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Ibrahim, E. S., M. O. N. A. T. KASHEF, T. M. Essam, and M. A. Ramadan, "A Degradome-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction to Resolve the Potential of Environmental Samples for 2,4-Dichlorophenol Biodegradation.", Current microbiology, vol. 74, issue 12, pp. 1365-1372, 2017 Dec. Abstract

A clean way to overcome environmental pollution is biodegradation. In this perspective, at the intersection of biodegradation and metagenomics, the degradome is defined as the totality of genes related to the biodegradation of a certain compound. It includes the genetic elements from both culturable and uncultured microorganisms. The possibility of assessing the biodegradation potential of an environmental samples, using a degradome-based polymerase chain reaction, was explored. 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was chosen as a model and the use of tfdB gene as a biodegradation marker was confirmed by bioinformatics study of TfdB protein. Five primer pairs were designed for the detection of different tfdB gene families. A total of 16 environmental samples were collected from Egyptian agricultural soils and wastewaters and tested for the presence of 2,4-DCP. The biodegradation capacity of 2,4-DCP was determined, for all isolated consortia, to reach up to 350 mg/l. Metagenomic DNA was extracted directly from the soil samples while successive 2,4-DCP-degrading microbial communities were enriched, with increasing concentrations of 2,4-DCP, then their DNA was extracted. The extracted DNA was tested for the distribution of the tfdB gene using a degradome-based polymerase chain reaction. tfdB-1 and tfdB-2 were detected in 5 and 9 samples, respectively. However, the co-existence of both genes was detected only in five samples. All tfdB positive samples were capable of 2,4-DCP degradation. The developed approach of assessing the potential of different environments for degrading 2,4-DCP was successfully measured in terms of accuracy (81.25%) and specificity (100%).

Kashif, M. T., A. S. Yassin, and A. E. - D. M. S. Hosny, "Detection of AmpC beta-lactamases using sodium salicylate", Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 91, issue 3, pp. 354–357, 2012.
HELMY, O. M. N. E. Y. A. M., and M. O. N. A. T. KASHEF, "Different phenotypic and molecular mechanisms associated with multidrug resistance in Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt.", Infection and drug resistance, vol. 10, pp. 479-498, 2017. Abstract

Objectives: We set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms, and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance (MDR) among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt.

Materials and methods: A total of 118 third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates were included in this study. Their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Efflux pump-mediated resistance was tested by the efflux-pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chlorpromazine. Detection of different aminoglycoside-, β-lactam-, and quinolone-resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using random amplification of polymorphic DNA.

Results: Most of the tested isolates exhibited MDR phenotypes (84.75%). The occurrence of efflux pump-mediated resistance in the different MDR species tested was 40%-66%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed resistance to most of the tested antibiotics, including imipenem. The blaOXA-23-like gene was detected in 69% of the MDR A. baumannii isolates. The MDR phenotype was detected in 65% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which only 23% exhibited efflux pump-mediated resistance. On the contrary, efflux-mediated resistance to piperacillin and gentamicin was recorded in 47.5% of piperacillin-resistant and 25% of gentamicin-resistant MDR Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, the plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance genes (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB, and qnrS) were detected in 57.6% and 83.33% of quinolone-resistant MDR Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, respectively. The β-lactamase-resistance gene blaSHV-31 was detected for the first time in one MDR K. pneumoniae isolate from an endotracheal tube specimen in Egypt, accompanied by blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS, and multidrug efflux-mediated resistance.

Conclusion: MDR phenotypes are predominant among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Egypt and mediated by different mechanisms, with an increased role of efflux pumps in Enterobacteriaceae.

Kahef, M. T., and R. K. Aziz, "Drug Factory Microbiome: Top Three Actionable Challenges and Prospects", OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology, vol. 24, issue 1, pp. 55-56, 2020.
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