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2015
Abd El Rahman, M. Y., T. Raedle-Hurst, A. Rentzsch, H. J. Schäfers, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Assessment of inter-atrial, inter-ventricular, and atrio-ventricular interactions in tetralogy of Fallot patients after surgical correction. Insights from two-dimensional speckle tracking and three-dimensional echocardiography", Cardiol Young, vol. 25 (7), issue october, pp. 1254-62, 2015. Abstractassessment_of_inter-atrial_inter-ventricular_and.pdf

Abstract
Background: We aimed to assess biatrial size and function, interactions on atrial and ventricular levels, and atrio-ventricular coupling in patients after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Methods: A total of 34 patients with a mean age of 20.9±9 years, and 35 healthy controls, underwent two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography for ventricular and atrial strain measurements and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography to assess ventricular and atrial volumes. Results: When compared with controls, tetralogy of Fallot patients had significantly reduced right atrial peak atrial longitudinal strain (p<0.01), right atrial peak atrial contraction strain (p<0.01), right atrial ejection fraction (p<0.01), left atrial peak atrial longitudinal strain (p<0.01), left atrial peak atrial contraction strain (p<0.05), and left atrial ejection fraction (p<0.01). In the tetralogy of Fallot group, left ventricular ejection fraction was negatively related to the right ventricular end-systolic volume normalised to body surface area (r=-0.62, p<0.01). An association was found in patients between the right atrial peak longitudinal strain and mean right ventricular strain (r=0.64, p<0.01). In patients, the left atrial peak longitudinal strain correlated negatively with right atrial end-diastolic volume normalised to body surface area (r=-0.67, p<0.01), whereas the left atrial ejection fraction correlated weakly with left ventricular ejection fraction (r=0.41, p<0.05). Conclusions: In asymptomatic tetralogy of Fallot patients, biatrial dysfunction exists and can be quantified via two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography as well as real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. Different forms of interactions on atrial and ventricular levels are evident among such cohorts

2014
Abd El Rahman, M. Y., A. Rentzsch, P. Scherber, S. Mebus, O. Miera, G. Balling, P. Böttler, K. - O. Dubowy, B. Farahwaschy, A. Hager, et al., "Effect of bosentan therapy on ventricular and atrial function in adults with Eisenmenger syndrome. A prospective, multicenter study using conventional and Speckle tracking echocardiography.", Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society, 2014 Mar 30. Abstractlbhth_lsds.pdf

BACKGROUND: The effect of bosentan on the ventricular and atrial performance in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome is unclear. In adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome, we aimed to evaluate the midterm effect of bosentan on physical exercise, ventricular and atrial function, and pulmonary hemodynamics.

METHODS: Forty adult patients before and after 24 weeks bosentan therapy underwent 6 min walk test, two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, plasma NT-proBNP measurement and cardiac catheterization.

RESULTS: After 24 weeks, bosentan therapy an improvement was observed regarding the 6 min walk distance from a median (quartile 1-quartile 3) of 382.5 (312-430) to 450 (390-510) m (p = 0.0001), NT-proBNP from 527.5 (201-1,691.25) to 369 (179-1,246) pg/ml (p = 0.021), right ventricular mean longitudinal systolic strain from 18 (13-22) to 19 (14.5-25) % (p = 0.004), left ventricular mean longitudinal systolic strain from 16 (12-21) to 17 (16-22) % (p = 0.001), right atrial mean peak longitudinal strain from 26 (18-34) to 28 (22-34) % (p = 0.01) and right atrial mean peak contraction strain from 11 (8-16) to 13 (11-16) % (p = 0.005). The invasively obtained Qp:Qs and Rp:Rs did not significantly change under bosentan therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome, bosentan therapy improves ventricular and atrial functions resulting in enhancement of physical exercise and reduction in the NT-proBNP level, while the pulmonary vascular resistance does not change substantially.

