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Abdel Aal, S. M., J.A.Ahmed, M.A.M.Ismail, and S. Z. A. Maogood, "The antigenic relationship between Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate snail host", J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol.(JESP), vol. 46 No(3), pp. 663-670, December, 2016. Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in many developing countries including Egypt,
Determination of the antigenic relationship between S. mansoni and its intermediate snail host
(IMH) Biomphalaria alexandrina can open a new field for diagnosis and control of the dis-
ease. In the present study infected and non-infected B. alexandrina foot and visceral hump tis-
sue as well as S. mansion crude Ag (SWAg) were fractionated using SDS-PAGE. It's specific
and cross reacted protein fractions were determine using EITB versus experimentally prepared
mice hyper immune sera (HIS) versus each antigen.
After treatment of fractionated S.mansoni crude worm antigens (SWAg) versus HIS produced
after vaccination of mice by the same Ag, 8 kda protein fractions ranged from 35-140 kda
were reacted specifically. Treatment of fractionated B.alexandrina infected and non-infected
foot and visceral hump Ag versus previous HIS revealed presence of common polypeptides
bands between SWAg and non-infected snail antigens. The fraction at 135 kda, 68 kda, were
detected in all cases, while that at 40-42 kda and that at 35 kda was diagnosed in SWAg and
that of infected snails only. The fraction at 68 kda was reacted specifically between SWAg and
all tested fractionated snail antigens either that of foot or visceral hump when they treated sep-
arately by HIS of mice vaccinated by each snail Ag separately. The fraction at 135 kda was
common between SWAg and snail (infected and non-infected) visceral hump antigen. The
fraction at the level of 110 kda was diagnosed in SWAg, in non-infected foot antigen and vis-
ceral hump Ag. The fraction at the level of 46-48 kda are common between SWAg and snail
foot and visceral hump Ag after treated by HIS of mice vaccinated by foot Ag,
Presence of common antigenic fractions between snail tissues and Schistosoma species can
prefer an easily source of antigen valuable for diagnosis or vaccination as well as can be con-
sidered as new tool for determination to the snail IMH of new discovered trematode parasites.
Key words: S.mansoni- B.alexandrina- EITB- Common fractions.

ABDEL FADIL, E. E., M. A. M. Ismail, and T. A. MORSY, "EOSINOPHILIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HELMINTHIASIS", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology (JESP), vol. 48, issue 2, pp. 433-442, August, 2018. Abstract

Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FILL-e-uh) is a higher than normal level of eosinophils. Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell, indicating a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer. There are blood eosinophilia and tissue eosinophilia.
Tissue eosinophilia may be found in samples taken during an exploratory procedure or in samples of certain fluids, such as mucus released from nasal tissues. If you have tissue eosinophilia, the level of eosinophils in your bloodstream is likely normal. Blood eosinophilia may be detected with a blood test, usually as part of a complete blood count. More than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is generally considered eosinophilia in adults. More than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood that lasts for several months is called hypereosinophilia. This reviewed the correlation between high eosinophila and helminthiasis.
Key words: Eosinophilia, Helminthiasis, Organic diseases, Health disorders

Abdel Gawad, S. S., M.A.M.Ismail, N.F.A.Imam, A.H.A.Eassa, and E.Y.Abu-Sarea, "Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in Diarrheic Immunocompetent Patients in Beni-Suef, Egypt: Insight into Epidemiology and Diagnosis", The Korean Journal of Parasitology, vol. 56, issue 2, pp. 113-119, April, 2018. Abstract

Cryptosporidium species is an important cause of gastrointestinal infections globally. This study aimed to shed light on its role in diarrheic immunocompetent patients in Beni-Suef, Egypt and to compare three diagnostic methods. Two hundred diarrheic patients, 37±16.8 year old, were enrolled. Stool samples were examined by light microscopy, using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain (MZN) for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Coproantigens were detected by sandwich ELISA. DNA molecular diagnosis was done by nested PCR. PCR yielded the highest detection rates (21.0%), compared to ELISA (12.5%) and MZN staining method (9.5%). The higher infection rates were in 20–40 year-old group, followed by 40–60 year-old. Association between epidemiologic factors was statistically not significant; positivity and gender, clinical manifestations, residence, source or water, or contact with animals. Cryptosporidiosis is an important enteric parasitic infection in Beni-Suef and PCR remains the gold standard for diagnosis.
Key words: Cryptosporidium, Beni-Suef, PCR, ELISA, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain

ABDEL MAKSOUD, H. F., M. A. M. Ismail, N. M. Amer, E. D. M. H. Akkad, and M. Magdy, "DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM-INDUCED INTESTINAL TISSUE ALTERATIONS IN DEXAMETHASONE TREATED & UN-TREATED MICE", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology (JESP), vol. 48, issue 2, pp. 449-458, August, 2018. Abstract

Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is coccidian protozoan that causes cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract. C. parvum is considered one of the most important waterborne pathogen among the most relevant parasitic enteric agents in man and animals. It is resistant to all practical levels of chlorination and it is an obligate intracellular pathogen. It has been the cause of multiple diarrhea outbreaks in developed and developing countries. The present work was carried out to evaluate the pathological, immuno-histochemical and molecular changes in the ileocecal region induced by chronic irritation with different inoculum sizes of cryptosporidium (50,500 oocysts) in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed mice. The mice were euthanized at different dates starting from 14, 21, 36, 45, 57 till day 64 to study these transformations. Histopathological examination of the ileocecal region revealed neoplastic changes in the form of dysplasia, polypoid structures, architectural distortion, glandular crowding, marked cellular atypia, exophytic adenomatous polypi, intramuscular adenocarcinoma and marked nuclear anaplasia.
Key words: Cryptosporidium spp. Mice, Intestinal tissue alterations, Histopathology

Abu-Sarea, E. Y., R. R. FAROUK, M. A. M. ISMAEL, M. S. SHEEMY, D. M. Ahmed, S. A. SENOSY, and M. A. Ghieth, "GIARDIASIS, HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND SERUM LEVELS OF SOME MICRONUTRIENTS.", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 50, issue 2, pp. 242 - 246, 2020. Abstract

Giardiasis and H. pylori in upper gastrointestinal system absorbed some vitamins and mineral
occurs. This study detected the serum levels of copper, zinc, vitamins B12 & B9 among giardi-
asis and/or H. pylori patients and compared the serum levels of these minerals and vitamins
among them. A total of 95 patients suffered from acute diarrhea were subjected to questionnaire
taking, stool analysis, iron/haematoxylin staining, H.pylori antigen detection and serum level
detection of zinc, copper, vitamins B12 & B9. Patients were divided into G1 (n=13) for micro-
scopic Giardia +ve, G2 (n=40) H. pylori +ve, G3 (n=6) both Giardia & H.pylori +ve, G4
(n=36) Giardia & H. pylori ve (control). The mean age of patients was 45.7±17. On compar-
ing variables among patients; residence, abdominal pain and flatulence were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Serum levels of zinc, vitamins B12 & B9 were within normal ranges, except copper level was higher than normal in all groups. G3 (co-infections) showed the lowest levels of zinc, vitamins B12 & B9. None of serum levels were statistically significant on comparing the four groups. Both giardiasis and H. pylori altered levels of micronutrients but during acute infection serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12 & B9 were still within normal ranges. Pattern of in- fection either chronic or acute were basic regarding micronutrients levels.
Keywords: Patients, Giardiasis, H. pylori, Copper, Zinc, Vitamins B12, & B9.

Abu-Sarea, E. Y., M. A. M. Ismail, R. M. Shaapan, A. S. S. Gawad, and M. A. Ghieth, "MALARIA AMONG IMMIGRANT̕ S WORKFORCE RETURNING FROM ENDEMIC DISTRICTS IN ALWOSTA CITY, EGYPT", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 50, issue 3, pp. 483-487, 2020. Abstract

This research aimed to encounter rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) efficacy to distinguish malaria
within patients with positive history to fever and/or travelling to endemic municipality. All over
a year, blood samples were amassed from patients visited different laboratories. Both thin, thick
blood films stained with Geimsa and rapid tests were used to diagnose malaria. Malaria was detected
by microscopy and RDTs (0.5%, & 0.9%, respectively) of patients. RDTs yielded 100%
sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Samples detected by microscopy were also detected by RDTs.
All diagnosed malaria patients had history of travelling to Sudan or Yemen. RDTs proved confirmatory
tool to catch malaria suspected cases with fever history. Travelers from Sudan and
Yemen should be checked for malaria.
Key words: Egypt, Patients, Malaria, Rapid diagnostic tests, Microscopy.

