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A
Monib, M., Y. Abd-el-Malek, I. Hosny, and M. Fayez, "Associative symbiosis of Azotobacter chroococcum and higher plants.", Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Zweite naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung: Mikrobiologie der Landwirtschaft der Technologie und des Umweltschutzes, vol. 134, issue 2, pp. 133 - 139, 1979. AbstractWebsite

The association between a selected strain of Azotobacter chroococcum and seven plants was investigated in water cultures under sterile conditions. Azotobacter population progressively increased in the nutrient solution and on the rhizoplane. Microbial propagation depends on the type of plant, being much higher in presence of wheat, followed by barley, maize, broad bean, and cotton, while in presence of fenugreek and lentil lower rates of multiplication were recorded. Inoculation increased the dry weight of plants by 5--12% and in length by 3--18% in addition to increased nitrogen content of plants and nutrient solution. Nitrogen balance showed no significant change in systems devoid of Azotobacter, but association between plants and the microorganism invariably showed positive results. The extent of N2-fixation depends on the type of plants; higher gains were recorded in presence of non-leguminous plants.

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Fayez, M., "Bacterial composition and N2‐fixation of some Egyptian soils cultivated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)", Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde, vol. 152, issue 4, pp. 385 - 389, 1989. AbstractWebsite

The composition of the microflora, N2‐fixing bacteria particularly, in different soils cultivated with wheat in Egypt was investigated in some samples collected from the fields after applying the agricultural practices recommended for wheat cultivation and just before sowing. The influence of carbon sources, mineral nitrogen and water regimes on potential dinitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction assay) in soils was investigated. The bacterial population densities including‐N2‐fixing organisms were related to a number of environmental factors such as organic matter content. Among diazotrophs, Azotobacter spp. and Azospirillum spp. were encountered in higher densities in comparison with clostridia. Unamended soils showed a lower acetylene‐reducing activity (0.5–61.5 nmoles C2H4 g−1 h−1). Addition of glucose (1% w/w) greatly enhanced such activity being the highest (86.9–2846.5 nmoles C2H4 g−1 h−1) in the clay soil with the highest organic carbon content (1.42%). Glucose amendment had no significant influence on acetylene reduction in the saline soil. N2‐fixation in barley straw‐amended (1%) soils was not much higher than in unamended soils. Concentrations of up to 70 ppm ammonium‐nitrogen depressed N2‐fixation in soils that received barley straw. Acetylene reduction in submerged soil increased after addition of cellulose. Non‐flooded conditions favoured N2‐fixation in the fertile clay soil amended with sucrose. Copyright © 1989 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Abbas, M. T., M. A. Hamza, H. H. Youssef, G. H. Youssef, M. Fayez, M. Monib, and N. A. Hegazi, "Bio-preparates support the productivity of potato plants grown under desert farming conditions of north Sinai: Five years of field trials", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 41 - 48, 2014. AbstractWebsite

Organic agriculture as well as good agricultural practices (GAPs) intrigues the concern of both consumers and producers of agricultural commodities. Bio-preparates of various rhizospheric microorganisms (RMOs) are potential sources of biological inputs supporting plant nutrition and health. The response of open-field potatoes to the application of RMO bio-preparates, the biofertilizer "Biofertile" and the bioagent "Biocontrol", were experimented over 5 successive years under N-hunger of north Sinai desert soils. Both vegetative and tuber yields of a number of tested cultivars were significantly improved due to rhizobacterial treatments. In the majority of cases, the biofertilizer "Biofertile" did successfully supply ca. 50% of plant N requirements, as the yield of full N-fertilized plants was comparable to those received 50% N simultaneously with bio-preparates treatment. The magnitude of inoculation was cultivar-dependent; cvs. Valor and Oceania were among the most responsive ones. Bio-preparate introduction to the plant-soil system was successful via soaking of tubers and/or spraying the plant canopy. The "Biocontrol" formulation was supportive in controlling plant pathogens and significantly increased the fruit yields. The cumulative effect of both bio-preparates resulted in tuber yield increases of ca. 25% over control. © 2014 .