Schuck, R., M. Y. Abd El Rahman, A. Rentzsch, W. Hui, Y. Weng, V. Alexi-Meskishvili, P. E. Lange, F. Berger, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Altered right ventricular function in the long-term follow-up evaluation of patients after delayed aortic reimplantation of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.", Pediatric cardiology, vol. 35, issue 3, pp. 530-5, 2014 Mar. Abstractlbhth_lrb.pdf

This study aimed to evaluate regional and global ventricular functions in the long term after aortic reimplantation of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) and to assess whether the time of surgical repair influences ventricular performance.The study examined 20 patients with a median age of 15 years (range 3-37 years) who had a corrected ALCAPA and 20 age-matched control subjects using echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The median follow-up period after corrective surgery was 6 years (range 2.6-15 years). Seven patients underwent surgery before the age of 3 years (early-surgery group), whereas 13 patients had surgery after that age (late-surgery group). The TDI-derived myocardial strain of the interventricular septum (IVS), lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV), and lateral wall of the right ventricle (RV) in the basal and mid regions were examined, and a mean was calculated. The pulsed Doppler-derived Tei index was used to assess global left ventricular function. No significant differences were found between the early-surgery group and the control group regarding the regional myocardial strain or the Tei index. Compared with the early-surgery group, the late-surgery group had a significantly higher Tei index (mean 0.37; range 0.31-0.42 vs. mean 0.52; range 0.39-0.69; p < 0.005), a lower strain percentage of the lateral wall of the LV (mean 29; range 17-30 vs. mean 9; range 7-23), IVS (mean 23; range 21-31 vs. mean 19; range 13-25), and lateral wall of the RV (mean 23; range 21-31 vs. mean 19; range 13-25). The age at operation correlated significantly with the Tei index (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) and inversely with the mean strain of the lateral wall of the LV (r = -0.53, p = 0.028), IVS (r = -0.68, p = 0.003), and lateral wall of the RV (r = -0.68, p = 0.003). At the midterm follow-up evaluation after corrective surgery of ALCAPA, not only the left but also the right ventricular function seemed to be affected in patients with delayed diagnosis and late surgical repair but preserved among the younger patients with early diagnosis and corrective surgery.

Agha, H., D. Mahgoub, F. Alzahraa, A. Kharabish, Y. H. Kamal, G. Hussein, L. ElZambely, H. El-Kiky, M. Abdel-Raouf, and M. ABDELRAHMAN, "Prediction of Pulmonary Regurge and Right Ventricular Function in Asymptomatic Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Patients in Developing Countries: A Comparison to Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging", J Clin Exp Cardiolog , vol. 5, issue 6, 2014. Abstractlbhth_lkhms.pdf

Objective: To assess the value of conventional echocardiographic measurements for quantification of pulmonary regurge and right ventricular function in comparison to Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) after surgical repair of Tetralogy Of Fallot (TOF).
Methods: Twenty five asymptomatic children after TOF repair (9.2 ± 4 years) were compared to twenty five age matched healthy children. Echocardiographic quantification of pulmonary regurge was assessed by (1) pulmonary regurge jet width/pulmonary artery diameter, (2) pulmonary pressure half time, (3) pulmonary regurge index; pulmonary regurge duration to diastole duration, (4) no flow time; diastole duration - pulmonary regurge duration and (5) diastole/systole velocity time integral ratio. Measurements derived from conventional echocardiography were compared to pulmonary regurgitant fraction, right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by CMR.
Results: On CMR, the pulmonary regurgitant fraction was 28.64 ± 10.2%. By conventional echocardiography, pulmonary regurge index and no flow time were found to offer the best prediction for severity of pulmonary regurge. Pulmonary regurge index of <0.8 has sensitivity of 86.36% and specificity of 100% (AUC=0.924) and no flow time of >64 msec has sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 100% (AUC=0.894) in identifying significant pulmonary regurge.
Compared to controls, patients after TOF repair showed significantly lower right ventricle myocardial velocities, higher E/ E‘ ratio and prolonged MPI. Among the TOF patients, right ventricular MPI showed significant negative correlation (r=-0.402; P=0.008) with tricuspid valve annulus peak systolic velocity (S‘) and significant positive correlation (r= 0.413; P=0.04) with right ventricle stroke volume by CMR.
Conclusion: Conventional echocardiography can offer a simple, readily available and accurate tool for
quantification of pulmonary regurge and right ventricular function during mid- term follow up after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot

2013
Abd El Rahman, M. Y., W. Hui, R. Schuck, A. Rentzsch, F. Berger, M. Gutberlet, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Regional analysis of longitudinal systolic function of the right ventricle after corrective surgery of tetralogy of Fallot using myocardial isovolumetric acceleration index.", Pediatric cardiology, vol. 34, issue 8, pp. 1848-53, 2013. Abstractlbhth_lthn.pdf

