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2022
Elmansouri, I., A. Lahkimi, M. Kara, A. Hmamou, G. E. Mouhri, A. Assouguem, M. Chaouch, A. F. Alrefaei, M. Kamel, and L. Aleya, A Continuous Fixed Bed Adsorption Process for Fez City Urban Wastewater Using Almond Shell Powder: Experimental and Optimization Study, , vol. 12, issue 12: MDPI, pp. 1535, 2022. Abstract
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Ullah, Z., A. Rashid, J. Ghani, J. Nawab, X. - C. Zeng, M. Shah, A. F. Alrefaei, M. Kamel, L. Aleya, and M. M. Abdel-Daim, Groundwater contamination through potentially harmful metals and its implications in groundwater management, , vol. 10: Frontiers Media SA, pp. 1021596, 2022. Abstract
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Changsheng, H., W. Akram, A. Rashid, Z. Ullah, M. Shah, A. F. Alrefaei, M. Kamel, L. Aleya, and M. M. Abdel-Daim, Quality Assessment of Groundwater Based on Geochemical Modelling and Water Quality Index (WQI), , vol. 14, issue 23: MDPI, pp. 3888, 2022. Abstract
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Asghar, A. A., M. Akhlaq, A. Jalil, A. K. A., J. Asghar, M. Adeel, G. M. Albadrani, A. A. Al-Doaiss, M. Kamel, A. E. Altyar, et al., "Formulation of ciprofloxacin-loaded oral self-emulsifying drug delivery system to improve the pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activity.", Frontiers in pharmacology, vol. 13, pp. 967106, 2022. Abstract

This study aims to increase the aqueous solubility of ciprofloxacin (CPN) to improve oral bioavailability. This was carried out by formulating a stable formulation of the Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) using various ratios of lipid/oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was designed to find an area of emulsification. Eight formulations (F1-CPN-F8-CPN) containing oleic acid oil, silicone oil, olive oil, castor oil, sunflower oil, myglol oil, polysorbate-80, polysorbate-20, PEO-200, PEO-400, PEO-600, and PG were formulated. The resultant SEDDS were subjected to thermodynamic study, size, and surface charge studies to improve preparation. Improved composition of SEDDS F5-CPN containing 40% oil, 60% polysorbate-80, and propylene glycol (Smix ratio 6: 1) were thermodynamically stable emulsions having droplet size 202.6 nm, charge surface -13.9 mV, and 0.226 polydispersity index (PDI). Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) studies revealed that the optimized formulation and drug showed no interactions. Scanning electron microscope tests showed the droplets have an even surface and spherical shape. It was observed that within 5 h, the concentration of released CPN from optimized formulations F5-CPN was 93%. F5-CPN also showed a higher antibacterial action against than free CPN. It shows that F5-CPN is a better formulation with a good release and high antibacterial activity.

Arya, A., R. Chahal, M. H. Almutairi, D. Kaushik, L. Aleya, M. Kamel, M. M. Abdel-Daim, and V. Mittal, "Green approach for the recovery of secondary metabolites from the roots of (D. Don) DC using microwave radiations: Process optimization and anti-alzheimer evaluation.", Frontiers in plant science, vol. 13, pp. 987986, 2022. Abstract