Hegazi, N. A., and M. Fayez, "Biodiversity and endophytic nature of diazotrophs other than rhizobia associated to non-leguminous plants of semi-arid environments", Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, vol. 49, issue 2, pp. 213 - 235, 2003. AbstractWebsite
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Othman, A. A., W. M. Amer, M. Fayez, M. Monib, and N. A. Hegazi, "Biodiversity of diazotrophs associated to the plant cover of north sinai deserts: Biodiversität diazotropher assoziiert mit der pflanendecke der wüsten nordsinais", Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, vol. 49, issue 6, pp. 683 - 705, 2003. AbstractWebsite

Efforts are made to record biodiversity of microflora and diazotrophs associated with the plant cover of the major agricultural development areas in north Sinai, around the El-Salam canal, a newly-constructed canal that brings Nile water westward across the Suez canal. Natural plant communities were collected from three major areas. Ectorhizosphere, endorhizosphere and phyllosphere samples were examined for total microbial population and diazotrophs. The vegetation of South Qantara (area I) is characterized by the dominance of Stipagrostis scoparia followed by Nitraria retusa, Convolvulus lanatus, Cornulaca monacantha and Filago desertorum. Rabaa-Bir El Abd (area II) is dominated by Artemisia monosperma, Panicum turgidum and Zygophyllum album. Euphorbia terracina, Oligomeris linifolia, Astragalus kahiricus, Hyoscyamus muticus and Thymelea hirsuta represent the major plants of El Ser and Al Quarir (area III). Microorganisms colonized root surfaces of all tested plants ranging from > 10 5 to 10 10 cfu g − 1 . Diazotrophs were common residents (10 10 cfu g − 1 ), invaded the root tissue and established endophytically (10 2 – 10 6 cfu g − 1 ). Fifty-one N 2 -fixing isolates were obtained. Among the 32 bacilli isolates, Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus circulans were more common compared to Bacillus macerans. BNF Gram-negative isolates belonged to Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter amnigenus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas luteola, Pseudomonas cepacia, Agrobacterium radiobacter and Azospirillum spp. © 2003, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Othman, A., M. E. Shawky, W. M. Amer, M. Fayez, M. Monib, and N. A. Hegazi, "Biodiversity of microorganisms in semi-arid soils of north sinai deserts", Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, vol. 49, issue 3, pp. 241 - 260, 2003. AbstractWebsite

North Sinai environment is currently subjected to changes due to the major agricultural development project of El-Salam canal which brings Nile water to the arid deserts of Sinai. Therefore, intensive efforts are made to record biodiversity of natural microflora and diazotrophs associated to the plant-soil system of the major agricultural development areas around the canal. Fourteen soil profiles were made, during the seasons 1997-2000, representing major sites of the area investigated (South Qantara, Rabaa-Bir El-Abd and El-Ser and Al-Quarir). Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of soils tested are presented. Microbiological profiling included total population of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, sporeformers, thermophiles, diazotrophs and spore-forming diazotrophs. Results obtained are discussed to relate physico-chemical properties to soil biofertility in an effort to categorize general fertility levels of soils under investigation. © 2003, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hegazi, N. A., and M. Fayez, "Biological nitrogen fixation to maximize productivity of intercropped legumes and non-legumes: Ten years of field experimentations in semi-arid deserts of Egypt", Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, vol. 47, issue 1-2, pp. 103 - 131, 2001. AbstractWebsite