To assess regional longitudinal systolic function of the right ventricle in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) by tissue Doppler imaging-derived isovolumetric acceleration (IVA) index and determine the effect of right-ventricular (RV) enlargement on regional systolic function. In 30 consecutive TOF patients and 30 age-matched controls, myocardial velocity of the RV ventricular free wall in the basal and middle regions were examined in the apical four-chamber view. Peak myocardial velocity during IVA was recorded on the free RV wall. IVA index was calculated as the difference between baseline and peak velocity divided by their time interval. In 23 of the studied TOF patients, magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the same day to determine global RV volume and ejection fraction. IVA index of the RV lateral free wall was significantly lower in the basal (8.31 ± 6.00 vs. 19.00 ± 10.85 m/s(2), p = 0.0001) and middle segments (6.56 ± 5.22 vs. 16.17 ± 7.44 m/s(2), p = 0.0001) in patients than in controls. Among TOF patients, a negative correlation was found between IVA index in the middle segment and RV end-diastolic volume/body surface area (r = -0.549, p < 0.01). Similar to other longitudinal RV wall parameters, the IVA index showed a decreased value in the RV free wall, which is related to the impaired regional and global longitudinal RV systolic dysfunction. RV enlargement adversely affects regional longitudinal systolic function.

2011
Abd El Rahman, M. Y., M. M. Al Qurashi, and F. A. Al Khalifeh, "Unusual cause of neonatal cyanosis.", Journal of the Saudi Heart Association, vol. 23, issue 1, pp. 45-7, 2011 Jan. Abstract

We present a case of a full-term female neonate who presented at 6 h of age with severe cyanosis and was partially responsive to oxygen supplementation. An echocardiogram showed an isolated congenital severe tricuspid valve insufficiency due to rupture of the papillary muscle of the anterior tricuspid valve leaflet. Magnesium sulfate was infused to lower the pulmonary resistance and thus enhancing the antegrade pulmonary blood flow. Ductal patency was secured by prostaglandin infusion thus providing an additional pulmonary blood flow through the ductus arteriosus. The above measures were adequate to stabilize the patient with no further deterioration or the need for other supportive measures such as Nitric Oxide therapy or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate measures to improve the pulmonary blood flow are mandatory, important pre-operative measures in the management of these patients.

2008
Telagh, R., W. Hui, M. Abd El Rahman, F. Berger, P. E. Lange, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Assessment of regional atrial function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathies using tissue Doppler imaging.", Pediatric cardiology, vol. 29, issue 2, pp. 301-8, 2008 Mar. Abstractlbhth_lwl.pdf

BACKGROUND: This study applied tissue Doppler imaging and color tissue Doppler imaging to study atrial function changes in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The profile of the segmental atrial velocities and the strain rate were determined and compared with those of normal matched control subjects.

METHODS: This study investigated 20 patients with HCM and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects. In a four-chamber apical view, tissue Doppler imaging was used to measure the lateral left and right atrial (LA and RA) and interatrial septal (IAS) wall systolic, early, and late diastolic velocities. Similarly, the atrial strain rate during ventricular systole (SR(S)) and the early (SR(E)) and late (SR(A)) diastolic phases in patients and control subjects were measured. The interventricular septal tissue Doppler-derived isovolumic relaxation time was calculated.

RESULTS: Only the IAS annular and middle segments showed a significant reduction in the early diastolic velocity (mean, 4.01 +/- 2.2 vs 8.7 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001; 3.23 +/- 2 vs 6.01 +/- 1.9, p = 0.001, respectively) for the patients with HCM in comparison with the control subjects. Generally, the atrial strain rate was clearly reduced. The systolic strain rate (SR(S)) was significantly reduced in the LA wall in the annular (p = 0.007) and middle (p = 0.001) segments and in the IAS middle segment (p = 0.007). Similarly, there was a reduction of the early diastolic strain rate (SR(E)) in the LA annular (p = 0.001) and middle (p = 0.01) segments and in the IAS annular (p = 0.05) and middle (p = 0.001) segments, as well as in the RA annular segment (p = 0.02). The RA middle segments showed insignificant changes.

CONCLUSION: Atrial function may be affected by HCM due to impairment of myocardial diastolic function. Strain rate imaging is reproducible, yields readily obtained parameters that provide unique data about global and longitudinal segmental atrial contraction, and can quantify the atrial dysfunction in patients with HCM.