Ahmed, G. A., S.O.EL-Basiouni, M.A.M.Ismail, A.I.Younis, and O.A.Khalafalla, "Markers of glomerular and/or tubular kidney affection in asymptomatic patients with bancroftian filariasis", Kasr Al-Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 11, September, 2005.
AL-Agroudi, M. A., A.T.A.Morsy, M.A.M.Ismail, and T.A.MORSY, "Protozoa causing food poisoning", J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol.(JESP), vol. 46 No(3), pp. 497-508, December, 2016. Abstract

Food poisoning also called foodborne illness, or illness caused by eating contaminated food
is a term used to cover an unpleasant range of illnesses. Food poisoning symptoms vary with the source of contamination. Most types of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms: nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramps and fever Signs and symptoms may start within hours after eating the contaminated food, or they may begin days or even weeks later. Sickness caused by food poisoning generally lasts from a few hours to several days.

ALASKARY, H. M., M. A. M. Ismail, E. Y. Abu-Sarea, E. M. FAROUK, E. S. EL-WAKIL, M. A. EL-BADRY, A. Raafat, M. M. Ahmed, and S. S. Ibrahim, "SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS APROMISING TREATMENT FOR BLASTOCYSTIS HOMINIS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 51, issue 2, pp. 343 - 354, 2021. Abstract

Blastocystis is an opportunistic parasite causes gastro-intestinal symptoms including irrita-
ble bowel syndrome (IBS). This study evaluated the effect of probiotics and silver nanopar-
ticles on Blastocystis hominis in mice and compared between both probiotics (Lactobacillus)
and silver nanoparticles as compared to metronidazole. A cross-sectional study was done in
which stool samples were collected from patients suffering from IBS.The stool samples
were examined microscopically to detect B. hominis and any co-parasitism. All positive
stool samples were cultured on Modified Jones' media. BALB/C mice were infected by iso-
lated Blastocystis. The effect of probiotics and silver nanoparticles on blastocystosis was
tested in experimentally infected mice. Cysts' mean count in stool of infected mice markedly
decreased; with a decrease in serum levels of nitric oxide and glutathione antioxidants com-
pared to drug control one. There wasintestinal villi improvement of infected groups treated
with probiotics and silver nanoparticles,with mild inflammation and decrease of Blastocystis
at the intestinal surface as compared to theinfected group metronidazole treated.
Keywords: Blastocystis hominis, Irritable bowel syndrome, Nanoparticles, Probiotics.

Ali, M. M., and M.A.M.Ismail, "The use of colchicine in treatment of experimental toxoplasmosis", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 30, April, 2000.
Ali, M. M., S.O.EL-Basiouni, G.A.Ahmed, M.A.M.Ismail, and M. A. A. Raoof, "Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnant women with preterm labour", The Second Annual Congress, Faculty of Medicine, Faium University, 13-14 April, 2000.
Ali, S. H., M. A. M. Ismail, A. A. El-Badry, E. Y. Abu-Sarea, A. M. Dewidar, and D. A. Hamdy, "An Association Between Blastocystis Subtypes and Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Significant Different Profile from Non-cancer Individuals ", Acta Parasitologica, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 1-12, 2022. Abstract

Purpose Blastocystis is a common enteric human parasite of non-conclusive pathogenicity which may be determined by subtype (ST) variation. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered one of the primary causes of cancer mortality. Blastocystis ST7 has been shown to reduce benefcial intestinal microbiota and may exacerbate CRC. This study assessed the possible association between Blastocystis STs and CRC in comparison to non-cancer patients.

Material and Methods A total of 200 fecal samples were obtained from CRC (100) and non-CRC (100) individuals attending Beni-Suef University Hospital, Egypt. Blastocystis was searched for in all samples using microscopy and culturing. Positive subculture samples were genetically sequenced and subtyped using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blastocystis STs were determined by sequencing and a phylogenetic tree was created. Related patient characteristics and tumor stages were analyzed for association with presence of Blastocystis.

