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ABDEL FADIL, E. E., M. A. M. Ismail, and T. A. MORSY, "EOSINOPHILIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HELMINTHIASIS", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology (JESP), vol. 48, issue 2, pp. 433-442, August, 2018. Abstract

Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FILL-e-uh) is a higher than normal level of eosinophils. Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell, indicating a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer. There are blood eosinophilia and tissue eosinophilia.
Tissue eosinophilia may be found in samples taken during an exploratory procedure or in samples of certain fluids, such as mucus released from nasal tissues. If you have tissue eosinophilia, the level of eosinophils in your bloodstream is likely normal. Blood eosinophilia may be detected with a blood test, usually as part of a complete blood count. More than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is generally considered eosinophilia in adults. More than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood that lasts for several months is called hypereosinophilia. This reviewed the correlation between high eosinophila and helminthiasis.
Key words: Eosinophilia, Helminthiasis, Organic diseases, Health disorders

Fahmy.M.A., H.S.A.Yousof, S.H.El-Sayed, S.S.Mahmoud, M.Magdy, M.A.Shalaby, and M.A.M.Ismail, "Immunohestochemical changes triggered by repeated Cryptosporidium infection in immunosuppressed mice.", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology (JESP), vol. 48, issue 3, pp. 483-492, 2018.
Ismail, M. A. M., A.H.A.Eassa, A.M.A.Mahgoub, and N.El-Dib, "Review of parasitic zoonotic infections in Egypt.", Kasr El Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 24, issue 3, pp. 1-10, 2018.
El-Badry, A. A., M. A. Ghieth, D. A. Ahmed, and M.A.M.Ismail, "GIARDIA INTESTINALIS AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI CO-INFECTION: ESTIMATED RISKS AND PREDICTIVE FACTORS IN EGYPT", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology (JESP), vol. 47, issue 1, pp. 19 - 24, April, 2017. Abstract

Giardia intestinalis (G. intestinalis) and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) are two intestinal pathogens
sharing the same mode of infection. This study determines the prevalence of G. intestinalis and H. pylori co-infection estimated risks and predictive factors for susceptibility to co-infection. Stool samples
were collected from 801 patients suffering gastrointestinal symptoms and living in Greater Cairo.
They were subjected to coproscopic examination for detection of intestinal parasites and copro PCRrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene for Giardia. Positive samples for giardiasis were further subjected to coproimmunoassay to detect H. pylori coprontigen. Among 63 cases of giardiasis by both microscopy and
PCR (84.1 % as-semblage B and 15.9% AII), 52.5% were co-infected with H. pylori. Co-infection was
more frequent with assemblage B (50.9%) than assemblage A (40%). Among studied variables of assemblage type, gender, or harboring more than one parasite (polyparasitism), only school age children,
was signifi-cantly associated (P value: 0.02) with Giardia and H. pylori co-infection. Physicians in
Egypt must consider G. intestinalis and H. pylori as prevailing intestinal pathogens with predominance
of Giardia assemblage B. Giardia and H. pylori co-infection is common in school aged children and
modulates gastrointestinal manifestations. Intestinal parasitism and H. pylori association is complex
and necessitates further genomic studies for a better understanding of the epidemiological and clinical
impact of co-infection, as well as possible strategies for their treatment and control.

