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Shaalan, M., M. El-Mahdy, M. Saleh, and M. El-Matbouli, "Aquaculture in Egypt: Insights on the Current Trends and Future Perspectives for Sustainable Development", Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture , vol. 26, issue 1, pp. 99-110, 2018. aquacultureinegyptinsightsonthecurrenttrendsandfutureperspectivesforsustainabledevelopment.pdf
Shaalan, M. I., "Over view on silver nanoparticles: Applications versus toxicity", The 24th congress of Egyptian society of animal reproduction and fertility, Hurghada, Egypt, 2014.
Shaalan, M., M. El-Mahdy, S. Theiner, N. Dinhopl, M. El-Matbouli, and M. Saleh, "Silver nanoparticles: Their role as antibacterial agent against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).", Research in veterinary science, vol. 119, pp. 196-204, 2018 Aug. Abstractas5308044513116161503565051679_content_1.pdf

The rise of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is one of the great challenges of our age. One of the strategies to limit the development of antibiotics resistance is the investigation of alternative antimicrobials. As silver nanoparticles demonstrated a potent bactericidal activity in vitro, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Rainbow trout (n = 120) were divided into four groups of 30 fish each. First group was challenged with A. salmonicida (Positive control), the second group was challenged with A. salmonicida and exposed to silver nanoparticles by immersion for three hours (100 μg/L), the third group was challenged with A. salmonicida and intraperitoneally injected with silver nanoparticles (17 μg/mL) and the fourth group was sham-treated and served as a negative control group. At the 7th day post challenge, histopathology of the positive control group revealed the presence of bacterial aggregates in tissues with degenerative and necrotic changes, while at the 35th day post challenge, only liver necrosis persisted. Silver nanoparticles-treated and negative control groups did not show any clinical signs, mortalities or histopathological alterations and they were tested negative for A. salmonicida. The immersion in silver nanoparticles did not result in detectable residues of silver in the muscles 35 days after treatment. These findings demonstrate the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles against A. salmonicida infection. Therefore, they could be used for development of antibacterial agents in aquaculture.

Shaalan, M., M. Saleh, M. El-Mahdy, and M. El-Matbouli, "Recent progress in applications of nanoparticles in fish medicine: A review", Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine , vol. 12, issue 3, pp. 701-710, 2016. Abstract

Nanotechnology has become an extensive field of research due to the unique properties of nanoparticles, which enable novel applications. Nanoparticles have found their way into many applications in the field of medicine, including diagnostics, vaccination, drug and gene delivery. In this review, we focused on the antimicrobial effects of nanoparticles, with particular emphasis on the problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria in fisheries. The use of nanoparticle-based vaccines against many viral pathogens is a developing field in fish medicine research. Nanoparticles have gained much interest as a specific and sensitive tool for diagnosis of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases in aquaculture. Nevertheless our review also highlights the many applications of nanotechnology that are still to be explored in fish medicine.

Shaalan, M. I., F. F. Mohammed, T. A. Salah Eldin, and M. M. El Mahdy, Pathological studies on the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in rats, : Cairo University, 2013.
Shaalan, M., B. Sellyei, M. El-Matbouli, and C. Székely, "Efficacy of silver nanoparticles to control flavobacteriosis caused by Flavobacterium johnsoniae in common carp Cyprinus carpio.", Diseases of aquatic organisms, vol. 137, issue 3, pp. 175-183, 2020. Abstractd137p175.pdf

Flavobacterial infections are among the causes of fish losses in farms with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant isolates. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known for their potent antimicrobial activity against different types of bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial properties of AgNPs (diameter: 23 nm) against Flavobacterium johnsoniae infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio. The assays included both in vitro and in vivo antibacterial tests in addition to evaluation of cell toxicity effects on the fish cell lines. The in vitro results revealed potent inhibitory effects of AgNPs on the growth of F. johnsoniae with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 34 µg ml-1. Fish cell (epithelioma papulosum cyprini and koi carp fin) viability was 95-100% after exposure to 500 ng ml-1 (and lower concentrations) of AgNPs. In the exposure experiment, mortality rates decreased from 45% in the infected non-treated group to 30 and 15% in the intraperitoneal injection and immersion-treated groups, respectively. Neither of the treated groups showed any clinical signs or histopathological lesions. The single-dose treatment with AgNPs during early infection with F. johnsoniae aided in minimizing fish losses.

Shaalan, M. I., M. M. El-Mahdy, S. Theiner, M. El-Matbouli, and M. Saleh, "In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial activity of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against fish pathogens", Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 59, pp. 49, 1970 Aug 21, 2017.
Shaalan, M. I., F. F. Mohammed, T. A. Salah El-Din, and M. M. El-Mahdy, "Pathological and clinicopathological studies on i/p injection of silver nanoparticles in rats", 2nd international conference on animal and dairy sciences, Hyderabad, India, 2014.