Results Blastocystis was identifed in 52% and 42% of CRC and non-cancer individuals, respectively. ST1, 2, and 3 were isolated from both cancer and non-cancer individuals; however, for the frst time, ST7 was only isolated from CRC stool samples with signifcant association. Associated patient characteristics were evaluated as predictors.

Conclusion Blastocystosis is highly prevalent in CRC patients, predominantly in the latest CRC grades and stages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst study to report the identifcation of Blastocystis ST7 in CRC patients. To determine whether certain STs of Blastocystis are associated with CRC would require further research, including the role played by
gut microbiota.

Keywords Blastocystis · Subtypes · Colorectal cancer · Egypt

Aly, I. R., M.A.M.Ismail, D. M. H. E. Akkad, H.El-Sayed, E.S.Taher, M.El-Dardiry, and H. M. El-Askary, "Application of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica tegument-associated antigen in human fascioliasis", International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences ( IJHPAS ), issue 2277-4998, October, 2016. Abstract

Tropical fascioliasis is considered to cause a significant economic loss in livestock industry in developing and underdeveloped countries. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) tegument-associated antigen to be compared with Kato-Katz method in diagnosis of human fascioliasis. The F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen was purified from the crude extracts by Superose-12 HR-10/300 column gel filtration chromatography. Polyclonal antibody (pAb) against purified F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen was prepared by immunization of rabbits with F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen. 83 blood and stool samples were collected from Fasciola patients, healthy control, and patients with other parasites. Detection of circulating F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen in human serum and stool samples by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was done. The results revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola antigen in sera was 86.2% and 92.6 % in comparison to the sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola antigen in stool samples which gave 96.3% and 96.3%, respectively. These results indicated the high sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis in both serum and stool samples using pAbs against F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen.
Key words: Fasciola gigantica, tegument-associated antigen, serum, stool, indirect ELISA, Kato Katz method

Aly, M. I., M.A.M.Ismail, G.A.Abd-Allah, M.Abdel-Latif, R.M.Shaapan, H.Salah, S. S. A. Gawad, and E.Y.Abu-Sarea, "Toxoplasmosis in Schizophrenic Patients: Immune-diagnosis and Serum Dopamine Level", Pakistan journal of Biological Sciences (Pak.J Bioi. ScL), vol. 23, issue 1028-8880, pp. 1131-1137, 2020. Abstract

Background and Objective: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite widely distributed all over the world. It
has been associated with various psychiatric conditionsas schizophrenia. This study aiming to evaiuatethe association between Tgondii
infection and schizophrenia and to estimate the effect ofIgondiiinfection on the serum dopamine level among schizophrenic patients.
Materials andMethods: A case-control study was conducted over 45 schizophrenic patients and 44 normal controls. Serum IgMand gG
anti-1gondii antibodies were detected by a commercial ELISA Kit. The immunoblotting method was performed for the detection of IgG
anti- Toxoplasma dopamine was detected by the human dopamine ELISA kit. Results: Anti' T gondii gM was negative in all the 90
studied individuals. However, anti- 77 was positive in 25 schizophrenic patients (55.6%) and 13 normal healthy controls (28.9%).
mmunoblotting showed stronger specific reaction to proteins with molecular weights 50 and 60 kOa by+ve gG schizophrenic patients.
The serum dopamine level among schizophrenicpatients was increased as compared to healthycontrols (47.22 and 25.79%, respectively:
p <0.001 ). In addition, the dopamine levels in +ve igG were higherthan those of-ve IgG schizophrenic patients. Condusion:These results
suggest that chronic Tgondiiinfection causes high dopamine levels that may lead to schizophrenia. About 55% of schizophrenic patients
showed positive IgG reactions to Toxoplasma within this population, the dopamine levels were higherthan seronegative population and
revealed both 50 and 60 kOa proteins band specific to Toxoplasma.
Key words: Toxoplasmosis, schizophrenia, IgG, IgM, immunoblotting, dopamine

Amin, N. M., A. Raafat, M. A. M. Ismail, A. Elkazaz, and I. R. Abdel-Shafi, " ASSESSMENT OF FAECAL CALPROTECTIN LEVEL IN PAEDIATRIC AND GERIATRIC PATIENTS WITH CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS ", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 52, issue 1, pp. 1-8, 2022. Abstract