ELBahnasawy, M.M.M., M.A.M.Ismail, E.E.A.FADIL, and T.A.MORSY, "Ticks are underestimated zoonotic vectors in Egypt", 3rd international conference Multidiscilinary Medicine Era III new horizons, The 31 Annual Congress, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, 1st – 4th March, 2016.
Abdel Aal, S. M., J.A.Ahmed, M.A.M.Ismail, and S. Z. A. Maogood, "The antigenic relationship between Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate snail host", J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol.(JESP), vol. 46 No(3), pp. 663-670, December, 2016. Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in many developing countries including Egypt,
Determination of the antigenic relationship between S. mansoni and its intermediate snail host
(IMH) Biomphalaria alexandrina can open a new field for diagnosis and control of the dis-
ease. In the present study infected and non-infected B. alexandrina foot and visceral hump tis-
sue as well as S. mansion crude Ag (SWAg) were fractionated using SDS-PAGE. It's specific
and cross reacted protein fractions were determine using EITB versus experimentally prepared
mice hyper immune sera (HIS) versus each antigen.
After treatment of fractionated S.mansoni crude worm antigens (SWAg) versus HIS produced
after vaccination of mice by the same Ag, 8 kda protein fractions ranged from 35-140 kda
were reacted specifically. Treatment of fractionated B.alexandrina infected and non-infected
foot and visceral hump Ag versus previous HIS revealed presence of common polypeptides
bands between SWAg and non-infected snail antigens. The fraction at 135 kda, 68 kda, were
detected in all cases, while that at 40-42 kda and that at 35 kda was diagnosed in SWAg and
that of infected snails only. The fraction at 68 kda was reacted specifically between SWAg and
all tested fractionated snail antigens either that of foot or visceral hump when they treated sep-
arately by HIS of mice vaccinated by each snail Ag separately. The fraction at 135 kda was
common between SWAg and snail (infected and non-infected) visceral hump antigen. The
fraction at the level of 110 kda was diagnosed in SWAg, in non-infected foot antigen and vis-
ceral hump Ag. The fraction at the level of 46-48 kda are common between SWAg and snail
foot and visceral hump Ag after treated by HIS of mice vaccinated by foot Ag,
Presence of common antigenic fractions between snail tissues and Schistosoma species can
prefer an easily source of antigen valuable for diagnosis or vaccination as well as can be con-
sidered as new tool for determination to the snail IMH of new discovered trematode parasites.
Key words: S.mansoni- B.alexandrina- EITB- Common fractions.

Aly, I. R., M.A.M.Ismail, D. M. H. E. Akkad, H.El-Sayed, E.S.Taher, M.El-Dardiry, and H. M. El-Askary, "Application of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica tegument-associated antigen in human fascioliasis", International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences ( IJHPAS ), issue 2277-4998, October, 2016. Abstract

Tropical fascioliasis is considered to cause a significant economic loss in livestock industry in developing and underdeveloped countries. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) tegument-associated antigen to be compared with Kato-Katz method in diagnosis of human fascioliasis. The F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen was purified from the crude extracts by Superose-12 HR-10/300 column gel filtration chromatography. Polyclonal antibody (pAb) against purified F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen was prepared by immunization of rabbits with F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen. 83 blood and stool samples were collected from Fasciola patients, healthy control, and patients with other parasites. Detection of circulating F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen in human serum and stool samples by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was done. The results revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola antigen in sera was 86.2% and 92.6 % in comparison to the sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for detection of Fasciola antigen in stool samples which gave 96.3% and 96.3%, respectively. These results indicated the high sensitivity and specificity of competitive ELISA for immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis in both serum and stool samples using pAbs against F. gigantica tegument-associated antigen.
Key words: Fasciola gigantica, tegument-associated antigen, serum, stool, indirect ELISA, Kato Katz method

Ismail, M. A. M., W.M.A.Mousa, E.Y.Abu.Sarea, M.M.A.Basyouni, and S.S.Mohammed, "Comparative study of immunoblot versus PCR in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in experimental infected mice", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 46, No.1, pp. 101-108, April , 2016. Abstract

This study compared PCR and Western blot techniques in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. Forty Swiss albino mice were used, thirty two mice were infected with cercariae of S. mansoni and eight mice were kept uninfected which were used as a control. Blood was obtained from four infected mice weekly beginning from the 1st week to the 8th week post infection.
The study founded that PCR was positive from the first week post infection, while Western blot technique was positive from the second week post infection. we concluded that PCR can diagnose schistosomiasis mansoni earlier than Western blot technique, but both were able.

ELBahnasawy, M.M.M., M.R.EL-FEKY, A. T. A.MORSY, M.A.M.Ismail, and T.A.MORSY, "Egyptian eosinophilic and infectious meningoencephalitis and their impact on psychological aspects", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 46, No.1 , pp. 67-80, April , 2016. Abstract

Meningoencephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord & their covering protective membranes. Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore, the condition is classified as a medical emergency.
The commonest symptoms of meningitis are headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light (photophobia) or loud noises (phonophobia). Children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as irritability and drowsiness. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.
A broad variety of allergic, infectious, neoplastic, and idiopathic diseases are associated with increased blood and/or tissue eosinophilia and range in severity from self-limited conditions to life-threatening disorders. Although accepted upper limits of normal blood eosinophil numbers vary somewhat, a value above 600 eosinophils /microL of blood is abnormal in the vast majority of cases. Generally speaking, there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF; undoubtedly parasitic infection is one of the main causes.