(D. Don) DC is a highly valued medicinal herb that has been used in traditional medicinal systems for its remedial effects. Owing to the over-exploitation and unethical trade of , the accelerating global demand of herbal products from this plant cannot be satisfied by the conventional extraction approach. In view of the progressive demand and incredible biological potential of herb, the present research was designed to optimize various extraction parameters for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The extracts obtained from the traditional and green approach were also assessed for the recovery of secondary metabolites and anti-Alzheimer's potential. Various parameters like microwave power, temperature, and time of irradiation were optimized for MAE using Box Behkhen Design (BBD) The scanning electron microscopy of different plant samples was also done to observe the effect of microwave radiations. Further, the metabolite profiling of different extracts was also done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Also the different behavioral and biochemical parameters along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory potential were assessed to evaluate the anti-Alzheimer's potential. Optimized parameters for MAE were found to be as microwave power 187.04 W, temperature 90°C, and irradiation time 20 min. The extract yield in MAE was significantly enhanced as compared to the conventional method. Also, the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content (TFC) were improved pointedly from 32.13 ± 0.55 to 72.83 ± 1.1 mg of GAE/g of extract and 21.7 ± 0.85 to 39.21 ± 0.7 mg of RUE/g of extract respectively. Later, the GC-MS analysis of various extracts confirmed the enhancement in the concentration of various sesquiterpenes like jatamansone, spirojatamol, valerenal, valeric acid, globulol, nootkatone and steroidal compounds such as sitosterol, ergosterol, stigmastanone, etc. in the optimized extract. A significant improvement in anti-Alzheimer's potential was also observed owing to the better concentration of secondary metabolites in the optimized microwave extract. From the current findings, it could be concluded that the MAE could be a successful and green alternative for the extraction and recovery of secondary metabolites from the selected medicinal herb.

Wang, J., J. L. Davidson, S. Kaur, A. A. Dextre, M. Ranjbaran, M. S. Kamel, S. M. Athalye, and M. S. Verma, "Paper-Based Biosensors for the Detection of Nucleic Acids from Pathogens.", Biosensors, vol. 12, issue 12, 2022. Abstract

Paper-based biosensors are microfluidic analytical devices used for the detection of biochemical substances. The unique properties of paper-based biosensors, including low cost, portability, disposability, and ease of use, make them an excellent tool for point-of-care testing. Among all analyte detection methods, nucleic acid-based pathogen detection offers versatility due to the ease of nucleic acid synthesis. In a point-of-care testing context, the combination of nucleic acid detection and a paper-based platform allows for accurate detection. This review offers an overview of contemporary paper-based biosensors for detecting nucleic acids from pathogens. The methods and limitations of implementing an integrated portable paper-based platform are discussed. The review concludes with potential directions for future research in the development of paper-based biosensors.

Mukerjee, N., K. Al-Khafaji, S. Maitra, J. Suhail Wadi, P. Sachdeva, A. Ghosh, R. S. Buchade, S. Y. Chaudhari, S. B. Jadhav, P. Das, et al., "Recognizing novel drugs against Keap1 in Alzheimer's disease using machine learning grounded computational studies.", Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, vol. 15, pp. 1036552, 2022. Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world, affecting an estimated 50 million individuals. The nerve cells become impaired and die due to the formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Dementia is one of the most common symptoms seen in people with AD. Genes, lifestyle, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, obesity, infections, and head injuries are some of the factors that can contribute to the development and progression of AD. There are just a few FDA-approved treatments without side effects in the market, and their efficacy is restricted due to their narrow target in the etiology of AD. Therefore, our aim is to identify a safe and potent treatment for Alzheimer's disease. We chose the ursolic acid (UA) and its similar compounds as a compounds' library. And the ChEMBL database was adopted to obtain the active and inactive chemicals against Keap1. The best Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was created by evaluating standard machine learning techniques, and the best model has the lowest RMSE and greatest R2 (Random Forest Regressor). We chose pIC50 of 6.5 as threshold, where the top five potent medicines (DB06841, DB04310, DB11784, DB12730, and DB12677) with the highest predicted pIC50 (7.091184, 6.900866, 6.800155, 6.768965, and 6.756439) based on QSAR analysis. Furthermore, the top five medicines utilize as ligand molecules were docked in Keap1's binding region. The structural stability of the nominated medications was then evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations, RMSD, RMSF, Rg, and hydrogen bonding. All models are stable at 20 ns during simulation, with no major fluctuations observed. Finally, the top five medications are shown as prospective inhibitors of Keap1 and are the most promising to battle AD.