Cryptosporidium parasite is one of the major causes of diarrhoea. Several parasites and host factors, including the Cryptosporidium genotype and the host immune status and age can influence the disease severity. In the present work the faecal calprotectin (FCAL) level was assessed in Cryptosporidium
infected patients, as a marker of intestinal inflammation in the paediatric and geriatric age groups, with correlation to Cryptosporidium genotype. Our results revealed that the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in the geriatric patients was significantly higher than in the pediatric group. Genotyping revealed Cryp- tosporidium hominis as the frequently circulating species. Significantly high FCAL levels weredetect- ed in Cryptosporidium positive patients denoting the ongoing inflammatory process in cryptosporidio- sis. Additionally, FCAL levels were significantly greater in Cryptosporidium hominis compared to
Cryptosporidium parvum infection, while unaffected by age group. Further studies are needed to in- vestigate the impact of cryptosporidiosis in the elderly patients and to evaluate FCAL as a predictive marker of the disease outcome.
Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Genotypes, Faecal calprotectin, Children, Elderly

E
El-Awady, A. A., A.M.A.Mahgoub, N.M.Naguib, and M.A.M.Ismail, "Comparative study on the Diagnostic Value of A Recently introduced quantitative chemiluminescence ,a Semi Quantitative ELISA and an IHA Titration in Toxoplasma Gondii Serology", Kasr Al-Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 15, No,12, December, pp. 11-16, 2009. Abstract

Background: Recently, the IMMULITE 200(1 automated, chemiluminescent Toxoplasma quantitative IgM and IgG test, has been introduced, which measures loxo IgM and IgG in International Units per milliliter (lU/ntl) of seiunu Hus method is simplet relatively inexpensive, and rapid Objective: Tin IMMULITE Toxoplasma IgM and IgG assays (Diagnostic Products Corporation, Los Angeles) were compared to two serological reactions, Material add methods: In this study, 162 serum samples .were collected from women in their first trimester of pregnancy and tested for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies raised against T. gondii infection using IHA, ELISA and Diagnostic Products Cot partition (DEG) hnmulite systems,
Results: In relation to sensitivity and specificity, IMMULITE presented the highest (W0%) value for the detection of both IgM and IgG. ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity for the detection of IgM and 88.9% sensitivity and 95.4% specificity for the detection of IgG IHA had a sensitivity of 37.5% and 88.9% and a specificity of 100%. and 98.7% for the detection of IgM and IgG respectively*
Conclusion: These results indicate that the IMMULITE Toxoplasma sensitive and specific toutsfor the detection ofIgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii

El-Badry, A. A., M. A. Ghieth, D. A. Ahmed, and M.A.M.Ismail, "GIARDIA INTESTINALIS AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI CO-INFECTION: ESTIMATED RISKS AND PREDICTIVE FACTORS IN EGYPT", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology (JESP), vol. 47, issue 1, pp. 19 - 24, April, 2017. Abstract

Giardia intestinalis (G. intestinalis) and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) are two intestinal pathogens
sharing the same mode of infection. This study determines the prevalence of G. intestinalis and H. pylori co-infection estimated risks and predictive factors for susceptibility to co-infection. Stool samples
were collected from 801 patients suffering gastrointestinal symptoms and living in Greater Cairo.
They were subjected to coproscopic examination for detection of intestinal parasites and copro PCRrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene for Giardia. Positive samples for giardiasis were further subjected to coproimmunoassay to detect H. pylori coprontigen. Among 63 cases of giardiasis by both microscopy and
PCR (84.1 % as-semblage B and 15.9% AII), 52.5% were co-infected with H. pylori. Co-infection was
more frequent with assemblage B (50.9%) than assemblage A (40%). Among studied variables of assemblage type, gender, or harboring more than one parasite (polyparasitism), only school age children,
was signifi-cantly associated (P value: 0.02) with Giardia and H. pylori co-infection. Physicians in
Egypt must consider G. intestinalis and H. pylori as prevailing intestinal pathogens with predominance
of Giardia assemblage B. Giardia and H. pylori co-infection is common in school aged children and
modulates gastrointestinal manifestations. Intestinal parasitism and H. pylori association is complex
and necessitates further genomic studies for a better understanding of the epidemiological and clinical
impact of co-infection, as well as possible strategies for their treatment and control.