ElAkkad, D.M.H., N.S.M.El-Gebaly, H.S.A.Yousof, and M.A.M.Ismail, "Electron microscopic alterations in Pediculus humanus capitis exposed to some pediculicidal plant extracts", Korean J Parasitol, vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 1-6, August, 2016. Abstract

Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis infestation is an important public health problem in Egypt. Inadequate application of topical pediculicides and the increasing resistance to the commonly used pediculicides made the urgent need for the development of new agents able to induce irreversible changes in the exposed lice leading to their mortality. The aim of the present work is to evaluate pediculicidal efficacy of some natural products such as olive oil, tea tree oil and lemon juice and ivermectin separately in comparison with Tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide (licid) as a standard pediculicide commonly used in Egypt. The effects of these products were evaluated by direct observation using dissecting and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Results showed that after one hour exposure time in vitro, absolute (100%) mortalities were recorded after exposure to 1% ivermectin and fresh concentrate lemon juice. The mortalities were decreased to 96.7% after exposure to tea tree oil. Very low percentage of mortality (23.3%) was recorded after one hour of exposure to extra virgin olive oil. On the other hand, the reference pediculicide (licid) revealed only mortality rate of 93.3%. On the contrary, no mortalities were recorded in the control group exposed to distilled water. By SEM examination, control lice preserved outer smooth architecture, eyes, antenna, respiratory spiracles, sensory hairs and legs with hook like claws. In contrast, dead lice which had been exposed to pediculicidal products showed damage of outer smooth architecture, sensory hairs, respiratory spiracles and /or clinching claws according to pediculicidal products used.
Keywords: Pediculus humanus capitis, Pediculicides, plant extracts, In vitro, Scanning electron microscope.

Ismail.M.A.M, D.M.H.El-Akkad, E.M.A.Rizk, H.M.El-Askary, and A.A.El-Badry, "Molecular seasonality of Giardia lamblia in a cohort of Egyptian children: a circannual pattern", Parasitology research July 23, 2016. Abstract

Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is the most worldwide prevailing intestinal parasite, notorious for its broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. The potentially lethal nature of giardiasis makes it essential that the seasonality, the groups at risk, and other potential risk factors are identified. The present molecular epidemiological study was designed to determine the genetic diversity of G. lamblia infection, taking into account seasonal peaks, age distribution, and associated symptoms in a cohort of Egyptian diarrheic patients. Stool samples were collected from 1187 diarrheic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, of all age groups over a 12-month period. The patients were examined microscopically for fecal G. lamblia cysts, and/or trophozoites, and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays targeting beta giardin gene. PCR-positive samples were characterized molecularly by nPCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Giardia assemblages. The findings revealed circannual prevalence of Giardia, with a seasonal pattern peaking in mid-summer and late winter, with the summer peak preceded by a peak in temperature. Infection was prevailing in 224 (18.9 %) cases, mainly assemblage B (81.2 %) followed by assemblage A (18.8 %). There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Giardia and flatulence, persistent diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, while gender and intermittent diarrhea showed no association. The pre-school age group was the most vulnerable. This is the first study of molecular characterization of Giardia to determine its circannual prevalence in Egypt, a finding which carries promising potential for the diagnosis, treatment, and elimination of the disease.

AL-Agroudi, M. A., A.T.A.Morsy, M.A.M.Ismail, and T.A.MORSY, "Protozoa causing food poisoning", J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol.(JESP), vol. 46 No(3), pp. 497-508, December, 2016. Abstract

Food poisoning also called foodborne illness, or illness caused by eating contaminated food
is a term used to cover an unpleasant range of illnesses. Food poisoning symptoms vary with the source of contamination. Most types of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms: nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramps and fever Signs and symptoms may start within hours after eating the contaminated food, or they may begin days or even weeks later. Sickness caused by food poisoning generally lasts from a few hours to several days.

