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C
Canales Vergara, A. M., V. Landi, J. V. Delgado Bermejo, A. Martínez, P. Cervantes Acosta, Á. Pons Barro, D. Bigi, P. Sponenberg, M. Helal, M. Hossein Banabazi, et al., "Tracing Worldwide Turkey Genetic Diversity Using D-loop Sequence Mitochondrial DNA Analysis.", Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, vol. 9, issue 11, 2019. Abstractno8.pdf

According to recent archeological evidence, turkey domestication may have occurred in Mexico around 2000 years ago. However, little is known about the phylogenetic and genealogical background underlying domestic turkey populations. This study aimed to further understand the domestication process and identify inter- or intraspecific connections between turkey populations to determine their origins, trace their global expansion, and define the species' genetic value. Ninety-three domestic turkeys (local breeds) were sampled from populations in Brazil, Mexico, USA, Spain, Italy, Iran, and Egypt. Publicly available sequences from previous studies were also included. Standard mitochondrial DNA, genetic diversity, and haplotype network analyses were performed. Seventy-six polymorphic sites were identified. Turkeys from Mexico showed the greatest number of polymorphic sites (40), while turkeys from Italy and Brazil reported only one site each. Nucleotide diversity was also highest in Mexico and the USA (π = 0.0175 and 0.0102, respectively) and lowest in Brazil and Italy. Of the six major haplogroups defined, the Mexican and USA populations appeared to have remained more stable and diverse than the other populations. This may be due to conservative husbandry policies in the rural areas of other populations, which have prevented the introduction of commercial turkey lines.

Canales Vergara, A. M., V. Landi, J. V. Delgado Bermejo, A. M. Martínez, P. Cervantes Acosta, A. P. Barros, D. Bigi, P. Sponenberg, M. Helal, M. Hossein Banabazi, et al., " Design and development of a multiplex microsatellite panel for the genetic characterisation and diversity assessment of domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo)", Italian Journal of Animal Science , vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 392-398, 2020.
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E.A.El-Gendy, M.Helal, N.H.Goher, and A. Mostageer, "Molecular characterization of genetic biodiversity in ducks, using RAPD-PCR analysis", Arab Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 8, issue 2, pp. 253-264, 2005. Abstract545562b00cf26d5090a6fe04.pdfWebsite

ABSTRACT This study aimed at elucidating the genetic variation within and between duck populations and estimating the phylogenetic relationships among them. Five duck breeds of two species, Muscovy and Sudani of Cairina species, and White Pekin, Damietti and Khaki Campbell of Anas species, were used. The technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was applied using five random primers. Individual DNA samples within breed and also a bulk of DNA samples for each breed were used. Primers amplified bands with an overall mean of 8.45 and 8.68 bands for individual and pooled samples, respectively. No significant difference was observed between pooled and individual samples indicating the reliability of mixing DNA samples within breed. High levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity between breeds were obtained. Two primers (OPC-08 and OPC-11), resulted in highly polymorphic markers for duck genomes. Specific bands were obtained for species and also for breeds. The overall mean of genetic variability indices within breed was low to moderate and averaged 0.38, whereas band sharing levels within breed were high and averaged 0.73. Variability estimates between breeds were 0.47 and 0.35 for individual and pooled samples respectively, whereas band sharing estimates were 0.63 and 0.74. Genetic distance indices between breeds ranged between 0.264 and 0.728.