A number of field trials was executed in semi-arid deserts of Ismailia, Egypt, to experiment growth and productivity of sole or mixed canopies of legumes (soybean, leucaena, sesbania, berseem and grasspea) and non-legumes (corn, Rhodes grass, elephant grass, ryegrass and barley) when inoculated with N 2 -fixing bacteria (diazotrophs) in presence or absence of N fertilizers. An average estimate of > 20 Kg N acre −1 was transferred to neighbouring unfertilized corn, and land equivalent ratio (LER) reached 1.35. Rhodes grass mixed with sesbania or leucaena produced higher biomass yield compared to pure N-fertilized stands; increases of 66–91% and 22–29% were reported for inoculated and non-inoculated plants respectively. In mixed canopy with berseem, dry matter yield of the non-legume partner increased compared to that in pure stands, being higher for barley (120–255%) compared to ryegrass (62–115%). Similar trends were scored with N yield. Response of elephant grass to inoculation with associative diazotrophs was more pronounced when intercropped with leucaena as increases over pure stand in dry matter production approximated 40%. On the other hand, both grasspea and barley were negatively affected by intercropping. Total biomass and N-yields of barley were more affected than grasspea. © 2001 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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Fayez, M., S. H. Shehata Heba, G. A. El-Morsy, A. Rahal, and A. F. Shahaby, "Complement of integrated fertilizer management and integrated pest management concepts to ameliorate faba bean growth and yield", Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, vol. 50, issue 4-5, pp. 397 - 419, 2004. AbstractWebsite

Twenty-one microbial preparations recommended for controlling pathogenic fungal strains causing root rot and wilt diseases of faba bean were investigated for antibiosis against several symbiotic and associative diazotrophs adopting a modified agar-plate-inhibition-zone assay. Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium exhibited a somewhat similar susceptibility to biocontrol agents while associative diazotrophs showed variable responses. Azotobacter, compared to others, was severely inhibited by such bio-candidates. The members of the biofertilizer formulation ‘Biofertan’ did bear mixed cultivation with the majority of biocontrol agents. Among those, Bacillus subtilis was deemed the pioneer. In pot experiments, almost all the antagonists significantly restricted the severity of root rot and wilt diseases besides modifying faba bean seedling stand and improving plant development. This was very obvious with shoot biomass increases of >50%. Moreover, the bioagents successfully recovered the legume establishment, seriously injured due to pathogenic fungal infection. Simultaneous inoculation with Rhizobium and biocontrol agents provided more growth stimulation compared to either when introduced individually. Field-grown faba beans were inoculated with the diazotroph and representatives of biocontrol strains by two different methods, seed coating and over-head soil. Growth parameters determined were the highest when the legume plant was seed-coated by Rhizobium simultaneously over-head soil inoculated with the bacterial bioagents; this was reported with Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aerugenosa. The significance of combined application of biofertilizer and bioagent to ensure cheap, clean and safe farm products is discussed. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.

Nour, E. H., M. A. Hamza, M. Fayez, M. Monib, S. Ruppel, and N. A. Hegazi, "The crude plant juices of desert plants as appropriate culture media for the cultivation of rhizospheric microorganisms", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 35 - 43, 2012. AbstractWebsite

The exclusive use of plant juices, not as a mere supplement to synthetic culture media, for culturing rhizospheric microorganisms (RMO) is introduced here. Juices were prepared from desert (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., Zygophyllum album L., Carpobrotus edulis L.) as well as cultivated (Trifolium alexandrinum L., Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Colonies of RMO (Azospirillum brasilense, Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneumoniae) nicely developed on surface-inoculated agar plates prepared from crude and diluted juice of M. crystallinum (ice plant). Furthermore, hundreds of RMO colonies developed on various standard culture media were replicated (>90%) on agar plates of different plant juices. RMO cells grew nicely in liquid ice plant juice, with doubling times comparable to those grown in the reference culture medium. RMO populations resident in various host plants were able to develop on culture media prepared from homologous and heterologous juices. The application of a thin semi-solid overlay agar on the surfaces of inoculated agar plates significantly increased the recovery of micro-colonies on agar plates, particularly those prepared from plant juices. © 2011.