Saleh, M. S. M., A.T.A.Morsy, M.A.M.Ismail, and T.A.MORSY, "Tick-borne infectious diseases with references to Egypt", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 46, No.2, pp. 273-298, August, 2016. Abstract

Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites of man, domestic and street animals, and birds of
health and economic hazard worldwide. They transmit many micro-organisms and protozoan
infectious diseases and their toxins cause different signs and symptoms that may be fatal according to the infesting tick saliva protein.
In Egypt where there are many rural and urban areas, so many genera and species of ticks are
encountered. The Egyptian veterinary and agricultural authorities deal with ticks from economic point of view. But from medical point of view, ticks have specific role in transmission of zoonotic infectious diseases as well as their saliva causes tick paralysis. When dealing with children from tick infested areas, tick paralysis should be considered in differential diagnosis of the
clinically confused diseases as poliomyelitis, myasthenia gravis; Guillain-Barre; paralytic rabies botulism; transverse myelitis and /or the diphtheritic polyneuropathy. Tick-borne relapsing
fever is a zoonosis and is endemic in many countries. The two main Borrelia spp. involved in
North America are B. hermsii (in the mountainous West) and B. turicatae (in the southwest).
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), babesiosis and infantile tick paralysis were identified as emerging diseases disaster. Also, Lyme disease is the commonest worldwide and encountered in Egypt since a long time. And now what about other tick-borne diseases, taking into consideration the tick populations is endemic not only in Egypt but worldwide vectors.
Key words: Egypt, Tick-Borne Diseases, General review and discussion, Conclusion.

Ismail, M. A. M., N.F.A.Imam, S. S. A. Gawad, and S.S.El-Wakil, "GIARDIA LAMBLIA IN DYSPEPTIC DIARRHEIC PATIENTS ATTENDING OCTOBER 6 UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, EGYPT", The Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 36, issue 1, pp. 383 - 392, June, 2015. Abstract

Giardiasis is a major cosmopolitan protozoan illness which usually presents with diarrhea among other manifestations. Dyspepsia is a very frequent gastrointestinal symptom that may be associated with giardiasis, and is giardiasis is often overlooked as a cause or contributing factor in the development of dyspepsia in non-peptic ulcer patients. In this cross-sectional study, 80 diarrheic adult patients complaining of dyspepsia as a main symptom were enrolled, along with 40 control subjects. The study patients had a mean age of 45.23 ± 11.27, and were 42 (53%) males and 38 (47%) females. By concentration technique and direct microscopy, Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) trophozoites were detected in 9 (11.25%) cases. Results of coproantigen detection by ELISA and a rapid dipstick immunochromatography test were superior, detecting 13 (16.25%) and 15 (18.75%) patients, respectively. This was statistically significant compared to both results of microscopy and healthy controls, who were all G. lamblia negative by all used techniques. In conclusion, G. lamblia appears to have a role in the development or persistence of dyspepsia patients. It should be ruled out or treated, especially in patients not responding to dyspepsia treatment. Moreover, rapid coproantigen detection dipstick tests are highly recommended as a diagnostic tool, especially in the absence of experienced microscopists and if only one stool sample is available.

Ismail, M. A. M., "Evaluation of serological and molecular techniques in clinical stage of toxoplasmosis", The Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011.
Ismail, M. A. M., M.M.A.Basyouni, W.M.El-Komy, and S.Shaker, "Modulatory role of immunization with secretory excretory products of Schistosoma haematobium eggs on morbidity in infected hamsters", Parasitologists United Journal, vol. 4, No.2, December, pp. 201-210 , 2011. Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate different parasitological parameters in response to injection of purified secretory - excretory products (SEP) of S. haematobium eggs into hamsters prior to infection with cercariae as an experimental trial for decreasing or modulating severe morbidity

Kobtan, H., and M.A.M.Ismail, "Therapeutic Efficacy of topical fluconazole monotherapy in the management of contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis : a Preliminary Report on 3 Cases", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 17, February , pp. 39-42 , 2011. Abstract