Rehman, F. U., A. Farid, S. U. Shah, M. J. Dar, A. U. Rehman, N. Ahmed, S. A. Rashid, I. Shaukat, M. Shah, G. M. Albadrani, et al., "Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS): Measuring Energy Dynamics to Determine Thermodynamic and Kinetic Stability.", Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 15, issue 9, 2022. Abstract

This research was designed to identify thermodynamically and kinetically stable lipidic self-emulsifying formulations through simple energy dynamics in addition to highlighting and clarifying common ambiguities in the literature in this regard. Proposing a model study, this research shows how most of the professed energetically stable systems are actually energetically unstable, subjected to indiscriminate and false characterization, leading to significant effects for their pharmaceutical applications. A self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) was developed and then solidified (S-SEDDS) using a model drug finasteride. Physical nature of SEDDS was identified by measuring simple dynamics which showed that the developed dispersion was thermodynamically unstable. An in vivo study of albino rats showed a three-fold enhanced bioavailability of model drug with SEDDS as compared to the commercial tablets. The study concluded that measuring simple energy dynamics through inherent properties can distinguish between thermodynamically stable and unstable lipidic systems. It might lead to correct identification of a specific lipidic formulation and the application of appropriate characterization techniques accordingly. Future research strategies include improving their pharmaceutical applications and understanding the basic differences in their natures.

Germoush, M. O., M. M. A. Fouda, M. Kamel, and M. M. Abdel-Daim, "Spirulina platensis protects against microcystin-LR-induced toxicity in rats.", Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 29, issue 8, pp. 11320-11331, 2022. Abstract

Microcystis aeruginosa produces an abundant cyanotoxin (microcystins (MCs) in freshwater supplies. MCs have adverse health hazards to animals and humans. Microcystin-leucine-arginine (microcystin-LR or MC-LR) is the most studied among these MCs due to their high toxicity. So, this study was designed to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of the natural algal food supplement, Spirulina platensis (SP), against MC-LR-induced toxic effects in male Wistar rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups. Control and SP groups orally administered distilled water and SP (1000 mg/kg/daily), respectively, for 21 days. MC-LR group was intraperitoneally injected with MC-LR (10 μg/kg/day) for 14 days. MC-LR-SP and MC-LR-SP groups were orally treated with SP (500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively) for 7 days and concomitantly with MC-LR for 14 days. MC-LR induced oxidative hepatorenal damage, cardiotoxicity, and neurotoxicity greatly, which was represented by reduction of reduced glutathione content and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and elevation of concentrations of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in renal, hepatic, brain, and heart tissues. In addition, it increased serum levels of urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-alfa, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 and serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase-MB. However, S. platensis restored normal levels of measured serum parameters, ameliorated MC-LR-induced oxidative damage, and normalized tissue antioxidant biomarkers. In conclusion, SP alleviated MC-induced organ toxicities by mitigating oxidative and nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation.

Ramzi, A., A. El Ouali Lalami, S. Annemer, Y. Ez Zoubi, A. Assouguem, M. H. Almutairi, M. Kamel, I. Peluso, S. Ercisli, and A. Farah, "Synergistic Effect of Bioactive Monoterpenes against the Mosquito, (Diptera: Culicidae).", Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 27, issue 13, 2022. Abstract

Mosquitoes represent one of the most important vectors and are responsible for the transmission of many arboviruses that affect human and animal health. The chemical method using synthetic insecticides disturbs the environmental system and promotes the appearance of resistant insect species. Therefore, this study investigated the insecticidal effect of some binary monoterpene combinations (1,8 cineole + α-pinene and carvone + R (+)-pulegone) using a mixture design approach. The fumigant toxicity was evaluated against female adults using glass jars. The results show that the toxicity varies according to the proportions of each compound. Indeed, Mixture 1 (1,8-cineole + α-pinene) displayed a strong toxic effect (51.00 ± 0.86% after 24 h and 100.00 ± 0.70% after 48 h) when the pure compounds were tested at 0.25/0.75 proportions of 1,8-cineole and α-pinene, respectively. Nevertheless, the equal proportion (0.5/0.5) of carvone and R (+)-pulegone in Mixture 2 exhibited a toxic effect of 54.35 ± 0.75% after 24 h and 89.96 ± 0.14% after 48 h, respectively. For Mixture 1, the maximum area of mortality that the proposed model indicated was obtained between 0/1 and 0.25/0.75, while the maximum area of mortality in the case of Mixture 2 was obtained between 0.25/0.75 and 0.75/0.25. Moreover, the maximum possible values of mortality that could be achieved by the validated model were found to be 51.44% (after 24 h) and 100.24% (after 48 h) for Mixture 1 and 54.67% (after 24 h) and 89.99% (after 48 h) for Mixture 2. It can be said that all purev molecules tested through the binary mixtures acted together, which enhanced the insecticide's effectiveness. These findings are very promising, as the chemical insecticide (deltamethrin) killed only 19.29 ± 0.01% and 34.05 ± 1.01% of the female adults after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Thus, the findings of our research could help with the development of botanical insecticides that might contribute to management programs for controlling vectors of important diseases.

