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Abdelsalam, M., M. Y. Elgendy, M. Shaalan, M. Moustafa, and M. Fujino, "Rapid identification of pathogenic streptococci isolated from moribund red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).", Acta veterinaria Hungarica, vol. 65, issue 1, pp. 50-59, 2017 03. Abstract

Accurate and rapid identification of bacterial pathogens of fish is essential for the effective treatment and speedy control of infections. Massive mortalities in market-sized red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were noticed in mariculture concrete ponds in northern Egypt. Histopathological examination revealed marked congestion in the central vein of the liver with the presence of bacterial aggregates inside the lumen and in the vicinity of the central vein. A total of 12 isolates of streptococci were obtained from the moribund fish. This study documented the ability of the MicroSeq 500 16S bacterial sequencing method to accurately identify Streptococcus agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae mixed infections from moribund red tilapia that were difficult to be recognised by the commercial biochemical systems. The continuously decreasing cost of the sequencing technique should encourage its application in routine diagnostic procedures.

Shaalan, M., M. Saleh, M. El-Mahdy, and M. El-Matbouli, "Recent progress in applications of nanoparticles in fish medicine: A review", Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine , vol. 12, issue 3, pp. 701-710, 2016. Abstract

Nanotechnology has become an extensive field of research due to the unique properties of nanoparticles, which enable novel applications. Nanoparticles have found their way into many applications in the field of medicine, including diagnostics, vaccination, drug and gene delivery. In this review, we focused on the antimicrobial effects of nanoparticles, with particular emphasis on the problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria in fisheries. The use of nanoparticle-based vaccines against many viral pathogens is a developing field in fish medicine research. Nanoparticles have gained much interest as a specific and sensitive tool for diagnosis of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases in aquaculture. Nevertheless our review also highlights the many applications of nanotechnology that are still to be explored in fish medicine.

Farouk, M. M., A. El-Molla, F. A. Salib, Y. A. Soliman, and M. Shaalan, "The Role of Silver Nanoparticles in a Treatment Approach for Multidrug-Resistant Species Isolates.", International journal of nanomedicine, vol. 15, pp. 6993-7011, 2020. Abstract

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against multidrug-resistant isolates recovered from diarrheic  sheep and goats.

Methods: This study used chemical reduction synthesis of AgNPs to evaluate their antimicrobial effects by estimation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for each isolate using the microplate dilution method and tetrazolium salt reduction test to detect the viability percentage. In vivo treatment efficacy was assessed in mice by determining the viable count of Enteritidis recovered from feces and by hematologic, biochemical and histopathologic examinations to confirm that use of AgNPs has no toxic or pathologic effects and to evaluate its ability in tissue regeneration following treatment.

Results: All recovered strains were identified as MDR with a prevalence of 4% and 3.6% in sheep and goats, respectively. The results of TEM, DLS, Zeta potential, and FTIR revealed typical characteristics of the synthesized AgNPs. Silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against all recovered strains with MIC of ≤0.02-0.313 μg/mL (mean average 0.085±0.126 μg/mL) and MBC of 0.078-1.250 μg/mL (average 0.508±0.315 μg/mL). In vivo efficacy of AgNPs was observed by a reduction in the number of viable . Enteritidis recovered from feces in an . Enteritidis infected mouse model, with complete shedding stopping between treatment days 4 and 6. Hematologic, serum biochemical, and histopathologic analyses proved the ability of AgNPs to suppress inflammatory reaction caused by . Enteritidis infection.

Conclusion: The study proved the effective ability of AgNPs to fight MDR spp. in vitro and in vivo without adverse effects.

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