El-Badry, A. A., E.Y.Abu-Sarea, A.H.Mahmoud, M.A.Ghieth, and M.A.M.Ismail, "The first Entamoeba moshkovskii molecular detection in Egypt", Comparative Clinical Pathology Springer Nature, pp. 1-4, 2019. Abstract

Amebiasis infection is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. The nonpathogenic Entamoeba species, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar, are distinct but morphologically indifferentiable from E. histolytica, which led us to use of multiplex PCR to detect and molecularly differentiate Entamoeba species in fecal samples of a cohort of 504 diarrheic/dysenteric Egyptians attending outpatient clinics of the Beni-Suef University Hospital. E. moshkovskii was detected for the first time in Egypt, added to already reported E. histolytica and E. dispar. Molecular prevalence of all Entamoeba species was 10%. E. histolytica (1.4%) was the least prevalent Entamoeba, 6 times less than nonpathogenic amoebae (7.9%), E. dispar (4.6%), and E. moshkovskii (3.3%). Entamoeba coinfection was found in 0.8% of cases. Coproscopy had a limited diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of E.histolytica, giving false-positive and false-negative results. Use of molecular assays, a laboratory non-coproscopic method, is preferable as it differentiates amoeba infections and monitors the E. histolytica true prevalence for better treatment and effective control.
Keywords E. moshkovskii . E. histolytica . E. dispar . Multiplex PCR . Egypt

EL-Basiouni, S. O., G.A.Ahmed, A.I.Younis, M.A.M.Ismail, A.N.Saadawy, and S.EL-Basiouni, "A study on Demodex folliculorum mite density and immune response in patients with facial dermatosis", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 35, December , 2005.
EL-Basiouni, S. O., M.A.M.Ismail, A.H.Essa, G.A.Ahmed, S.Alwakeel, and O.A.Khalafalla, "Eosinophilic Cationic Protien (ECP) and circulating antigen in urine of schistosomiasis haematobium patients: Role in diagnosis and/ or morbidity assessment", The Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 22, June- December , 2001.
ElAkkad, D.M.H., N.S.M.El-Gebaly, H.S.A.Yousof, and M.A.M.Ismail, "Electron microscopic alterations in Pediculus humanus capitis exposed to some pediculicidal plant extracts", Korean J Parasitol, vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 1-6, August, 2016. Abstract

Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis infestation is an important public health problem in Egypt. Inadequate application of topical pediculicides and the increasing resistance to the commonly used pediculicides made the urgent need for the development of new agents able to induce irreversible changes in the exposed lice leading to their mortality. The aim of the present work is to evaluate pediculicidal efficacy of some natural products such as olive oil, tea tree oil and lemon juice and ivermectin separately in comparison with Tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide (licid) as a standard pediculicide commonly used in Egypt. The effects of these products were evaluated by direct observation using dissecting and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Results showed that after one hour exposure time in vitro, absolute (100%) mortalities were recorded after exposure to 1% ivermectin and fresh concentrate lemon juice. The mortalities were decreased to 96.7% after exposure to tea tree oil. Very low percentage of mortality (23.3%) was recorded after one hour of exposure to extra virgin olive oil. On the other hand, the reference pediculicide (licid) revealed only mortality rate of 93.3%. On the contrary, no mortalities were recorded in the control group exposed to distilled water. By SEM examination, control lice preserved outer smooth architecture, eyes, antenna, respiratory spiracles, sensory hairs and legs with hook like claws. In contrast, dead lice which had been exposed to pediculicidal products showed damage of outer smooth architecture, sensory hairs, respiratory spiracles and /or clinching claws according to pediculicidal products used.
Keywords: Pediculus humanus capitis, Pediculicides, plant extracts, In vitro, Scanning electron microscope.