Khan, M. A., A. K. A., M. Safdar, A. Nawaz, M. Akhlaq, P. Paul, M. K. Hossain, M. H. Rahman, R. S. Baty, A. F. El-kott, et al., "Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylamide/Acrylic Acid Co-Polymers and Glutaraldehyde Crosslinked pH-Sensitive Hydrogels.", Gels (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 8, issue 1, 2022. Abstract

This project aims to synthesize and characterize the pH-sensitive controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded hydrogels (5-FULH) by polymerization of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinker with ammonium persulphate as an initiator. The formulation's code is named according to acrylamide (A1, A2, A3), acrylic acid (B1, B2, B3) and glutaraldehyde (C1, C2, C3). The optimized formulations were exposed to various physicochemical tests, namely swelling, diffusion, porosity, sol gel analysis, and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). These 5-FULH were subjected to kinetic models for drug release data. The 5-FU were shown to be soluble in distilled water and phosphate buffer media at pH 7.4, and sparingly soluble in an acidic media at pH 1.2. The ATR-FTIR data confirmed that the 5-FU have no interaction with other ingredients. The lowest dynamic (0.98 ± 0.04% to 1.90 ± 0.03%; 1.65 ± 0.01% to 6.88 ± 0.03%) and equilibrium swelling (1.85 ± 0.01% to 6.68 ± 0.03%; 10.12 ± 0.02% to 27.89 ± 0.03%) of formulations was observed at pH 1.2, whereas the higher dynamic (4.33 ± 0.04% to 10.21 ± 0.01%) and equilibrium swelling (22.25 ± 0.03% to 55.48 ± 0.04%) was recorded at pH 7.4. These findings clearly indicated that the synthesized 5-FULH have potential swelling characteristics in pH 6.8 that will enhance the drug's release in the same pH medium. The porosity values of formulated 5-FULH range from 34% to 62% with different weight ratios of AM, AA, and GA. The gel fractions data showed variations ranging from 74 ± 0.4% (A1) to 94 ± 0.2% (B3). However, formulation A1 reported the highest 24 ± 0.1% and B3 the lowest 09 ± 0.3% sol fractions rate among the formulations. Around 20% drug release from the 5-FULH was found at 1 h in an acidic media (pH1.2), whereas >65% of drug release (pH7.4) was observed at around 25 h. These findings concluded that GA crosslinked 5-FU loaded AM and AA based hydrogels would be a potential pH-sensitive oral controlled colon drug delivery carrier.