Abdul-Khaliq, H., A. Rentzsch, R. Schuck, and M. Y. Abd el-Rahman, "Letter by Abdul-Khaliq et al regarding article, "Right ventricular mechanics and QRS duration in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: implications of infundibular disease".", Circulation, vol. 117, issue 13, pp. e300; author reply e301, 2008 Apr 1. Abstract
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2007
Lunze, F. I., W. Hui, M. Y. Abd El Rahman, V. Alexi-Meskishvili, R. Hetzer, P. E. Lange, F. Berger, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Preserved regional atrial contractile function following extra-atrial rather than intra-atrial type Fontan operation: a tissue Doppler imaging study.", Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society, vol. 96, issue 5, pp. 264-71, 2007 May. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the univentricular and atrial function in patients following Fontan operation using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE).

SETTING: Hospital-based outpatient clinic and inpatient unit.

PATIENTS: Thirty-six patients (mean age 13 ys [2-34 ys]) after Fontan procedure and 30 healthy individuals matched for age and heart rate.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pulsed wave Doppler derived Tei index was determined for global univentricular function. Tissue-Doppler derived strain rate and strain were measured for regional ventricular function. Different planimetric approaches were used to evaluate the global atrial function. Strain rate was measured for regional atrial contractile function.

RESULTS: The Tei index, reflecting global univentricular function, was significantly higher in Fontan patients than in the control group (p<0.001). The regional ventricular contractile function, which was determined by TDE derived strain and strain rate, was significantly lower in Fontan patients than in healthy controls (p<0.001). The global atrial function evaluated planimetrically, and the regional atrial function assessed using the TDE strain rate, were significantly lower in Fontan patients than in normal controls (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). A comparison of different types of Fontan operations with extra-atrial or intra-atrial baffle showed a better regional left atrial wall strain rate in patients with extra-atrial baffle than with intra-atrial baffle.

CONCLUSION: Patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure may present with altered ventricular and atrial performance independent of whether the extra-atrial or intraatrial type Fontan operation was performed. However, the regional atrial contractile function seems to be better preserved following the extra-atrial type Fontan operation.

2006
Schubert, S., H. Abdul-Khaliq, H. B. Lehmkuhl, M. Hübler, M. Y. Abd El Rahman, O. Miera, P. Ewert, Y. Weng, H. Wei, B. Krüdewagen, et al., "Advantages of C2 monitoring to avoid acute rejection in pediatric heart transplant recipients.", The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation, vol. 25, issue 6, pp. 619-25, 2006 Jun. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Inadequate cyclosporine (CsA) blood levels are a major risk factor for acute rejection in transplant recipients. The CsA trough level (C0 level) measured just before the next dose is commonly used to adjust the oral dosage. However, the 2-hour post-CsA dose concentration (C2 level) is favored as the best single-point correlate of CsA area-under-the-curve concentration and may better reflect the immunosuppressive effect of CsA. Because an adequate C2 level has not yet been defined, this study was performed to assess the value of C2 monitoring for the prevention of acute rejection and to define target levels in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

METHODS: C2 levels were assessed in 50 pediatric heart transplant patients with oral CsA therapy and compared with trough C0 levels using full blood sampling, mass spectrometry and a blinded analysis. Acute graft rejection was detected using intramyocardial electrocardiogram (IMEG) and serial conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Rejection was confirmed or excluded by endomyocardial biopsy.

RESULTS: C2 and not C0 levels were significantly reduced in patients with acute graft rejection (ISHLT Grade > or =2). Patients with a C2 level <600 ng/ml had a significantly higher risk of developing acute rejection (100% sensitivity and 82% specificity). Patients with impaired CsA absorption were identified with C2 monitoring and switched to another calcineurin inhibitor.

CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of the C2 rather than the C0 level better reflects immunosuppressive efficiency and identifies patients at increased risk of acute rejection. A C2 level of >600 ng/ml should be the target to prevent acute rejection.

Grothoff, M., B. Spors, H. Abdul-Khaliq, M. ABDELRAHMAN, V. Alexi-Meskishvili, P. Lange, R. Felix, and M. Gutberlet, "Pulmonary regurgitation is a powerful factor influencing QRS duration in patients after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study.", Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society, vol. 95, issue 12, pp. 643-9, 2006 Dec. Abstract