Sarhan, M. S., M. A. Hamza, H. H. Youssef, S. Patz, M. Becker, H. Elsawey, R. Nemr, H. - S. A. Daanaa, E. F. Mourad, A. T. Morsi, et al., "Culturomics of the plant prokaryotic microbiome and the dawn of plant-based culture media – A review", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 19, pp. 15 - 27, 2019. AbstractWebsite

Improving cultivability of a wider range of bacterial and archaeal community members, living natively in natural environments and within plants, is a prerequisite to better understanding plant-microbiota interactions and their functions in such very complex systems. Sequencing, assembling, and annotation of pure microbial strain genomes provide higher quality data compared to environmental metagenome analyses, and can substantially improve gene and protein database information. Despite the comprehensive knowledge which already was gained using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic methods, there still exists a big gap in understanding in vivo microbial gene functioning in planta, since many differentially expressed genes or gene families are not yet annotated. Here, the progress in culturing procedures for plant microbiota depending on plant-based culture media, and their proficiency in obtaining single prokaryotic isolates of novel and rapidly increasing candidate phyla are reviewed. As well, the great success of culturomics of the human microbiota is considered with the main objective of encouraging microbiologists to continue minimizing the gap between the microbial richness in nature and the number of species in culture, for the benefit of both basic and applied microbiology. The clear message to fellow plant microbiologists is to apply plant-tailored culturomic techniques that might open up novel procedures to obtain not-yet-cultured organisms and extend the known plant microbiota repertoire to unprecedented levels. © 2019

D
Hanna, A. L., H. H. Youssef, W. M. Amer, M. Monib, M. Fayez, and N. A. Hegazi, "Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 13 - 26, 2013. AbstractWebsite

North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El-Salam canal. © 2011 .

E
Monib, M., Y. Abd-el-Malek, I. Hosny, and M. Fayez, "Effect of Azotobacter inoculation on plant growth and soil nitrogen.", Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Zweite naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung: Mikrobiologie der Landwirtschaft der Technologie und des Umweltschutzes, vol. 134, issue 2, pp. 140 - 148, 1979. AbstractWebsite

The validity of seed bacterization with Azotobacter chroococcum in soils of variable densities of naturally present azotobacters was studied. Inoculation of barley grains had no effect on counts of total microflora, neither in rhizosphere nor in root-free soil, but significantly increased Azotobacter population, especially in the rhizosphere. The rate of colonization in the root region was much higher when soil initially harboured low Azotobacter densities. Bacterization improved plant growth and increased soil nitrogen through nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen balance in soils showed higher gains in the inoculated treatments over the uninoculated analogues of 30--98 ppm.

Fayez, M., and Z. Y. Daw, "Effect of inoculation with different strains of Azospirillum brasilense on cotton (Gossipium barbadense)", Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 4, issue 1-2, pp. 91 - 95, 1987. AbstractWebsite

The response of the cotton plant to inoculation with six strains of Azospirillum brasilense was investigated under subtropical conditions in Egypt. Azospirilla populations and activities were increased as a result of root inoculation with liquid inoculum of Azospirillum sp. Highest C2H2 - reduction activities on roots were obtained with strains S631 and Sp Br 14 (means of 216.85 and 209.50 nmol C2H4g-1 root h-1 respectively) while strain M4 gave the lowest activity (mean of 100.8 nmol C2H4g-1 root h-1). Statistical analysis showed that Azospirillum strains 5631, Sp Br 14, E15 and SC22 significantly increased the plant dry weight and nitrogen uptake while inoculation with strains M4 and SE had no significant effect in that respect. © 1987 Springer-verlag.

Fayez, M., and R. R. Shahin, "Effects of industrial liquid wastes on dinitrogen fixation and microflora of soils and waters", Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde, vol. 150, issue 4, pp. 220 - 227, 1987. AbstractWebsite

Potential N2‐fixation was investigated in a number of samples representing soils and water courses under the effect of some industrial wastes in Helwan area of Egypt. Microbiological analysis of soil and water samples showed the general enrichment of fungi, actinomycetes and bacteria including N2‐fixers. Among asymbiotic N2‐fixers, azospirilla compared to azotobacters and clostridia were found to be present with rather higher densities in all samples tested. Generally, the microbial numbers increased by increasing the distance from the Industrial Complex at Helwan, which could be attributed to the high levels of salinity and total heavy metals near the factories. The results indicated that the industrial wastes near the factories exerted inhibitory effects on the acetylenereducing activity in soils, which seriously reduces their biological fertility. Such effects were decreased by getting away from the factories. Significantly negative correlations were recorded between densities of N2‐fixers or N2‐ase activity and salinity and total heavy metals content in both soil and water samples. Copyright © 1987 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Othman, A. A., S. A. Rabeh, M. Fayez, M. Monib, and N. A. Hegazi, "El-Salam canal is a potential project reusing the Nile Delta drainage water for Sinai desert agriculture: Microbial and chemical water quality", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 3, issue 2, pp. 99 - 108, 2012. AbstractWebsite

