparasitic and the immunomodulating effects of nitazoxanide (NTZ) and ivermectin (IVC) alone or combined together or combined with selenium (Se), on Cryptosporidium infection in diabetic mice. The results revealed that the combined NTZ and IVC therapy achieved the highest reduction of fecal oocysts (92%), whereas single NTZ showed the lowest reduction (63%). Also, adding Se to either NTZ or IVC resulted in elevation of oocyst reduction from 63% to 71% and from 82% to 84% respectively. All treatment regimens, with the exception of NTZ monotherapy, showed a significant improvement in the intestinal histopathology, the highest score was in combined NTZ and IVC therapy. The unique results of immunohistochemistry in this study showed reversal of the normal CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in the infected untreated mice, however, following therapy it reverts back to a normal balanced ratio. The combined (NTZ+ IVC) treatment demonstrated the highest level of CD4 T cell expression. Taken together, NTZ and IVC combined therapy showed remarkable anti-parasitic and immunostimulatory effects, specifically towards the CD4 population that seem to be promising in controlling cryptosporidiosis in diabetic individuals. Further research is required to explore other effective treatment strategies for those comorbid patients.
Keywords: Cryptosporidium, ivermectin, selenium, CD4, CD8, diabetes.