Ahdy, A., B. M. Ahmed, M. A. Elgamal, M. I. Shaalan, I. M. Farag, E. R. Mahfouz, H. R. Darwish, M. Z. Sayed-Ahmed, M. A. Shalaby, and A. A. El-Sanousi, "Detection of Equid Alphaherpesvirus 1 from Arabian horses with different clinical presentations between 2016-2019 in Egypt.", Journal of equine veterinary science, pp. 103960, 2022. Abstract

Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is the most important virus causing pathological disorders in horses and causes persistent outbreaks of upper respiratory tract infection, ocular affections, abortion, and neurological disorders with high mortality in Arabian horses in Egypt. As EHV-1 is a very contagious disease, the quick and accurate diagnosis are important to broaden our understanding of EHV-1 in the field, implicate strong preventive, and control measures. Sixty-six samples collected over a period of 4 years were examined. Most of samples originated from Cairo and Giza governorates from respiratory, abortigenic and neurological outbreaks. EHV-1 was diagnosed in these clinical cases by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody against EHV-1 glycoprotein B and molecular detection using gB, ORF33 specific real-time PCR. Molecular characterization of glycoprotein B (gB, ORF33) gene was applied for confirmation. Molecular characterization revealed that the ORF33 sequences of this study were identical. These sequences were closely related to the European EHV-1 strains. Furthermore, EHV-1 sequences in this study showed little to no differences for the amino acid sequences compared to previously published sequences. This study would be valuable for monitoring of EHV-1 infection in Egypt and determining the gB gene sequence of newly identified EHV-1 field strains which is the most conserved region in the viral DNA and frequently used as a target for diagnostic PCR protocols for the future outbreaks.

Tabaa, M. M. E., H. M. Aboalazm, M. Shaalan, and N. F. Khedr, "Silymarin constrains diacetyl-prompted oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rats: involvements of Dyn/GDNF and MAPK signaling pathway.", Inflammopharmacology, 2022. Abstract

Neuroinflammation, a major component of many CNS disorders, has been suggested to be associated with diacetyl (DA) exposure. DA is commonly used as a food flavoring additive and condiment. Lately, silymarin (Sily) has shown protective and therapeutic effects on neuronal inflammation. The study aimed to explore the role of Sily in protecting and/or treating DA-induced neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation was induced in rats by administering DA (25 mg/kg) orally. Results revealed that Sily (50 mg/kg) obviously maintained cognitive and behavioral functions, alleviated brain antioxidant status, and inhibited microglial activation. Sily enhanced IL-10, GDNF and Dyn levels, reduced IFN-γ, TNFα, and IL-1β levels, and down-regulated the MAPK pathway. Immunohistochemical investigation of EGFR and GFAP declared that Sily could conserve neurons from inflammatory damage. However, with continuing DA exposure during Sily treatment, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation were less mitigated. These findings point to a novel mechanism involving the Dyn/GDNF and MAPK pathway through which Sily might prevent and treat DA-induced neuroinflammation.

Lang, C., E. G. Mission, A. A. - H. Ahmad Fuaad, and M. Shaalan, "Nanoparticle tools to improve and advance precision practices in the Agrifoods Sector towards sustainability - A review", Journal of cleaner production, vol. 39, pp. 126063, 2021.
Mai Abuowarda, M., H. O. AbuBakr, E. Ismael, M. Shaalan, M. A. Mohamed, and S. H. Aljuaydi, "Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of asymptomatic canine leishmaniasis and implications for human Leishmania infections in Egypt.", Zoonoses and public health, vol. 68, issue 5, pp. 413-430, 2021. Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease that poses significant veterinary and public health risks in developing countries. Dogs act as a reservoir host for leishmaniasis transmitted to humans. A total of 108 human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were identified in the Al-Houd Al-Marsoud Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, during 2018. Blood samples and skin biopsies were collected for further examination. Blood samples from 96 asymptomatic dogs were collected. All samples were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of genes related to mTOR signalling and inflammation in blood and tissue samples. The distribution pattern of human cases pointed to an endemic focus in North Sinai (66.67%). The prevalence of asymptomatic canine leishmaniasis was 66.60%. Histopathological examination of human skin lesions revealed a severe granulomatous inflammatory reaction, necrosis and ulceration. Moreover, leishmanial amastigotes could be detected in human tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 100% identity of human isolates to Leishmania tropica (MN453682), and dog isolates to Leishmania infantum (MN453673), with 94.9% similarity between the two isolates. Gene expression related to mTOR signalling and inflammation in both species' samples confirmed a significant alteration of EIF4EBP1, CCR4 and INF-γ expression compared with control groups. In Egypt, increased incidence of asymptomatic carrier dogs acting as a significant reservoir host for Leishmania poses a public health hazard. Findings warrant further epidemiological investigation of CL in Egypt, as well as additional study of parasite differentiation and gene regulation.