2021
Arya, A., R. Chahal, R. Rao, M. H. Rahman, D. Kaushik, M. F. Akhtar, A. Saleem, S. M. A. Khalifa, H. R. El-Seedi, M. Kamel, et al., "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential of various sesquiterpene analogues for alzheimer’s disease therapy", Biomolecules, vol. 11, issue 3, pp. 1 - 30, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Singh, S., T. G. Singh, M. Singh, A. Najda, R. Nurzyńska-Wierdak, R. Almeer, M. Kamel, and M. M. Abdel-Daim, "Anticonvulsive effects of chondroitin sulfate on pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazole induced epileptogenesis in mice", Molecules, vol. 26, issue 22, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Sharma, V. K., T. G. Singh, N. Garg, S. Dhiman, S. Gupta, M. H. Rahman, A. Najda, M. Walasek-Janusz, M. Kamel, G. M. Albadrani, et al., "Dysbiosis and alzheimer’s disease: A role for chronic stress?", Biomolecules, vol. 11, issue 5, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Singh, V., K. Kumar, D. Purohit, R. Verma, P. Pandey, S. Bhatia, V. Malik, V. Mittal, M. H. Rahman, G. M. Albadrani, et al., "Exploration of therapeutic applicability and different signaling mechanism of various phytopharmacological agents for treatment of breast cancer", Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 139, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Grewal, A. K., T. G. Singh, D. Sharma, V. Sharma, M. Singh, M. H. Rahman, A. Najda, M. Walasek-Janusz, M. Kamel, G. M. Albadrani, et al., "Mechanistic insights and perspectives involved in nfeuroprotective action of quercetin", Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 140, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Sharma, A., H. Khan, T. G. Singh, A. K. Grewal, A. Najda, M. Kawecka-Radomska, M. Kamel, A. E. Altyar, and M. M. Abdel-Daim, "Pharmacological modulation of Ubiquitin-proteasome pathways in oncogenic signaling", International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 22, issue 21, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Bin-Jumah, M. N., A. A. AL-Huqail, N. Abdelnaeim, M. Kamel, M. M. A. Fouda, M. M. A. Abulmeaty, I. M. Saadeldin, and M. M. Abdel-Daim, "Potential protective effects of Spirulina platensis on liver, kidney, and brain acrylamide toxicity in rats", Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 28, issue 21, pp. 26653 - 26663, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Kabir, M. T., M. H. Rahman, R. Akter, T. Behl, D. Kaushik, V. Mittal, P. Pandey, M. F. Akhtar, A. Saleem, G. M. Albadrani, et al., "Potential role of curcumin and its nanoformulations to treat various types of cancers", Biomolecules, vol. 11, issue 3, pp. 1 - 39, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Bhattacharya, T., S. P. Maishu, R. Akter, M. H. Rahman, M. F. Akhtar, A. Saleem, M. Bin-Jumah, M. Kamel, M. A. Abdel-Latif, and M. M. Abdel-Daim, "A review on natural sources derived protein nanoparticles as anticancer agents", Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 21, issue 12, pp. 1014 - 1026, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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El-Sayed, A., L. Aleya, and M. Kamel, "Microbiota and epigenetics: promising therapeutic approaches?", Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 28, issue 36, pp. 49343-49361, 2021. Abstract

The direct/indirect responsibility of the gut microbiome in disease induction in and outside the digestive tract is well studied. These results are usually from the overpopulation of certain species on the cost of others, interaction with beneficial microflora, interference with normal epigenetic control mechanisms, or suppression of the immune system. Consequently, it is theoretically possible to cure such disorders by rebalancing the microbiome inside our bodies. This can be achieved by changing the lifestyle pattern and diet or by supplementation with beneficial bacteria or their metabolites. Various approaches have been explored to manipulate the normal microbial inhabitants, including nutraceutical, supplementations with prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics, or through microbiome transplantation (fecal, skin, or vaginal microbiome transplantation). In the present review, the interaction between the microbiome and epigenetics and their role in disease induction is discussed. Possible future therapeutic approaches via the reestablishment of equilibrium in our internal micro-ecosystem are also highlighted.

2020
El-Sayed, A., and M. Kamel, "Advanced applications of nanotechnology in veterinary medicine", Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 27, issue 16, pp. 19073 - 19086, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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El-Sayed, A., and M. Kamel, "Advances in nanomedical applications: diagnostic, therapeutic, immunization, and vaccine production", Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 27, issue 16, pp. 19200 - 19213, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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El-Sayed, A., and M. Kamel, "Climatic changes and their role in emergence and re-emergence of diseases", Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 27, issue 18, pp. 22336 - 22352, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Kamel, M., S. Pavulraj, B. Fauler, T. Mielke, and W. Azab, "Equid Herpesvirus-1 Exploits the Extracellular Matrix of Mononuclear Cells to Ensure Transport to Target Cells", iScience, vol. 23, issue 10, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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