AIMS: QRS prolongation is a negative prognostic factor for the development of ventricular arrhythmia after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In this MRI study, we performed a multivariate analysis to determine the influence of volumetric and functional parameters as well as time factors on QRS duration.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients after surgical repair of TOF were studied using a 1.5T MRI. Measurement of the ventricles was performed with a multislice-multiphase sequence. Left and right ventricular volumes, ejection fractions (EF) and myocardial masses were determined. Pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) was quantified by velocity encoded flow measurement in the main pulmonary artery. Maximum QRS duration was taken from a 12-channel ECG. Mean maximum QRS duration was 132 ms (+/- 29 ms). Mean PRF was 29.2% (+/- 13.4%). QRS duration correlated significantly with PRF (r = 0.49; p < 0.01; n = 54) and with right ventricular enddiastolic volume index (RVEDVI) (r = 0.29; p < 0.05; n = 67). Multivariate analysis revealed that the combination of PRF, postoperative period, age at surgical repair, and left ventricular (LV) enddiastolic volume are correlated with QRS prolongation.

CONCLUSION: In patients after repair of TOF, pulmonary regurgitation is related to QRS prolongation. Furthermore, even LV size plays a role in the enlargement of the QRS complex.

2005
Abd El Rahman, M. Y., W. Hui, M. Yigitbasi, F. Dsebissowa, S. Schubert, R. Hetzer, P. E. Lange, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Detection of left ventricular asynchrony in patients with right bundle branch block after repair of tetralogy of Fallot using tissue-Doppler imaging-derived strain.", Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, issue 6, pp. 915-21, 2005 Mar 15. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether patients after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair with right bundle branch block have left ventricular (LV) asynchrony and to assess the influence of ventricular asynchrony on regional and global LV function.

BACKGROUND: Patients after TOF repair usually have right bundle branch block. However, no data regarding LV asynchrony in this group are available.

METHODS: Twenty-five patients after TOF repair and 25 age-matched healthy control subjects were studied. The regional myocardial deformation of the interventricular septum (IVS) and the LV lateral wall were examined using tissue-Doppler-derived strain. The time interval between the onset of QRS complex and the peak strain was measured for each wall. According to the difference between LV and septum time intervals among the normal subjects, a normal range (mean +/- 2 SD) was plotted, and TOF patients in whom the difference was beyond the normal range were considered to have LV asynchrony. The Tei index was used to assess global LV function.

RESULTS: Thirteen (52%) of the examined patients after TOF repair had LV asynchrony. Patients after TOF repair with LV asynchrony had a significantly reduced regional septal systolic strain (p < 0.001) and significantly elevated Tei index (p < 0.001) compared with those without.

CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular asynchrony may exist in patients after TOF repair with right bundle branch block. This LV asynchrony is associated with a reduction of both regional and global LV function.

Abd El Rahman, M. Y., W. Hui, F. Dsebissowa, S. Schubert, M. Hübler, R. Hetzer, P. E. Lange, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Comparison of the tissue Doppler-derived left ventricular Tei index to that obtained by pulse Doppler in patients with congenital and acquired heart disease.", Pediatric cardiology, vol. 26, issue 4, pp. 391-5, 2005 Jul-Aug. Abstract

We compared the left ventricular Tei index measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) to that obtained by pulsed Doppler (PW) in patients with congenital heart disease. In 40 consecutive patients with a variety of congenital and acquired heart diseases, the left ventricular (LV) PW Doppler-derived Tei index was assessed on-line as previously described. TDI-derived anatomic curved M-mode and the unprocessed velocity trace from the basal septum were used to time the opening and closure of the mitral and aortic valves in one cardiac cycle, respectively. The TDI Tei index was calculated off-line according to the equation (isovolumetric relaxation time + isovolumetric contraction time)/ ejection time. The Tei index calculated from TDI correlated significantly with that measured by pulsed Doppler (r = 0.92, p = 0.001). The mean difference (range) between pulsed Doppler-derived Tei index and TDI-derived Tei index was 0.005 (-0.07-0.06), which was within the limits of agreements. Interobserver variability for the TDI-derived Tei index was 5 +/- 3%. The TDI Tei index can be used to assess the global LV function in patients with congenital heart disease. In contrast to the PW Doppler-derived Tei index, the TDI-derived Tei index obtained from the same cardiac cycle may help to differentiate systolic from diastolic dysfunction by providing specific information on the isovolumetric intervals.

Abd El Rahman, M. Y., W. Hui, F. Dsebissowa, S. Schubert, M. Gutberlet, R. Hetzer, P. E. Lange, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Quantitative analysis of paradoxical interventricular septal motion following corrective surgery of tetralogy of fallot.", Pediatric cardiology, vol. 26, issue 4, pp. 379-84, 2005 Jul-Aug. Abstract

This study aimed to quantify paradoxical interventricular septal motion (PSM) among 20 patients following tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair without severe pulmonary regurgitation and 20 age-matched normal subjects. PSM was quantified using the echocardiography-derived paradox index. Tissue Doppler-derived strain rate was used to assess the longitudinal and radial systolic function of the interventricular septum (IVS). The tissue Doppler-derived Tei index was used to assess the global left ventricular function. Compared to the control group, the paradox index in patients after repair of TOF was significantly higher (p = 0.001), whereas the regional IVS longitudinal (p = 0.02) and radial (p = 0.001) systolic strain rate peaks were significantly reduced. The paradox index in the patient group correlated inversely with the IVS radial peak systolic strain rate (r = -0.64, p = 0.004) and positively with QRS duration (r = 0.50, p = 0.02). The left ventricular (LV) Tei-index correlated significantly with the paradox index (r = 0.71, p = 0.001) and with the septal radial systolic strain rate peak (r = 0.59, p = 0.004). We conclude that electrical delay and reduced regional septal systolic function were the main causes for paradoxical septal motion among patients following TOF repair without significant pulmonary regurgitation. The reduced LV systolic function among this group of patients is mainly secondary to diminished septal systolic function and the paradoxical septal motion.

Abdul-Khaliq, H., M. Y. Abd El Rahman, and W. Hui, "Letter regarding article by Thambo et al, "Detrimental ventricular remodeling in patients with congenital complete heart block and chronic right ventricular apical pacing".", Circulation, vol. 112, issue 4, pp. e70; author reply e70, 2005 Jul 26. Abstract
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Hui, W., M. Y. Abd El Rahman, F. Dsebissowa, M. Gutberlet, V. Alexi-Meskishvili, R. Hetzer, P. E. Lange, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Comparison of modified short axis view and apical four chamber view in evaluating right ventricular function after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.", International journal of cardiology, vol. 105, issue 3, pp. 256-61, 2005 Dec 7. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In clinical settings an easy and reliable method for following up right ventricular (RV) function in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is needed. It is, however, unclear whether the novel modified short axis view from echocardiography is superior to the apical four chamber view in this aspect.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty postoperative TOF patients with median age 17 years (range 6-45 years) and follow up period of 10 years (range 0.5-40 years) were examined echocardiographically using the apical four chamber view and the novel modified short axis view. RV areas in end-systole (Amin) and end-diastole (Amax) were measured and an area fraction [(Amax - Amin)/Amax * 100%] was calculated from the respective view. RV ejection fraction was assessed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The RV area fractions from echocardiography were compared to the RV ejection fraction.

RESULTS: The right ventricular area fraction derived from the modified short axis view was significantly lower than that from the apical four chamber view (34.3+/-9.1% vs. 42.5+/-10.2%, p=0.007). Both the RV area fractions obtained from the modified short axis view (r=0.674, p<0.001) and from the apical four chamber view (r=0.512, p=0.025) correlated significantly with the MRI derived RV ejection fraction.

CONCLUSION: The novel modified short axis view from echocardiography may be superior to the apical four chamber view for routine follow up of patients after TOF repair, in whom the right ventricular outflow tract plays an important role in the right ventricular systolic function.

Abd El Rahman, M. Y., W. Hui, J. Timme, P. Ewert, F. Berger, F. Dsebissowa, R. Hetzer, P. E. Lange, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Analysis of atrial and ventricular performance by tissue Doppler imaging in patients with atrial septal defects before and after surgical and catheter closure.", Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.), vol. 22, issue 7, pp. 579-85, 2005 Aug. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of surgical and device closure of atrial septal defects on atrial and ventricular performance assessed by the novel tissue Doppler derived strain rate.

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing number of transcatheter closures, there is no information comparing the effect of the transcatheter closure technique on atrial performance with that of conventional surgery. Tissue Doppler derived strain rate can effectively quantify local myocardial function independent of the overall heart motion.

DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Twenty-four patients [aged 21.5 (6-70) years] with isolated atrial septal defect of the secondum type before and 1 week after surgical (n = 12) or Amplatzer Septal Occluder closure (n = 12) and 30 healthy controls [aged 26.0 (2-58) years] were studied. Atrial and ventricular strain rate curves were assessed in the middle of their corresponding lateral walls in an apical four-chamber view. The systolic, early diastolic, and late diastolic strain rates peaks were measured.

