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Mona R.E. Abdel-Halim, Faisal N. Mohammed, K. S. D. A. A. G. E. - D. M. B. S. M. A. A., "Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 in non-melanoma skin cancer compared with psoriasis and normal skin, a preliminary study", JEWDS, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 77–82, 2016. Abstract
Mostafa, N. A., M. Assaf, S. Elhakim, M. R. E. Abdel-Halim, E. El-Nabarawy, and khaled Gharib, "Diagnostic accuracy of immunohistochemical markers in differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma in small biopsy specimens.", Journal of cutaneous pathology, vol. 45, issue 11, pp. 807-816, 2018 Nov. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The distinction of trichoepithelioma from basal cell carcinoma in small superficial biopsies is important but often challenging. This has inspired many scientists to test the validity of immunohistochemical markers in the differential diagnosis.

OBJECTIVES: To develop an immunohistochemical protocol that helps in differentiation between both trichoepithelioma (TE) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with higher sensitivity and specificity.

METHODS: Using standard immunohistochemical techniques, we examined 10 TEs and 19 BCCs for the expression of CK19, Ki-67, androgen receptors (AR), CD10, and PHLDA1.

RESULTS: Immunoreactivity of AR, Ki-67, and CD10 in tumor cells was significantly higher in BCC than TE with a diagnostic accuracy in BCC of 75.5%, 75.8%, and 79.3% respectively, whereas immunoreactivity of PHLDA1 in tumor cells and stromal CD10 was significantly higher in TE than BCC with a diagnostic accuracy in TE of 100% and 82.8%, respectively. In contrast, immunoreactivity for CK19 showed no statistically significant differences between both tumors.

CONCLUSION: The analysis of CD10, Ki-67, and PHLDA1 can be used as a helpful immunohistochemical panel in the distinction between TE and BCC especially in small and superficial biopsies.