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Conference Paper
Ismail, M. A. M., and A.I.Younis, "Competition of the larval stages of Fasciola gigantica and Haematoloechus species in the snail intermediate host", The 18 Annual Congress of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, Kasr Al-Ainy School of Medicne, Cairo University, 6 March, 1997.
Ali, M. M., S.O.EL-Basiouni, G.A.Ahmed, M.A.M.Ismail, and M. A. A. Raoof, "Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnant women with preterm labour", The Second Annual Congress, Faculty of Medicine, Faium University, 13-14 April, 2000.
Ismail, M. A. M., M.M.Ali, and A.H.Essa, "Intracellular adhesion molecule-2 in experimental fascioliasis : role in pathogenicity and assessment of course and infection", The 21 Annual Congress of the Egyptian Society of Medical Sciences, Kasr Al-Ainy School of Medicne, Cairo University, 4 May, 2000.
Ismail, M. A. M., H. S. Eldin, A. S. A. E. Antably, M.A.Hassan, and E.M.Rizk, "Students’s perception of Parasitology across integration of basic medical curriculum; impact on student’s retention of knowledge and satisfaction", The Vth Conference of the Egyptian Parasitologists United Society, Ain Shams university, 24-25 March, 2018. Abstract

Background: Parasitic diseases cause enormous mortality and morbidity worldwide Accordingly, Parasitology teaching should be modified in such a way that genuine information is complemented with clinical insight. Medical students have to make competent clinical decisions based on adequate scientific principles; consequently, they must be able to retain knowledge from the preclinical academic phase of their medical course. Integration of basic medical sciences in early years of medical education into clinical practice of later years is such an area under adequate study. Integrated approach to education may have important benefits for learning, retention and elaboration of well-organized knowledge that underlie effective clinical reasoning.
Aim: This paper aimed at outlining the development and implementation of a form of vertical integration between Parasitology curriculum as a part of undergraduate basic sciences together with clinical science practices performed on third year students in kasr Alainy School of Medicine, Cairo University in Egypt. Assessing how the students perceive and value this learning modality was also carried out.
Methods: A sample of 200 medical students from the third academic year (2017-2018) of Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University participated in this study. They were subjected to an integrated learning program which was launched by Medical Parasitology Department in co-operation with different Clinical Departments in Faculty of medicine Cairo University. To assess the results of this program, a questionnaire was introduced to appraise how this course helped the students to understand and correlate between academic and clinical data they were studying throughout the year. In addition, their final exam results were also evaluated and compared with other students of the same academic year not attending this integrated program.
Results: Students were defined in 2 groups; group A included students of main stream not attending the integrated program (n:664) and group B included those students receiving this program (n:200). As for final exam results, 93.2% of group A had passed the exam versus 95.5% of group B.
Concerning rating, it was found that group A students showed results of 49.1%, 29.1%, 15.1% and 1.4% for excellent, very good, good and fair ratings respectively while group B revealed 58.5%, 22.55%, 14.4% and 0.5% respectively for the same ratings. Questionnaire results revealed a high response by the students to the integrated program as a preferable teaching tool.

This study proposed that perceived clinical relevance is a contributing factor to the retention of basic
parasitology knowledge. This could motivate curriculum planners to work on innovation through integration of academic information with clinical components for applied teaching throughout the medical course in Parasitology education. Further studies with increasing the number of participants and may be extending the study to cover more years could help improving results and could also give the chance to check for differences in ability for short and long-term retention of Parasitology knowledge amongst participants and non-participants.

Key words: Parasitology, Basic sciences, integration, student, learning medical education, clinical relevance.

ELBahnasawy, M.M.M., M.A.M.Ismail, E.E.A.FADIL, and T.A.MORSY, "Ticks are underestimated zoonotic vectors in Egypt", 3rd international conference Multidiscilinary Medicine Era III new horizons, The 31 Annual Congress, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, 1st – 4th March, 2016.
Journal Article
Amin, N. M., A. Raafat, M. A. M. Ismail, A. Elkazaz, and I. R. Abdel-Shafi, " ASSESSMENT OF FAECAL CALPROTECTIN LEVEL IN PAEDIATRIC AND GERIATRIC PATIENTS WITH CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS ", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 52, issue 1, pp. 1-8, 2022. Abstract

Cryptosporidium parasite is one of the major causes of diarrhoea. Several parasites and host factors, including the Cryptosporidium genotype and the host immune status and age can influence the disease severity. In the present work the faecal calprotectin (FCAL) level was assessed in Cryptosporidium
infected patients, as a marker of intestinal inflammation in the paediatric and geriatric age groups, with correlation to Cryptosporidium genotype. Our results revealed that the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in the geriatric patients was significantly higher than in the pediatric group. Genotyping revealed Cryp- tosporidium hominis as the frequently circulating species. Significantly high FCAL levels weredetect- ed in Cryptosporidium positive patients denoting the ongoing inflammatory process in cryptosporidio- sis. Additionally, FCAL levels were significantly greater in Cryptosporidium hominis compared to
Cryptosporidium parvum infection, while unaffected by age group. Further studies are needed to in- vestigate the impact of cryptosporidiosis in the elderly patients and to evaluate FCAL as a predictive marker of the disease outcome.
Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Genotypes, Faecal calprotectin, Children, Elderly

Hassan, M. A., and M. A. M. Ismail, " PERSPECTIVES ON TOLERANCE TO PARASITIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES ", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 51, issue 3, pp. 485-492, 2021. Abstract

Immune responses to infectious parasitic diseases appear to be simply directed towards kill-
ing or clearing the parasite. However, the immunological strategies constitute a complex inco-
rporated network of immune mechanisms to eradicate the parasite itself in addition to preser-
vation of the integrity of host tissues. Resistance and tolerance are believed to be two distinct
complementary host defense immune strategies. Mechanisms triggering infectious tolerance to
parasitic infections are still poorly recognized but seem to be centered on controlling parasite-
induced tissue damage in the infected host. It is becoming obvious that realizing infectious tol-
erance as a prominent constituent of defense strategy deliver significant conceptions in coex-
istence of host-parasite relationship. This data may also pave the way to new therapeutic app-
roaches in many parasitosis.
Key words: Immune response, Tolerance, Parasitic infections, Resistance, Review


Several studies demonstrated a high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenic
patients than healthy individuals. This case control study determined the serprevalence of T.
gondii among schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals at Kafrelsheikh University
Hospitals and to estimate its effect on serum dopamine level. T. gondii IgG was detected in
52.2% &23.9% of schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals respectively with signi-
ficance (P value = 0.005). Serum dopamine level was higher in schizophrenic patients than
healthy individuals with statistical significance (P = <0.001) and also higher in T. gondii IgG
positive than T. gondii IgG negative patients with statistical significance (P = <0.001).
Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, Schizophrenic Non-schizophrenic, Dopamine level

Essa, A. H., M.A.M.Ismail, and H.El-Mofty, "Anti-Acanthamoeba activity of some contact lens solution constituents available in Egypt", Kasr Al-Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 9, May, 2003.
Abdel Aal, S. M., J.A.Ahmed, M.A.M.Ismail, and S. Z. A. Maogood, "The antigenic relationship between Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate snail host", J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol.(JESP), vol. 46 No(3), pp. 663-670, December, 2016. Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in many developing countries including Egypt,
Determination of the antigenic relationship between S. mansoni and its intermediate snail host
(IMH) Biomphalaria alexandrina can open a new field for diagnosis and control of the dis-
ease. In the present study infected and non-infected B. alexandrina foot and visceral hump tis-
sue as well as S. mansion crude Ag (SWAg) were fractionated using SDS-PAGE. It's specific
and cross reacted protein fractions were determine using EITB versus experimentally prepared
mice hyper immune sera (HIS) versus each antigen.
After treatment of fractionated S.mansoni crude worm antigens (SWAg) versus HIS produced
after vaccination of mice by the same Ag, 8 kda protein fractions ranged from 35-140 kda
were reacted specifically. Treatment of fractionated B.alexandrina infected and non-infected
foot and visceral hump Ag versus previous HIS revealed presence of common polypeptides
bands between SWAg and non-infected snail antigens. The fraction at 135 kda, 68 kda, were
detected in all cases, while that at 40-42 kda and that at 35 kda was diagnosed in SWAg and
that of infected snails only. The fraction at 68 kda was reacted specifically between SWAg and
all tested fractionated snail antigens either that of foot or visceral hump when they treated sep-
arately by HIS of mice vaccinated by each snail Ag separately. The fraction at 135 kda was
common between SWAg and snail (infected and non-infected) visceral hump antigen. The
fraction at the level of 110 kda was diagnosed in SWAg, in non-infected foot antigen and vis-
ceral hump Ag. The fraction at the level of 46-48 kda are common between SWAg and snail
foot and visceral hump Ag after treated by HIS of mice vaccinated by foot Ag,
Presence of common antigenic fractions between snail tissues and Schistosoma species can
prefer an easily source of antigen valuable for diagnosis or vaccination as well as can be con-
sidered as new tool for determination to the snail IMH of new discovered trematode parasites.
Key words: S.mansoni- B.alexandrina- EITB- Common fractions.

FAHMY, M. A., A. A. Abdel Aal, S. I. HASSAN, M. A. Shalaby, M. A. M. Ismail, R. A. KHAIRY, M. A. Badawi, A. A. AFIFE, and H. O. FADL, "Antiparasitic and immunomodulating effects of nitazoxanide, ivermectin and selenium on Cryptosporidium infection in diabetic mice ", Braz J Vet Parasitol, vol. 30, issue 4, pp. 1 - 16, 2021. Abstract

The present work aims to investigate the antiparasitic and the immunomodulating effects of nitazoxanide (NTZ) and ivermectin (IVC) alone or combined together or combined with selenium (Se), on Cryptosporidium infection in diabetic mice. The results revealed that the combined NTZ and IVC therapy achieved the highest reduction of fecal oocysts (92%), whereas single NTZ showed the lowest reduction (63%). Also, adding Se to either NTZ or IVC resulted in elevation of oocyst reduction from 63% to 71% and from 82% to 84% respectively. All treatment regimens, with the exception of NTZ monotherapy, showed a significant improvement in the intestinal histopathology, the highest score was in combined NTZ and IVC therapy. The unique results of immunohistochemistry in this study showed reversal of the normal CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in the infected untreated mice, however, following therapy it reverts back to a normal balanced ratio. The combined (NTZ+ IVC) treatment demonstrated the highest level of CD4 T cell expression. Taken together, NTZ and IVC combined therapy showed remarkable anti-parasitic and immunostimulatory effects, specifically towards the CD4 population that seem to be promising in controlling cryptosporidiosis in diabetic individuals. Further research is required to explore other effective treatment strategies for those comorbid patients.
Keywords: Cryptosporidium, ivermectin, selenium, CD4, CD8, diabetes.

Aly, I. R., M.A.M.Ismail, D. M. H. E. Akkad, H.El-Sayed, E.S.Taher, M.El-Dardiry, and H. M. El-Askary, "Application of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica tegument-associated antigen in human fascioliasis", International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences ( IJHPAS ), issue 2277-4998, October, 2016. Abstract

Tropical fascioliasis is considered to cause a significant economic loss in livestock industry in developing and underdeveloped countries. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) tegument-associated antigen to be compared with Kato-Katz method in diagnosis of human fascioliasis. The F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen was purified from the crude extracts by Superose-12 HR-10/300 column gel filtration chromatography. Polyclonal antibody (pAb) against purified F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen was prepared by immunization of rabbits with F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen. 83 blood and stool samples were collected from Fasciola patients, healthy control, and patients with other parasites. Detection of circulating F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen in human serum and stool samples by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was done. The results revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola antigen in sera was 86.2% and 92.6 % in comparison to the sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola antigen in stool samples which gave 96.3% and 96.3%, respectively. These results indicated the high sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis in both serum and stool samples using pAbs against F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen.
Key words: Fasciola gigantica, tegument-associated antigen, serum, stool, indirect ELISA, Kato Katz method

Ismail, M. A. M., I.R.Aly, E.Y.Abu-Sarea, S. S. A. Gawad, and R.M.Shaapan, "Application of Latex Agglutination and Sandwich ELISA in Detection of Human Hydatidosis", Journal of Medical Sciences, issue 1682-4474, pp. 30-37, 2019.
Ali, S. H., M. A. M. Ismail, A. A. El-Badry, E. Y. Abu-Sarea, A. M. Dewidar, and D. A. Hamdy, "An Association Between Blastocystis Subtypes and Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Significant Different Profile from Non-cancer Individuals ", Acta Parasitologica, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 1-12, 2022. Abstract

Purpose Blastocystis is a common enteric human parasite of non-conclusive pathogenicity which may be determined by subtype (ST) variation. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered one of the primary causes of cancer mortality. Blastocystis ST7 has been shown to reduce benefcial intestinal microbiota and may exacerbate CRC. This study assessed the possible association between Blastocystis STs and CRC in comparison to non-cancer patients.

Material and Methods A total of 200 fecal samples were obtained from CRC (100) and non-CRC (100) individuals attending Beni-Suef University Hospital, Egypt. Blastocystis was searched for in all samples using microscopy and culturing. Positive subculture samples were genetically sequenced and subtyped using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blastocystis STs were determined by sequencing and a phylogenetic tree was created. Related patient characteristics and tumor stages were analyzed for association with presence of Blastocystis.

Results Blastocystis was identifed in 52% and 42% of CRC and non-cancer individuals, respectively. ST1, 2, and 3 were isolated from both cancer and non-cancer individuals; however, for the frst time, ST7 was only isolated from CRC stool samples with signifcant association. Associated patient characteristics were evaluated as predictors.

Conclusion Blastocystosis is highly prevalent in CRC patients, predominantly in the latest CRC grades and stages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst study to report the identifcation of Blastocystis ST7 in CRC patients. To determine whether certain STs of Blastocystis are associated with CRC would require further research, including the role played by
gut microbiota.

Keywords Blastocystis · Subtypes · Colorectal cancer · Egypt

Ibrahim, S. S., M. A. M. Ismail, M. A. Shaker, D. M. KHALILI, and A. Raafat, "BLASTOCYSTIS HOMINIS IN DIABETIC AND NON DIABETIC PATIENTS WITH IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN BENI-SUEF CITY, EGYPT", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 50, issue 3, pp. 683 – 688, 2020. Abstract

Blastocystis is an opportunistic infection that is considered to cause gastro-intestinal sympt-
oms, including inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS). It was also found that diabetic patients might be at a higher risk of infection with intestinal parasites causing gastro-intestinal sympt-
oms especially Blastocystis. This study assessed the rate of Blastocystis infection in patients
suffering from IBS associated with diabetes mellitus (DM), in comparison with the non-diabe-
tic IBS group. Two hundred stool samples were collected. All the participants were IBS-dia-
gnosed patients. It is noted that 100 were without any history of chronic diseases based on his-
tory taking, while the other 100 were known to be diabetic. Blastocystis was diagnosed by di-
rect microscopy of wet preparations; Lugol's iodine staining after concentration, and Modified
Jones' Culture. Blastocystis was detected in 37%, 65%, & 87% samples, respectively in IBS di-
abetic patients. But, the parasite was found in 21%, 25%, & 42% samples, respectively in IBS
non-diabetic patients. The only considerable risk factor for Blastocystis infection was the pres-
ence of DM, as it increased the possibility of infection more than 9 times.
Key words: Diabetic patients, Blastocystis hominis, Irritable bowel syndrome.

Ismail, M. A. M., A.Fathy, and R.ElHarezy, "Clinical trial of fluoquinolones in treatment of acute intestinal amoebiasis", The Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 20, June-December, 1999.

Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two microorganisms that grow in duodenum and
stomach; and sharing the same mode of infection. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an end
stage disease causing uremia that requires hemodialysis (HD). The association of Giardia
lamblia and H. pylori infection has been known to be common and hemodialysis may play an
important role on this co-infection. This study evaluated the interrelation of Giardia lamblia
and H. pylori in patients of CKD treated with hemodialysis.
A case-control study performed on two hundred stool samples collected from patients attend-
ing Beni-Suef University Hospital suffering from diarrhea and other GIT symptoms. One hun-
dred patients suffering from CKD and treated with hemodialysis and a hundred control group
with normal kidney functions of both genders. Both groups were subjected to copro-
parasitological examination and fecal immuno-assays.
The results showed that Giardia in 13 CKD patients with a mean age of 45.24±14.52 and in
22 cross-matched control patients. Males showed prevalent of (66%), who were from rural are-
as (66.5%) and using tap water (83.5%). H. pylori infection was in 22 patients CKD and in 27
control patients. Co-infection was found in 10 CKD patients and 19 of control.
Keywords: Egypt, Patients, Giardia lamblia, H. pylori, Co-infection, CKD, Hemodialysis.

Ismail, M. A. M., W.M.A.Mousa, E.Y.Abu.Sarea, M.M.A.Basyouni, and S.S.Mohammed, "Comparative study of immunoblot versus PCR in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in experimental infected mice", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 46, No.1, pp. 101-108, April , 2016. Abstract

This study compared PCR and Western blot techniques in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. Forty Swiss albino mice were used, thirty two mice were infected with cercariae of S. mansoni and eight mice were kept uninfected which were used as a control. Blood was obtained from four infected mice weekly beginning from the 1st week to the 8th week post infection.
The study founded that PCR was positive from the first week post infection, while Western blot technique was positive from the second week post infection. we concluded that PCR can diagnose schistosomiasis mansoni earlier than Western blot technique, but both were able.

El-Awady, A. A., A.M.A.Mahgoub, N.M.Naguib, and M.A.M.Ismail, "Comparative study on the Diagnostic Value of A Recently introduced quantitative chemiluminescence ,a Semi Quantitative ELISA and an IHA Titration in Toxoplasma Gondii Serology", Kasr Al-Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 15, No,12, December, pp. 11-16, 2009. Abstract

Background: Recently, the IMMULITE 200(1 automated, chemiluminescent Toxoplasma quantitative IgM and IgG test, has been introduced, which measures loxo IgM and IgG in International Units per milliliter (lU/ntl) of seiunu Hus method is simplet relatively inexpensive, and rapid Objective: Tin IMMULITE Toxoplasma IgM and IgG assays (Diagnostic Products Corporation, Los Angeles) were compared to two serological reactions, Material add methods: In this study, 162 serum samples .were collected from women in their first trimester of pregnancy and tested for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies raised against T. gondii infection using IHA, ELISA and Diagnostic Products Cot partition (DEG) hnmulite systems,
Results: In relation to sensitivity and specificity, IMMULITE presented the highest (W0%) value for the detection of both IgM and IgG. ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity for the detection of IgM and 88.9% sensitivity and 95.4% specificity for the detection of IgG IHA had a sensitivity of 37.5% and 88.9% and a specificity of 100%. and 98.7% for the detection of IgM and IgG respectively*
Conclusion: These results indicate that the IMMULITE Toxoplasma sensitive and specific toutsfor the detection ofIgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii

Kamel, M. M., K.M.Maher, I.Rabia, A.H.Helmy, A.I.EL-Adawi, M.A.Mousa, and A.M.Mahgoub, "A CON A-PURIFIED HYDATID GLYCOPROTEIN FRACTION EFFECTIVELY DIAGNOSES HUMAN HYDATIDOSIS", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 36, issue 3, pp. 945-958, 2006.

Cryptosporidium spp. has an elevated incidence rate particularly in immune-compromised
patients including chronic renal disease (CRD) patients. This study evaluated cryptosporidiosis
among patients with chronic renal disease undergoing hemodialysis attending outpatient clinics
of Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University Hospitals. Stool
samples were collected from 90 patients and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts stained with
cold acid fast stain. The results showed 13.3% were infected with Cryptosporidium oocysts but without significant difference as to age, sex, and residence. The most frequent symptoms were
diarrhea and abdominal pain with significant difference, but without significance with other
clinical symptoms. Hypertension and duration of hemodialysis showed significant difference with the prevalence rate of cryptosporidiosis, without significant difference with diabetes.
Key words: Egypt, Cryptosporidium, Chronic renal disease, and Hemodialysis.

Ismail, M. A. M., and H. O. Fadl, "CYCLOSPORA INFECTION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology (JESP), vol. 49, issue 3, pp. 727- 730, 2019. Abstract

Cyclospora cayetanensis (C. cayetanensis) can cause serious diarrheal illness in immunocompromised patients. The present work aimed to detect C. cayetanensis infection among patients with renal transplantation attending the nephrology unit of Kasr Al-Aini, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo
University. A total of 50 stool samples were collected and subjected to direct microscopy to screen
for parasitic stages. A modified acid fast staining technique (Kinyoun’s method) was used to detect
C. cayetanensis oocysts. Cyclospora oocysts were revealed in 5 (10%) of the stool samples examined. Other parasites detected among the patients included Cryptosporidium parvum 5 (10%) and
Blastocystis 15 (30%). 30% of the patients were suffering from diarrhea and or colic. All C. cayetanensis positive cases were presenting with diarrhea.
Keywords: Cyclospora cayetanensis, renal transplant recipients, modified aid fast

Abdel Gawad, S. S., M.A.M.Ismail, N.F.A.Imam, A.H.A.Eassa, and E.Y.Abu-Sarea, "Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in Diarrheic Immunocompetent Patients in Beni-Suef, Egypt: Insight into Epidemiology and Diagnosis", The Korean Journal of Parasitology, vol. 56, issue 2, pp. 113-119, April, 2018. Abstract

Cryptosporidium species is an important cause of gastrointestinal infections globally. This study aimed to shed light on its role in diarrheic immunocompetent patients in Beni-Suef, Egypt and to compare three diagnostic methods. Two hundred diarrheic patients, 37±16.8 year old, were enrolled. Stool samples were examined by light microscopy, using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain (MZN) for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Coproantigens were detected by sandwich ELISA. DNA molecular diagnosis was done by nested PCR. PCR yielded the highest detection rates (21.0%), compared to ELISA (12.5%) and MZN staining method (9.5%). The higher infection rates were in 20–40 year-old group, followed by 40–60 year-old. Association between epidemiologic factors was statistically not significant; positivity and gender, clinical manifestations, residence, source or water, or contact with animals. Cryptosporidiosis is an important enteric parasitic infection in Beni-Suef and PCR remains the gold standard for diagnosis.
Key words: Cryptosporidium, Beni-Suef, PCR, ELISA, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain

ABDEL MAKSOUD, H. F., M. A. M. Ismail, N. M. Amer, E. D. M. H. Akkad, and M. Magdy, "DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM-INDUCED INTESTINAL TISSUE ALTERATIONS IN DEXAMETHASONE TREATED & UN-TREATED MICE", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology (JESP), vol. 48, issue 2, pp. 449-458, August, 2018. Abstract

Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is coccidian protozoan that causes cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract. C. parvum is considered one of the most important waterborne pathogen among the most relevant parasitic enteric agents in man and animals. It is resistant to all practical levels of chlorination and it is an obligate intracellular pathogen. It has been the cause of multiple diarrhea outbreaks in developed and developing countries. The present work was carried out to evaluate the pathological, immuno-histochemical and molecular changes in the ileocecal region induced by chronic irritation with different inoculum sizes of cryptosporidium (50,500 oocysts) in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed mice. The mice were euthanized at different dates starting from 14, 21, 36, 45, 57 till day 64 to study these transformations. Histopathological examination of the ileocecal region revealed neoplastic changes in the form of dysplasia, polypoid structures, architectural distortion, glandular crowding, marked cellular atypia, exophytic adenomatous polypi, intramuscular adenocarcinoma and marked nuclear anaplasia.
Key words: Cryptosporidium spp. Mice, Intestinal tissue alterations, Histopathology

Essa, A. H., M.A.M.Ismail, and A.I.Younis, "Diagnosis of malaria in humans by an immunochromatographic test using monoclonal antibodies", The Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 22, June-December , 2001.