Pseudomonas putida infection induces immune-antioxidant, hepato-renal, ethological, and histopathological/immunohistochemical disruptions in Oreochromis niloticus: the palliative role of titanium dioxide nanogel.

Citation:
Rahman, A. A. N., H. H. Mahboub, G. E. Elshopakey, M. I. M. Darwish, H. S. A. - R. Gharib, M. Shaalan, E. M. Fahmy, H. M. Abdel-Ghany, S. H. Ismail, and H. M. Elsheshtawy, "Pseudomonas putida infection induces immune-antioxidant, hepato-renal, ethological, and histopathological/immunohistochemical disruptions in Oreochromis niloticus: the palliative role of titanium dioxide nanogel.", BMC veterinary research, vol. 20, issue 1, pp. 127, 2024.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas putida is a pathogenic bacterium that induces great losses in fishes, including Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Currently, the application of nanomaterials in aquaculture practices has gained more success as it endows promising results in therapies compared to traditional protocols.

OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the current perspective is considered the first report to assess the anti-bacterial efficacy of titanium dioxide nanogel (TDNG) against Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) in Nile tilapia.

METHODS: The fish (n = 200; average body weight: 47.50±1.32 g) were allocated into four random groups (control, TDNG, P. putida, and TDNG + P. putida), where 0.9 mg/L of TDNG was applied as bath treatment for ten days.

RESULTS: Outcomes revealed that P. putida infection caused ethological alterations (surfacing, abnormal movement, and aggression) and depression of immune-antioxidant variables (complement 3, lysozyme activity, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione content). Additionally, a substantial elevation in hepatorenal biomarkers (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and creatinine) with clear histopathological changes and immuno-histochemical alterations (very weak BCL-2 and potent caspase-3 immuno-expressions) were seen. Surprisingly, treating P. putida-infected fish with TDNG improved these variables and obvious restoration of the tissue architectures.

CONCLUSION: Overall, this report encompasses the key role of TDNG as an anti-bacterial agent for controlling P. putida infection and improving the health status of Nile tilapia.

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