El-Gendy, E., M. Orabi, M. Helal, M. Nassar, and D. M. Higazy, "The genetic structure at chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 of the native chicken breeds in Egypt and in relation to the ecology, ", The 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (WCGALP), vol. 11, pp. 997, 2018. genetic-structure-chromosomes-3-4-and-5-native-chicken-breeds-egypt-and-relation-ecology.pdf
El-Gendy, E. A., E. H. Abbas, S. M. El-Tantawy, A. T. Mohamed, M. Helal, Z. M. M. El-Deen, and A. Y. Wageh, "A model for the genetic employment of chickens local to warm climate. 2. Genome scanning of two lines selected for growth", African Journal of biological sciences, vol. 9, pp. 95-105, 2013. Abstract95-105.essam_.a.el-gendy.pdf

The genome scanning was performed on four chicken populations to estimate the genomic
changes associated with genetic selection. The populations were the local naked-neck line CE3 that
has been selected for 6-wk BW for 6 generations with its genetic control line CE4, and a broiler
dam line D with its genetic control line CD. In lines CE3 and D. The PCR was applied to pooled
DNA samples of each line and sex using seven microsatellite markers. The average number of
alleles per microsatellite locus was 2.14, denoting to the multi-allelic property of the detected loci.
The total number of allelic bands and their frequencies differed among lines and sexes,
demonstrating the genetic composition specificity of each line and the sexual dimorphism. The
variability, heterozygosity and PIC averaged 0.54, 0.68 and 0.81 in line CE3 versus 0.46, 0.52 and
0.57 in line CE4. The moderate variability and moderately high heterozygosity estimates in line
CE3 indicate that there is still much work can be done through selection. The distance between line
CE3 and line CE4 averaged 2.92, and the distance between line D and its control line CD averaged
1.95. These distances reveal the progress of selection practiced in lines CE3 and D, that has been
expressed in shifting the genetic composition of them from those of their control lines CE4 and CD.
The longer distance between line CE3 and line CE4 than that between line D and line CD indicates
the higher selection progress achieved in line CE3 compared to line D.

El-Gendy, E. A., Y.Hafez, H.Mohamed, M.Helal, and M. A. Elrahman, "Genome analysis of local and exotic rabbit breeds in Egypt", African Journal of biological sciences, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 101-110, 2014.
El-Gendy, E. A., and M.Helal, "An approach to marker-assisted selection for increased body weights in local chickens in Egypt", Poultry Science Association Annual Meeting, At St. Louis, Missouri, USA, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, Poultry Science Association, 2011.
El-Gendy, E. A., and M.Helal, "Genetic variation and polymorphism at microsateliite loci in chickens of worm regions selected for meat production.", International Journal of Biotechnology and allied fields, vol. 2, pp. 100-116, 2014. Abstract1399286922ms_ijbaf_2014_2116.pdf

In a research project aiming at the genetic improvement of warm-region originated chickens,
a breeding program was practiced on naturally heat-resistant local population in Egypt and
four lines have been derived. The lines were the homozygous normally-feathered selected
(CE1) and control (CE2) lines, and the homozygous naked-neck selected (CE3) and control
(CE4) lines. Lines CE1 and CE3 have been selected for 6-wk body weight for eight
generations. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic features of the selected lines
at the microsatellite loci recognized by 27 microsatellite primers in generations 6, 7 and 8.
The number of alleles detected by each primer varied from one to seven. The number of
alleles per primer and generation averaged 5.72, 2.35, 5.98 and 2.57 in lines CE1, CE2, CE3
and CE4, respectively. The genetic variability was in general low among lines and ranged
0.17–0.20. Polymorphic information content (PIC) averaged 0.50, .39, 0.55 and 0.50 in lines
CE1, CE2, CE3 and CE4 respectively, and line-specific alleles (LSA) formed 4.3, 0.7, 4.6
and 1.2% of total alleles in corresponding lines. The differences between each selected line
and its control line in PIC and LSA were significant, except between line CE3 and line CE4
in PIC. The results denoted to the possible linkages between the detected microsatellite loci
and QTL for body weight. By generation 8, the genetic distance indices between line CE1
and line CE2 averaged 0.740, and between line CE3 and line CE4 averaged 0.815. The
phylogenetic dendograms revealed the genetic progress of the selected lines over subsequent
generations.