More than 12×10 9m 3/year of Nile Delta drainage water is annually discharged into the Mediterranean Sea. El-Salam (peace) canal, having a mixture of such drainage water and the Nile water (1:1 ratio), crosses the Suez canal eastward to the deserts of north Sinai. The suitability of the canal water for agriculture is reported here. Representative samples were obtained during two successive years to follow effects of seasonal and spatial distribution, along the first 55km course in north Sinai, on the water load of total bacteria, bacterial indicators of pollution, and chemical and heavy metals contents. In general, the canal water is acceptable for irrigation, with much concern directed towards the chemical contents of total salts (EC), Na and K, as well as the trace elements Cd and Fe. Extending the canal course further than 30km significantly lowered the fecal pollution rate to the permissible levels of drinking water. Results strongly emphasize the need for effective pre-treatment of the used drainage water resources prior mixing with the Nile water. © 2011.

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Sarhan, M. S., S. Patz, M. A. Hamza, H. H. Youssef, E. F. Mourad, M. Fayez, B. Murphy, S. Ruppel, and N. A. Hegazi, "G3 phylochip analysis confirms the promise of plant-based culture media for unlocking the composition and diversity of the maize root microbiome and for recovering unculturable candidate divisions/phyla", Microbes and Environments, vol. 33, issue 3, pp. 317 - 325, 2018. AbstractWebsite

The rapid development of high-throughput techniques and expansion of bacterial databases have accelerated efforts to bring plant microbiomes into cultivation. We introduced plant-only-based culture media as a successful candidate to mimic the nutritional matrices of plant roots. We herein employed a G3 PhyloChip microarray to meticulously characterize the culture-dependent and-independent bacterial communities of the maize root compartments, the endo-and ecto-rhizospheres. An emphasis was placed on the preference of the growth of unculturable candidate divisions/phyla on plant-only-based culture media over standard culture media (nutrient agar). A total of 1,818 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were resolved representing 67 bacterial phyla. Plant-only-based culture media displayed particular affinity towards recovering endophytic over ectophytic rhizobacteria. This was shown by the slightly higher recovery of CFUs for endophytes on plant-only-based culture media (26%) than on standard culture media (10%) as well as the higher taxa richness and numbers of exclusive families of unculturable divisions/phyla. Out of 30 bacterial phyla (comprising >95% of the whole population), 13 were of a significantly higher incidence on plant-only-based culture media, 6 phyla of which were not-yet-cultured (Atribacteria, OP9; Dependentiae, TM6; Latescibacteria, WS3; Marinimicrobia, SAR406; Omnitrophica, OP3; BRC1). Furthermore, plant-only-based culture media significantly enriched less abundant and/or hard-to-culture bacterial phyla (Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Tenericutes). These results present conclusive evidence of the ability of plant-only-based culture media to bring the plant-fed in situ microbiome into the status of plant-fed in vitro cultures, and to widen the scope of cultivation of heretofore-unculturable bacterial divisions/phyla. © 2018, Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

Youssef, H. H., M. Fayez, M. Monib, and N. Hegazi, "Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: A natural endophytic diazotroph of Nile Delta sugarcane capable of establishing an endophytic association with wheat", Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 39, issue 6, pp. 391 - 397, 2004. AbstractWebsite