RESULTS: Compared to preclosure condition, the right atrial late diastolic (P < 0.01), right ventricular systolic (P < 0.01), right ventricular early diastolic (P < 0.01), and left atrial late diastolic peak (P < 0.01) strain rates were reduced after surgery but not after Amplatzer Septal Occluder closure. The LV parameters did not significantly differ before and after atrial septal defect closure by either technique.

CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to surgery, transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect preserves atrial and right ventricular function. Tissue Doppler derived strain rate can be applied to provide quantitative analysis of regional atrial and ventricular performance.

Rentzsch, A., M. Y. Abd El Rahman, W. Hui, A. Helweg, P. Ewert, M. Gutberlet, P. E. Lange, F. Berger, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Assessment of myocardial function of the systemic right ventricle in patients with D-transposition of the great arteries after atrial switch operation by tissue Doppler echocardiography.", Zeitschrift für Kardiologie, vol. 94, issue 8, pp. 524-31, 2005 Aug. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The long-term follow-up of patients with D-transposition of the great arteries after atrial switch operation shows specific problems such as tricuspid valve insufficiency, rhythm disturbances and failure of the morphologic right ventricle in systemic position. Assessment of the myocardial contractility of the subaortic right ventricle by conventional echocardiography is limited. The usage of tissue Doppler echocardiography with strain combined with strain rate imaging provides a new approach for quantitative analysis of longitudinal myocardial function. The aim of this study was to assess patterns of wall motion and regional contractile function of the systemic right ventricle in patients after atrial switch operation for D-transposition of the great arteries and to compare them to those of normal subjects.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with Dtransposition of the great arteries after atrial switch operation with a mean age of 21.3 (range, 13 to 31) years and a postoperative period of 16.9 years were examined and compared to 22 control individuals with a mean age of 21.5 (range, 3 to 43) years. Tissue Doppler studies were obtained from apical 4- chamber view to determine regional systolic (Syst(T)) and diastolic (E(T), A(T)) velocities as well as E(T)/A(T) ratio at the basal free wall. The presystolic isovolumic contraction peak was assessed and the ratio of the presystolic peak velocity to the isovolumic acceleration time as the IVA index was calculated. Strain and peak systolic and diastolic strain rates were assessed on basal, middle and apical segments of the right ventricular free wall. Data obtained from the morphologic right systemic ventricle in patients were compared to those derived from the left and the right ventricle in controls.

RESULTS: The right ventricular free wall systolic velocities were significantly reduced in patients compared to velocities obtained from the normal right and left ventricle. On the other hand, the IVA index was only reduced in patients compared to the IVA index in the normal subpulmonary right ventricle. Compared to data obtained from the normal systemic left ventricle, the IVA index in patients was not significantly different. In contrast, strain and strain rate parameters in all analyzed segments mostly showed a highly significant reduction compared to normal right and left ventricular data.

CONCLUSION: Tissue Doppler echocardiography is a promising tool for the evaluation of regional myocardial contractile function of the morphologic right systemic ventricle in patients following atrial switch operation for D-transposition of the great arteries. Presystolic, systolic and diastolic regional ventricular function was reduced in the systemic right ventricle. However, further comparative studies using other quantitative parameters of global and regional myocardial function derived from cardiac catheterization or MRI should be performed in order to evaluate the reliability of tissue Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of global right ventricular function in these patients.

2004
Hui, W., M. Y. Abd El Rahman, F. Dsebissowa, A. Rentzsch, M. Gutberlet, V. Alexi-Meskishvili, R. Hetzer, P. E. Lange, and H. Abdul-Khaliq, "Quantitative analysis of right atrial performance after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot.", Cardiology in the young, vol. 14, issue 5, pp. 520-6, 2004 Oct. Abstract

We aimed to assess the right atrial performance in patients after surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot, and to clarify the relationship between the pump function of the right atrium and right ventricular systolic function. We included in the study 50 asymptomatic patients following corrective surgery of tetralogy of Fallot, comparing them to 30 normal subjects. Right atrial areas were measured by echocardiography, and the active fractional area of emptying was expressed, in percentages, as the area measured at the onset of atrial contraction, minus the minimal area, divided by the area at the onset of atrial contraction. We used this value to assess the atrial pump function. Right atrial peak strain rates were measured by tissue Doppler imaging. Compared to controls, patients with tetralogy of Fallot had a significantly reduced right atrial active fractional area of emptying (p = 0.005), along with a reduced peak late diastolic strain rate (p = 0.002). Among 20 patients who underwent magnetic resonance tomographic examination, a relatively higher right atrial peak late diastolic strain rate was shown in patients with a right ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50% (p = 0.021). Right atrial performance is reduced in patients after surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot. When facing right ventricular systolic dysfunction, nonetheless, the right atrial pump function may be relatively enhanced. Tissue Doppler derived strain rate can provide quantitative analysis of regional right atrial performance.

