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Yassin, A., M. Tawfeek, R. Hashem, Y. Nagy, Y. Hashem, S. AbdelSalam, A. Emad, Y. Ragab, A. Kholiefy, A. Shawky, et al., "Antibiotic resistance patterns among common Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens in clinical isolates from major hospitals in Cairo, Egypt", II international conference on antimicrobial research, Lisbon, portugal, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, BrownWalker Press,, pp. 34-39, 2013.
Hosny, A. M. S., M. O. N. A. T. KASHEF, S. A. Rasmy, D. S. Aboul-Magd, and Z. E. El-Bazza, "Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using honey and gamma radiation against silver-resistant bacteria from wounds and burns", Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 8, pp. 045009 (7pp), 2017.
Hosny, A. E. - D. M. S., W. El-Khayat, M. O. N. A. T. KASHEF, and M. N. Fakhry, "Association between preterm labor and genitourinary tract infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Gram-negative bacilli, and coryneforms.", Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA, 2017 Jan 13. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Preterm labor (PTL) is responsible for most cases of neonatal death. In most of these cases, the causes of PTL have not been established although several risk factors have been described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for PTL before 37 gestational weeks among Egyptian women.

METHODS: In this case-control study, 117 pregnant women without risk factors for PTL were chosen. The control group (n=45) had term labor (gestational weeks≥37 weeks), and the case group (n=72) had PTL (gestational weeks < 37 weeks). The two groups were screened for urinary and vaginal infections. The role of different demographic characteristics, patient history, and clinical signs were also investigated.

RESULTS: Several risk factors were identified in this study, including age<20 years, nulliparity, previous abortion and previous preterm birth, menses vaginal bleeding, a vaginal pH>5, a positive whiff test, Trichomonas vaginalis infection, Mycoplasma hominis infection, coryneforms heavy vaginal growth, and any vaginal growth of Gram-negative bacilli. Urinary tract infection with any colony count was not associated with PTL.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the main risk factors for PTL were vaginal infection with T. vaginalis, M. hominis, coryneforms, and Gram-negative bacilli, and their determinants (vaginal pH>5, positive whiff test, heavy vaginal bleeding). Both young age (< 20 years) and poor obstetric history were also the risk factors. Therefore, screening for genitourinary tract infections is strongly recommended to be included in prenatal care.