Purpose: To report the therapeutic efficacy of topical Fluconazole on three cases of culture proven Acanthamoeba keratitis. Materials and methods: Prospective case series. Three eyes of 3 patients with culture-proven AK were treated at our tertiary care institution at Cairo University.Topical Fluconazole 2% was instituted as an alternative treatment for resistant infectious keratitis that proved as culture positive for Acanthamoeba. Successful treatment was defined by absence of clinical signs of active infection and visual
improvement. trophozoites was seen migrating on nonnutrient agar overlain with E. coli.
Results: The first case showed a central large full thickness corneal abscess 8 mm in diameter with melting and the second case showed a small paracentral superficial corneal infiltrate with radial keratoneuritis. The third case presented with a central descmetocele and surrounded by a corneal ring abscess. Acanthamoeba Castellanii was cultured from the Contact lens case in all 3 patients. Topical fluconazole 2% eye drop was used for a duration ranging from 4weeks up to 2 month as a single modality. None of the three had recurrent disease following discontinuation of the drug over a period of follow up ranging from two months up to 4 year.
Conclusion: Topical Fluconazole could be considered in cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis as an alternative therapy to a combination of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and propamidine isethionate (Brolene). However further in vivo studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to compare relative efficacy of both modalities.

El-Awady, A. A., A.M.A.Mahgoub, N.M.Naguib, and M.A.M.Ismail, "Comparative study on the Diagnostic Value of A Recently introduced quantitative chemiluminescence ,a Semi Quantitative ELISA and an IHA Titration in Toxoplasma Gondii Serology", Kasr Al-Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 15, No,12, December, pp. 11-16, 2009. Abstract

Background: Recently, the IMMULITE 200(1 automated, chemiluminescent Toxoplasma quantitative IgM and IgG test, has been introduced, which measures loxo IgM and IgG in International Units per milliliter (lU/ntl) of seiunu Hus method is simplet relatively inexpensive, and rapid Objective: Tin IMMULITE Toxoplasma IgM and IgG assays (Diagnostic Products Corporation, Los Angeles) were compared to two serological reactions, Material add methods: In this study, 162 serum samples .were collected from women in their first trimester of pregnancy and tested for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies raised against T. gondii infection using IHA, ELISA and Diagnostic Products Cot partition (DEG) hnmulite systems,
Results: In relation to sensitivity and specificity, IMMULITE presented the highest (W0%) value for the detection of both IgM and IgG. ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity for the detection of IgM and 88.9% sensitivity and 95.4% specificity for the detection of IgG IHA had a sensitivity of 37.5% and 88.9% and a specificity of 100%. and 98.7% for the detection of IgM and IgG respectively*
Conclusion: These results indicate that the IMMULITE Toxoplasma sensitive and specific toutsfor the detection ofIgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii

Kamel, M. M., K.M.Maher, I.Rabia, A.H.Helmy, A.I.EL-Adawi, M.A.Mousa, and A.M.Mahgoub, "A CON A-PURIFIED HYDATID GLYCOPROTEIN FRACTION EFFECTIVELY DIAGNOSES HUMAN HYDATIDOSIS", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 36, issue 3, pp. 945-958, 2006.
Ahmed, G. A., S.O.EL-Basiouni, M.A.M.Ismail, A.I.Younis, and O.A.Khalafalla, "Markers of glomerular and/or tubular kidney affection in asymptomatic patients with bancroftian filariasis", Kasr Al-Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 11, September, 2005.
EL-Basiouni, S. O., G.A.Ahmed, A.I.Younis, M.A.M.Ismail, A.N.Saadawy, and S.EL-Basiouni, "A study on Demodex folliculorum mite density and immune response in patients with facial dermatosis", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 35, December , 2005.
Ismail, M. A. M., and O.A.Kalafalla, "Toxocara canis and chronic urticarial in Egyptian patients", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 35, December , 2005.
Moneer, A., A.Salah-Elden, H.El-Mofty, M.A.M.Ismail, and M.Alnabarawy, "The effectiveness of ketoconazole and honey on Acanthamoeba in vitro and experimental keratitis in rabbits", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 10, February, 2004.
Essa, A. H., M.A.M.Ismail, and H.El-Mofty, "Anti-Acanthamoeba activity of some contact lens solution constituents available in Egypt", Kasr Al-Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 9, May, 2003.
Ismail, M. A. M., and O.A.Khalafalla, "Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients with malabsorption using coproantigen detection", The Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences , vol. 23, June-December , 2002.