Farouk, M. M., A. El-Molla, F. A. Salib, Y. A. Soliman, and M. Shaalan, "The Role of Silver Nanoparticles in a Treatment Approach for Multidrug-Resistant Species Isolates.", International journal of nanomedicine, vol. 15, pp. 6993-7011, 2020. Abstract

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against multidrug-resistant isolates recovered from diarrheic  sheep and goats.

Methods: This study used chemical reduction synthesis of AgNPs to evaluate their antimicrobial effects by estimation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for each isolate using the microplate dilution method and tetrazolium salt reduction test to detect the viability percentage. In vivo treatment efficacy was assessed in mice by determining the viable count of Enteritidis recovered from feces and by hematologic, biochemical and histopathologic examinations to confirm that use of AgNPs has no toxic or pathologic effects and to evaluate its ability in tissue regeneration following treatment.

Results: All recovered strains were identified as MDR with a prevalence of 4% and 3.6% in sheep and goats, respectively. The results of TEM, DLS, Zeta potential, and FTIR revealed typical characteristics of the synthesized AgNPs. Silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against all recovered strains with MIC of ≤0.02-0.313 μg/mL (mean average 0.085±0.126 μg/mL) and MBC of 0.078-1.250 μg/mL (average 0.508±0.315 μg/mL). In vivo efficacy of AgNPs was observed by a reduction in the number of viable . Enteritidis recovered from feces in an . Enteritidis infected mouse model, with complete shedding stopping between treatment days 4 and 6. Hematologic, serum biochemical, and histopathologic analyses proved the ability of AgNPs to suppress inflammatory reaction caused by . Enteritidis infection.

Conclusion: The study proved the effective ability of AgNPs to fight MDR spp. in vitro and in vivo without adverse effects.

Shaalan, M., B. Sellyei, M. El-Matbouli, and C. Székely, "Efficacy of silver nanoparticles to control flavobacteriosis caused by Flavobacterium johnsoniae in common carp Cyprinus carpio.", Diseases of aquatic organisms, vol. 137, issue 3, pp. 175-183, 2020. Abstractd137p175.pdf

Flavobacterial infections are among the causes of fish losses in farms with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant isolates. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known for their potent antimicrobial activity against different types of bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial properties of AgNPs (diameter: 23 nm) against Flavobacterium johnsoniae infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio. The assays included both in vitro and in vivo antibacterial tests in addition to evaluation of cell toxicity effects on the fish cell lines. The in vitro results revealed potent inhibitory effects of AgNPs on the growth of F. johnsoniae with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 34 µg ml-1. Fish cell (epithelioma papulosum cyprini and koi carp fin) viability was 95-100% after exposure to 500 ng ml-1 (and lower concentrations) of AgNPs. In the exposure experiment, mortality rates decreased from 45% in the infected non-treated group to 30 and 15% in the intraperitoneal injection and immersion-treated groups, respectively. Neither of the treated groups showed any clinical signs or histopathological lesions. The single-dose treatment with AgNPs during early infection with F. johnsoniae aided in minimizing fish losses.

Pathology of parasitic diseases

Shaalan, M., M. El-Mahdy, S. Theiner, N. Dinhopl, M. El-Matbouli, and M. Saleh, "Silver nanoparticles: Their role as antibacterial agent against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).", Research in veterinary science, vol. 119, pp. 196-204, 2018 Aug. Abstractas5308044513116161503565051679_content_1.pdf

The rise of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is one of the great challenges of our age. One of the strategies to limit the development of antibiotics resistance is the investigation of alternative antimicrobials. As silver nanoparticles demonstrated a potent bactericidal activity in vitro, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Rainbow trout (n = 120) were divided into four groups of 30 fish each. First group was challenged with A. salmonicida (Positive control), the second group was challenged with A. salmonicida and exposed to silver nanoparticles by immersion for three hours (100 μg/L), the third group was challenged with A. salmonicida and intraperitoneally injected with silver nanoparticles (17 μg/mL) and the fourth group was sham-treated and served as a negative control group. At the 7th day post challenge, histopathology of the positive control group revealed the presence of bacterial aggregates in tissues with degenerative and necrotic changes, while at the 35th day post challenge, only liver necrosis persisted. Silver nanoparticles-treated and negative control groups did not show any clinical signs, mortalities or histopathological alterations and they were tested negative for A. salmonicida. The immersion in silver nanoparticles did not result in detectable residues of silver in the muscles 35 days after treatment. These findings demonstrate the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles against A. salmonicida infection. Therefore, they could be used for development of antibacterial agents in aquaculture.

Shaalan, M., M. El-Mahdy, M. Saleh, and M. El-Matbouli, "Aquaculture in Egypt: Insights on the Current Trends and Future Perspectives for Sustainable Development", Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture , vol. 26, issue 1, pp. 99-110, 2018. aquacultureinegyptinsightsonthecurrenttrendsandfutureperspectivesforsustainabledevelopment.pdf