El-Gendy, E., and M. Helal, "Estimation of genetic differences between rabbit breeds using microsatellite loci on chromosomes 5, 7 and 19.", Egyptian poultry science journal, vol. 39, issue 4, pp. 731-740., 2019.
El-Henfnawy, M., E. A. El-Gendy, A. M. El-Kaiaty, and M. Helal, "Genotype-by-sex interaction effect on growth traits at different ages in slow-growing chickens", J. Anim. Health Prod, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 226–231, 2022. Abstract
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Helal, M., and A. S. Ahmed, "Molecular comparison of Egyptian and Saudi local chickens using RAPD Markers. I", International Journal of Animal Science, vol. 2, issue 4, pp. 1029-1034, 2018. fulltext_ijas-v2-1029.pdf
Helal, M., M. A. Ali, A. H. Nadrin, Y. I. Awad, N. K. Younis, B. M. Alasyed, M. Jamal, D. H. Eid, H. A. Soliman, S. A. Eissa, et al., "Association between IRS-1, PPAR-γ and LEP genes polymorphisms and growth traits in rabbits", Animal BiotechnologyAnimal Biotechnology, vol. 34, issue 7: Taylor & Francis, pp. 2391 - 2399, 2023. AbstractWebsite
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Helal, M., "Impact of Biotechnology on Animal Breeding - Keynote paper", International Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Biotechnology, Cairo, Egypt, June, 2015.
Helal, M., M. A. Ali, A. H. Nadrin, Y. I. Awad, N. K. Younis, B. M. Alasyed, M. Jamal, D. H. Eid, H. A. Soliman, S. A. Eissa, et al., "Association between IRS-1, PPAR-$\gamma$ and LEP genes polymorphisms and growth traits in rabbits", Animal Biotechnology: Taylor & Francis, pp. 1–9, 2022. Abstract
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Helal, M., and E. A. El-Gendy, "Evaluation of selection progress in two local Egyptian chicken breeds", International Poultry Scientific Forum, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, Jan 2013.
Helal, M., "Assessment of RAPD markers variability of local turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) population in Egypt. ", Egyptian poultry science journal,, vol. 39, issue 3, pp. 615-624. , 2019. no5.pdf
Helal, M., N. Hany, M. Maged, M. Abdelaziz, N. Osama, Y. W. Younan, Y. Ismail, R. Abdelrahman, and M. Ragab, "Candidate genes for marker-assisted selection for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits", Animal BiotechnologyAnimal Biotechnology, vol. 33, issue 7: Taylor & Francis, pp. 1691 - 1710, 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Helal, M., "Association Between Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Body Weight in Growing Rabbits.", Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences., vol. 7, issue 11, pp. 994-998., 2019. AbstractAssociation Rabbits..pdf

Abstract | The current study was performed to investigate the association of the SNP c.106C>G which is located in exon 3 of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene with body weight in rabbits. Baladi Red (local breed) and New Zealand White rabbits (exotic breed) were used, body weights at 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of age of 10 individuals/sex/breed were considered as the phenotypic parameters. The individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method using Hinf1 as a restriction enzyme. The results showed that the body weight of NZW rabbits was significantly higher than the local breed over all ages, however the sex effect was mostly insignificant. The gene frequency results showed that the frequency of CC genotype was 0.10 overall individuals of the two breeds. The frequencies of the two alleles were found to be 0.225 (allele C) and 0.775 (allele G), and the frequency of allele C was slightly higher in NWZ than local Baladi rabbits. Highly significant (p≤0.002) associations were found between CC genotype and body weights at 6, 10 and 12 weeks of age. The results suggested the possibility of using polymorphism of exon 3 of the GHR gene as a candidate gene for body weight in both local and exotic rabbit breeds in Egypt.