2002
Abd El Rahman, M. Y., H. Abdul-Khaliq, M. Vogel, V. Alexi-Meskischvili, M. Gutberlet, R. Hetzer, and P. E. Lange, "Value of the new Doppler-derived myocardial performance index for the evaluation of right and left ventricular function following repair of tetralogy of fallot.", Pediatric cardiology, vol. 23, issue 5, pp. 502-7, 2002 Sep-Oct. Abstract

The systolic and diastolic function in both ventricles may be altered even after successful corrective surgery of tetralogy of Fallot. The aim of this study was to assess the combined diastolic and systolic function of both ventricles using the Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI) in patients with operated tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We performed a prospective analysis of 51 patients following corrective surgery of TOF: 21 had a subannular patch, 20 had a homograft implantation at initial operation, and 10 were reoperated with secondary homograft implantation. Patients were examined with Doppler echocardiography, and the MPI, which incorporates ejection and isovolumetric relaxation and contraction times and is an index of global ventricular function, was calculated 10.2 +/- 8.0 (0.89-36) years after surgery. In 86.4% of the examined patients the right ventricular isovolumetric relaxation time was shortened compared to the normal published range or even did not exist (negative value) (p <0.01). The right ventricular MPI was paradoxically below the normal published range in 76.5% of the examined patients. The left ventricle global function was impaired in 23.5% of the examined patients, mainly due to altered systolic function with a prolonged left ventricular isovolumetric contraction time. The z score of the comparison between patients' left ventricular isovolumetric contraction time and the normal published values was 3.03. Patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation also had a prolongation of the isovolumetric relaxation time compared to patients with mild to moderate pulmonary regurgitation. The noncompliant right ventricle may shorten the right ventricular isovolumetric relaxation time, resulting in a paradoxically low right MPI. This may reduce the sensitivity of the index in recognizing patients with right ventricular dysfunction following corrective surgery of TOF. Additional diastolic impairment occurs in patients with right ventricular volume overload.

2000
Abd El Rahman, M. Y., H. Abdul-Khaliq, M. Vogel, V. Alexi-Meskishvili, M. Gutberlet, and P. E. Lange, "Relation between right ventricular enlargement, QRS duration, and right ventricular function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation after surgical repair.", Heart (British Cardiac Society), vol. 84, issue 4, pp. 416-20, 2000 Oct. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, to examine (1) a possible relation between right ventricular enlargement and QRS prolongation, and (2) the effect of right ventricular enlargement caused by pulmonary regurgitation on the right ventricular ejection fraction, evaluated by three dimensional echocardiography, and global function, evaluated by the myocardial performance index.

DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 40 patients with repaired tetralogy were studied. Right ventricular volumes were derived from three dimensional echocardiographic data after this method had been validated by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging in 21 patients. Ejection fraction was calculated from end diastolic and end systolic volumes. The Doppler derived myocardial performance index was measured in all patients. Measured data were correlated with QRS duration.

SETTING: Tertiary cardiac centre for congenital heart disease.

RESULTS: There was good agreement between three dimensional echocardiographic and magnetic resonance assessment of right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. The z score of the right ventricular end diastolic volume and ejection fraction of all patients was 1.35 and -4.15, respectively. Patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation had a lower right ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.01) and an increased myocardial performance index (p < 0.01) compared with patients with mild to moderate pulmonary regurgitation. The correlation between ejection fraction and right ventricular end diastolic volume was r = -0.35 (p < 0.05). The mean (SD) QRS duration was 131.89 (25.69) ms, range 80-180 ms. The correlation between QRS duration and right ventricular end diastolic volume was r = 0.6 (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: There is a correlation between the right ventricular size obtained by three dimensional echocardiography and QRS duration on the surface ECG, indicating mechanoelectrical interaction. The severity of pulmonary regurgitation has a negative influence on right ventricular ejection fraction and combined systolic and diastolic global function, as assessed by myocardial performance.

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