Gluconacetobacter- like diazotrophs were encountered as dense populations inside the root and stem tissues of sugarcane cultivated in ancient agricultural fields of the Nile Delta. Counts of >105 cells g-1 were recorded in root and stem samples. The leaves contained a smaller population (<103 g-1). The typical dark-orange colonies which developed on LGIP agar plates were purified. Identification was performed with the API microtube systems: API 20E for Enterobacteriaceae and API 20NE for non-Enterobacteriaceae. API profiles of the local isolates were closely related to those of the type culture Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (ATTC 49037). The isolates successfully reduced C2H2 and produced appreciable amounts of ethylene in the presence of cane juice. This suggested that the local isolates are closely related to the type strain G. diazotrophicus. Wheat seedlings were inoculated with a number of isolates under gnotobiotic conditions. Both optical and scanning electron microscopy showed that endophytic Gluconacetobacter spp. were present in all the samples tested. They were observed in apparently intact and enlarged epidermal root cells, and also in stem tissues, indicating that the bacterium was able to migrate upward into the shoot tissues. Although Gluconacetobacter inoculation did not stimulate the growth of the cereal plant, the results obtained are particularly interesting because this bacterial species was capable of colonizing the internal tissues of wheat, not considered a natural host until now. © Springer-Verlag 2004.

Fayez, M., and Z. Y. Daw, "Growth and acetylene reducing activity of azospirilla as affected by interaction with soil streptomyces, penicillia and fusaria", Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 22, issue 8, pp. 1143 - 1149, 1990. AbstractWebsite

A total of 68 actinomycete and 63 fungal isolates obtained from various soils were tested for their ability to antagonize different strains of Azospirillum in sterile soil. It was found that between 78 and 87% of the streptomycete and between 75 and 83% of the fungal isolates respectively did not inhibit azospirilla. Numbers of azospirilla in soil were seriously reduced when they interacted with some of the streptomycete and fungal isolates. In soil treated with both azospirilla and either streptomycetes or fungi, the nitrogenase activity ranged from ca 2-210 nmol C2H4g-1h-1. In general, the acetylene reducing activity (ARA) in soils treated with fungi was reduced more seriously than those treated with streptomycetes; the mean ARA reported in the presence of fungi was 23 nmol C2H4g-1 h-1 against 48 in the presence of streptomycetes. The reduction in both azospirilla number and ARA in soil may have reflected the increasing population of antagonists. Highly-significant negative correlations between the diameter of inhibition zones produced by the active Streptomyces and fungal isolates using the agar-disc method were found with both numbers and ARA of most Azospirillum strains in soil. © 1990.

Ahmed, R. H., H. M. Badawi, A. S. Ali, and M. Fayez, "Growth performance of rhizobacteria on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) juices and dehydrated powder", Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, vol. 44, issue 1, pp. 1 - 7, 2018. AbstractWebsite

In the present study, juice of water hyacinth (Eichhorina crassipes), either crude or from its successive dilutions (1:1, 1:10, 1:30, 1:50 v/v) supported the in vitro development of Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum and Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar Phaseoli with doubling time (23.1–63.0 min) which was comparable if not shorter, to that calculated using the standard laboratory -synthetic media (nutrient, N-deficient mannitol and yeast extract agar media; 48.0–64.8 min). Rhizospheric microorganisms of legume and non-legume plants successfully grew on surface-inoculated agar plates of crude and diluted juices of the macrophyte. Tea bags filled with the dehydrated powders (5 and 10 g l−1) of water hyacinth supported the in situ recoverability of total rhizobacteria in population densities (3 × 107 - >108 cfu.g−1), which were found to be comparable, if not excessive, to those enumerated on the recommended culture media. Morpho-physiological identification of some isolates that had developed on the plant juice and tea bag culture media, revealed that they are not akin to those cultured on the chemically-synthetic culture media; they possibly represent a portion of recommended media - unculturables. © 2018 National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries

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El-Zanfaly, H. T., I. Hosny, M. Fayez, and A. M. Shaban, "Incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in underground water", Environment International, vol. 14, issue 5, pp. 391 - 394, 1988. AbstractWebsite

Bacteria other than fecal coliform were isolated from the negative Eijkman test tubes by streaking on eosin methylene blue agar plates. A total of 101 isolates from underground water pumped from three water works in Cairo were classified into genera or groups according to their morphological, cultural and physiological characters and tested for their resistance towards four commonly used antibiotics namely chloramphenicol, tetracycline, neomycin, penicillin and one chemotherapeutic agent namely 2-sulfanilamide pyrimidine. Results showed that 77 and 64 isolates were resistant to penicillin and 2-sulfanilamide pyrimidine and in addition, 32 isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only 18 and 8 isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and neomycin, respectively. It was also found that 19 isolates belonging to 6 genera or groups were sensitive towards all of the tested compounds. © 1989.