ELASKARY, H. M., M. A. M. Ismail, A. S. ELGHAREEB, E. Y. Abu-Sarea, A. A. ABDULGHANI, and S. S. Ibrahim, "CO-INFECTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION AMONG CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASED PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMODIALYSIS IN BENI-SUEF UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 51, issue 3, pp. 585-596, 2021. Abstract

Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two microorganisms that grow in duodenum and
stomach; and sharing the same mode of infection. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an end
stage disease causing uremia that requires hemodialysis (HD). The association of Giardia
lamblia and H. pylori infection has been known to be common and hemodialysis may play an
important role on this co-infection. This study evaluated the interrelation of Giardia lamblia
and H. pylori in patients of CKD treated with hemodialysis.
A case-control study performed on two hundred stool samples collected from patients attend-
ing Beni-Suef University Hospital suffering from diarrhea and other GIT symptoms. One hun-
dred patients suffering from CKD and treated with hemodialysis and a hundred control group
with normal kidney functions of both genders. Both groups were subjected to copro-
parasitological examination and fecal immuno-assays.
The results showed that Giardia in 13 CKD patients with a mean age of 45.24±14.52 and in
22 cross-matched control patients. Males showed prevalent of (66%), who were from rural are-
as (66.5%) and using tap water (83.5%). H. pylori infection was in 22 patients CKD and in 27
control patients. Co-infection was found in 10 CKD patients and 19 of control.
Keywords: Egypt, Patients, Giardia lamblia, H. pylori, Co-infection, CKD, Hemodialysis.

ELBahnasawy, M.M.M., M.A.M.Ismail, E.E.A.FADIL, and T.A.MORSY, "Ticks are underestimated zoonotic vectors in Egypt", 3rd international conference Multidiscilinary Medicine Era III new horizons, The 31 Annual Congress, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, 1st – 4th March, 2016.
ELBahnasawy, M.M.M., M.R.EL-FEKY, A. T. A.MORSY, M.A.M.Ismail, and T.A.MORSY, "Egyptian eosinophilic and infectious meningoencephalitis and their impact on psychological aspects", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 46, No.1 , pp. 67-80, April , 2016. Abstract

Meningoencephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord & their covering protective membranes. Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore, the condition is classified as a medical emergency.
The commonest symptoms of meningitis are headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light (photophobia) or loud noises (phonophobia). Children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as irritability and drowsiness. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.
A broad variety of allergic, infectious, neoplastic, and idiopathic diseases are associated with increased blood and/or tissue eosinophilia and range in severity from self-limited conditions to life-threatening disorders. Although accepted upper limits of normal blood eosinophil numbers vary somewhat, a value above 600 eosinophils /microL of blood is abnormal in the vast majority of cases. Generally speaking, there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF; undoubtedly parasitic infection is one of the main causes.

ELMALLAWANY, M. A., M. A. M. Ismail, S. S. Attia, R. Ahmed, M. N. Alkady, S. Elkholy, A. Shaker, D. O. HELMY, and R. K. NAHNOUSH, "FEASIBILITY OF A RAPID LATERAL FLOW TEST FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM IN DUODENAL ASPIRATES OF PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM CHRONIC LIVER DISEASES AND ELIGIBLE FOR UPPER ENDOSCOPY ", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), vol. 51, issue 2, pp. 305 - 312, 2021. Abstract

Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) represent an important health issue in developing countries and
are commonly associated with impaired immunity. This increases the susceptibility to various in-
fectious agents including parasitic infections, which should be properly managed to avoid life
threatening complications. This study assessed the feasibility of rapid, easy and applicable
screening test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium within 150 CLDs patients suitable for upper en- doscopic examination. Stool samples, duodenal aspirates and duodenal biopsies were examined
for G. lamblia and C. parvum by different diagnostic techniques. The results showed stool mi-
croscopy (13.3% & 7.3%), duodenal aspirate microscopy (5.3% & 4.7%), rapid lateral flow im- mune-chromatographic assay (RLFIA) applied on duodenal aspirate samples (16.7% & 10%), duodenal biopsies histopathological examination (6.7% & 5.3%) and direct fluorescent antigen detection in stools (16.7% & 9.3%) for giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis respectively. The high
sensitivity of lateral flow immune-chromatographic assay in detecting Giardia and Cryptospor-
idium in duodenal fluid samples proved a good screening test for these patients.
Key words: Egypt, Chronic liver disease patients, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Immunofluocen-
ce, duodenal aspirate, rapid immune-chromatography.