Helal, M., J. Sameh, S. Gharib, R. M. Merghany, M. Bozhilova-Sakova, and M. Ragab, "Candidate genes associated with reproductive traits in rabbits", Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 56, no. 2: Springer, pp. 94, 2024. Abstract
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Helal, M. M., and E. A. El-Gendy, "Marker-assisted selection for improving body weight in local chickens in Egypt", The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 161, issue 1: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135-147, 2023. AbstractWebsite

There is a need for a low-cost strategy that accelerates the genetic change in local chicken breeds. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a strategy for marker-assisted selection for growth in local chickens in the developing countries. The studied lines were a homozygous normally feathered selected line (CE1), homozygous naked-neck selected line (CE3) and their corresponding control lines (CE2 and CE4). Lines CE1 and CE3 have been selected for high 6-week body weight (BW) for five generations. Three generations were obtained for this study. In the current study, we consider the 6th generation as the base generation for marker-assisted selection study. Two subsequent selected generations were obtained from the base generation. The selected lines were significantly heavier at 6 weeks of age than their corresponding control lines by 24.15 and 27.07% in the base generation and by 51.4 and 34.5% in the second selected generation. A total of 34 polymorphic alleles in 19 loci were flown over generations and the flow trends were different in different lines and families within lines. Principal component analysis was applied to the data of both lines and two main components were found and three canonical correlations were obtained. Four and five alleles were persistently concomitant with the highly performed families in lines CE1 and CE3, respectively. These alleles would have brought 6-week BW into higher levels of performance by 25.1 and 16.6% in the second generation if they would have been considered in the selection for 6-week BW.

Helal, M. M., O. G. Sakr, M. W. Sadik, M. A. Radwan, M. S. Khattab, and M. A. El-Manylawi, "Performance and nutrigenomics modulations in response to the inclusion of biologically treated date-palm mulch and enzyme mixture in the diets of growing rabbits", Animal Biotechnology: Taylor & Francis, pp. 1–16, 2022. Abstract
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Helal, M., and E. A. El-Gendy, "Comparison of growth curves of two selected chicken lines in Egypt. Poultry Science association annual meeting", Poultry Science Association Annual Meeting, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, July 2014.
Helal, M., N. Hany, M. Maged, M. Abdelaziz, N. Osama, Y. W. Younan, Y. Ismail, R. Abdelrahman, and M. Ragab, "Candidate genes for marker-assisted selection for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits", Animal Biotechnology: Taylor & Francis, pp. 1–20, 2021. Abstract
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Helal, M., M. Ragab, and J. P. Sánchez, "Genetic parameters of feed intake patterns of Duroc sows during gestation and lactation", The 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (WCGALP), pp. 11:990, 2018. genetic-parameters-feed-intake-patterns-duroc-sows-during-gestation-and-lactation.pdf
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M.Helal, and E.A.El-Gendy, "Genomic characterization of growth-selected and randombred local chickens in Egypt", International Poultry Scientific Forum, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, Jan 2012.
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Orabi, M., M. Helal, M. Nassar, and E. El-Gendy, "The Microsatellite allele diversity on chromosomes 4, 5 and 6 in native Egyptian chickens", African Journal of Biological Sciences , vol. 13, pp. 111-118, 2017. no1.pdf
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Ragab, M., I. Elkhaiat, H. Younis, M. Ahmed, and M. Helal, "Genotype by heat conditions interaction effects on growth and litter traits in rabbits", Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol. 9: Frontiers Media SA, 2022. Abstract
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Safaa, H., R. Khaled, S. Isaac, R. Mostafa, M. Ragab, D. A. A. Elsayed, and M. Helal, Genome-wide in silico characterization, validation, and cross-species transferability of microsatellite markers in Mallard and Muscovy ducks, , vol. 21, issue 1, pp. 105, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Microsatellites are important markers for livestock including ducks. The development of microsatellites is expensive and labor-intensive. Meanwhile, the in silico approach for mining for microsatellites became a practicable alternative. Therefore, the current study aimed at comparing whole-genome and chromosome-wise microsatellite mining approaches in Muscovy and Mallard ducks and testing the transferability of markers between them. The GMATA software was used for the in silico study, and validation was performed using 26 primers.