Ali, S. M., S. Z. Sabae, M. Fayez, M. Monib, and N. A. Hegazi, "The influence of agro-industrial effluents on River Nile pollution", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 2, issue 1, pp. 85 - 95, 2011. AbstractWebsite

The major agro-industrial effluents of sugarcane and starch industries pose a serious threat to surface waters. Their disposal in the River Nile around Cairo city transitionally affected the microbial load. In situ bacterial enrichment (50-180%) was reported and gradually diminished downstream; the lateral not vertical effect of the effluent disposal was evident. Disposed effluents increased BOD and COD, and then progressively decreased downstream. Ammoniacal N was elevated, indicating active biological ammonification and in situ biodegradability of the effluents. In vitro, the nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria Crysomonas luteola, Azospirillum spp., Azomonas spp. and K. pneumoniae successfully grew in batch cultures prepared from the crude effluents. This was supported by adequate growth parameters and organic matter decomposition. Therefore, such biodegradability of the tested agro-industrial effluents strongly recommends their use for microbial biomass necessary for the production of bio-preparates. © 2010.

Sarhan, M. S., E. F. Mourad, R. A. Nemr, M. R. Abdelfadeel, H. - S. A. Daanaa, H. H. Youssef, H. A. Goda, M. A. Hamza, M. Fayez, B. Eichler-Löbermann, et al., "An inoculum-dependent culturing strategy (IDC) for the cultivation of environmental microbiomes and the isolation of novel endophytic Actinobacteria", Journal of Antibiotics, vol. 73, issue 1, pp. 66 - 71, 2020. AbstractWebsite

The recent introduction of plant-only-based culture media enabled cultivation of not-yet-cultured bacteria that exceed 90% of the plant microbiota communities. Here, we further prove the competence and challenge of such culture media, and further introduce “the inoculum-dependent culturing strategy, IDC”. The strategy depends on direct inoculating plant serial dilutions onto plain water agar plates, allowing bacteria to grow only on the expense of natural nutrients contained in the administered inoculum. Developed colonies are successively transferred/subcultured onto plant-only-based culture media, which contains natural nutrients very much alike to those found in the prepared plant inocula. Because of its simplicity, the method is recommended as a powerful tool in screening programs that require microbial isolation from a large number of diverse plants. Here, the method comfortably and successfully recovered several isolates of endophytic Actinobacteria represented by the six genera of Curtobacterium spp., Plantibacter spp., Agreia spp., Herbiconiux spp., Rhodococcus spp., and Nocardioides spp. Furthermore, two of the isolates are most likely novel species belonging to Agreia spp. and Herbiconiux spp. © 2019, The Author(s).

Fayez, M., N. F. Emam, and H. E. Makboul, "Interaction of the herbicides Bromoxynil and Afalon S with Azospirillum and growth of maize", Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde, vol. 146, issue 6, pp. 741 - 751, 1983. AbstractWebsite

The possible interaction of herbicides Bromoxynil and Afalon S with Azospirillumspp. and growth of maize was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Neither inoculation nor herbicide application with or without inoculation had significant effect on the major groups of soil microflora (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi). The highest values of nitrogenase as well as dehydrogenase activity were recorded in treatment received only Azospirillum. Incorporation in soil of either Bromoxynil or Afalon S at the recommended field dose seemed to have no significant effect on the enzymatic activities, while application of these herbicides with Azospirillum had stimulatory effects in some cases. The application of either Bromoxynil or Afalon S significantly increased the dry weight of roots and shoots at 45 days period. The effect of herbicide on plant growth was more pronounced when applied with Azospirillum and the highest stimulatory effect was observed when Afalon S was applied with the N2‐fixing microorganism. Copyright © 1983 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim