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Adl, A., I. B. Shaheed, M. I. Shaalan, A. K. Al-Mokaddem, and A. E. Hassanien, "Digital Pathological Services Capability Framework", Advanced Machine Learning Technologies and Applications: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
Ahdy, A., B. M. Ahmed, M. A. Elgamal, M. I. Shaalan, I. M. Farag, E. R. Mahfouz, H. R. Darwish, M. Z. Sayed-Ahmed, M. A. Shalaby, and A. A. El-Sanousi, "Detection of Equid Alphaherpesvirus 1 from Arabian horses with different clinical presentations between 2016-2019 in Egypt.", Journal of equine veterinary science, pp. 103960, 2022. Abstract

Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is the most important virus causing pathological disorders in horses and causes persistent outbreaks of upper respiratory tract infection, ocular affections, abortion, and neurological disorders with high mortality in Arabian horses in Egypt. As EHV-1 is a very contagious disease, the quick and accurate diagnosis are important to broaden our understanding of EHV-1 in the field, implicate strong preventive, and control measures. Sixty-six samples collected over a period of 4 years were examined. Most of samples originated from Cairo and Giza governorates from respiratory, abortigenic and neurological outbreaks. EHV-1 was diagnosed in these clinical cases by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody against EHV-1 glycoprotein B and molecular detection using gB, ORF33 specific real-time PCR. Molecular characterization of glycoprotein B (gB, ORF33) gene was applied for confirmation. Molecular characterization revealed that the ORF33 sequences of this study were identical. These sequences were closely related to the European EHV-1 strains. Furthermore, EHV-1 sequences in this study showed little to no differences for the amino acid sequences compared to previously published sequences. This study would be valuable for monitoring of EHV-1 infection in Egypt and determining the gB gene sequence of newly identified EHV-1 field strains which is the most conserved region in the viral DNA and frequently used as a target for diagnostic PCR protocols for the future outbreaks.