Ueno, N.T., Espinosa Fernandez, J.R., Cristofanilli, M., Overmoyer, B., Rea, D., Berdichevski, F., El-Shinawi, Bellon, J., Le-Petross, H.T., Lucci, A., et al., "International Consensus on the Clinical Management of Inflammatory Breast Cancer from the Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program 10th Anniversary Conference.", J Cancer. , vol. 9, issue 8, pp. 1437-1447, 2018.
Mohamed, H. T., N. El-Husseiny, E. A. El-Ghonaimy, S. A. Ibrahim, Z. A. Bazzi, D. Cavallo-Medved, M. B. Boffa, M. El-Shinawi, and M. M. Mohamed, "IL-10 correlates with the expression of carboxypeptidase B2 and lymphovascular invasion in inflammatory breast cancer: The potential role of tumor infiltrated macrophages.", Curr Probl Cancer., vol. 42, issue 2, pp. 215-230, 2018.
Ibrahim, S. A., R. Gadalla, E. A. El-Ghonaimy, O. Samir, H. T. Mohamed, H. Hassan, B. Greve, M. El-Shinawi, M. M. Mohamed, and M. Götte, Syndecan-1 is a novel molecular marker for triple negative inflammatory breast cancer and modulates the cancer stem cell phenotype via the IL-6/STAT3, Notch and EGFR signaling pathways, , 2017.
Sabet, S., S. K. El-Sayed, H. T. Mohamed, M. El-Shinawi, and M. M. Mohamed, "Inflammatory breast cancer: High incidence of GCC haplotypes (-1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C) in the interleukin-10 gene promoter correlates with over-expression of interleukin-10 in patients' carcinoma tissues.", Tumour Biol., vol. 39, issue 7, pp. doi: 10.1177/1010428317713393., 2017.
Hosny, M., S. Sabet, M. El-Shinawi, K. M. Gaffer, and M. M. Mohamed, "Leptin is overexpressed in the tumor microenvironment of obese patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer", Exp. Ther. Med., vol. 13, issue 5, pp. 2235-2246, 2017.
M. A. Ibrahima, M. M. Mohamed, A. M. Ghazya, M. El Mogy, and H. M. M. Masouda, "Purification and Characterization of Two Glutathione Peroxidases from Embryo of the Camel Tick Hyalomma dromedarii", Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, vol. 42, issue 3, pp. 272–281, 2016.
El-Shinawi, M., H. T. Mohamed, H. H. Abdel-Fattah, S. A. A. Ibrahim, M. S. El-Halawany, A. M. Nouh, R. J. Schneider, and M. M. Mohamed, "Inflammatory and Non-inflammatory Breast Cancer: A Potential Role for Detection of Multiple Viral DNAs in Disease Progression.", Annals of surgical oncology, vol. 23, issue 2, pp. 494-502, 2016 Feb. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal form of breast cancer. Multiple viral infections in IBC tissues were found to be associated with disease pathogenesis.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to correlate the incidence of viral DNA with breast cancer progression.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 135 women diagnosed with breast cancer were enrolled in this study. Using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing assays, we determined the incidence of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (HPV-16 and -18), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, and human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8) in breast carcinoma tissue biopsies. We also assessed the expression of the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry in association with the incidence of viral DNA.

RESULTS: HCMV and HPV-16 were the most detected viral DNAs in breast carcinoma tissues; however, the frequency of HCMV and HHV-8 DNA were significantly higher in IBC than non-IBC tissues. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple viral DNAs was higher in IBC than non-IBC tissues. The incidence of multiple viral DNAs positively correlates with tumor size and number of metastatic lymph nodes in both non-IBC and IBC patients. The expression of Ki-67 was found to be significantly higher in both non-IBC and IBC tissues in which multiple viral DNAs were detected.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of multiple viral DNAs in IBC tissues was higher compared with non-IBC tissues. The present results suggest the possibility of a functional relationship between the presence of multiple viral DNAs and disease pathogenesis.

El-Shinawi, M., K. O. Mohamed, Y. A. Fouad, Y. M. Fahmy, H. A. Asar, M. G. Khalil, L. Anestidou, S. S. El-Kamary, and M. M. Mohamed, "Assessing the Awareness of Egyptian Medical Students about Responsible Conduct of Research and Research Ethics: Impact of an Educational Campaign.", Accountability in research, vol. 23, issue 4, pp. 199-218, 2016. Abstract

This is a quasi-experimental pre-post assessment study utilizing an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to assess Egyptian medical students' awareness about responsible conduct of research (RCR) and research ethics. Students' were assessed before and after an RCR awareness campaign. Our results showed that most of the pre-campaign respondents were not familiar with the basic principles and terms of RCR. An increase in the awareness about RCR across all discussed topics was noted following the campaign. We concluded that an educational awareness campaign is effective in increasing medical students' awareness about RCR and should be incorporated into current medical school curricula in Egypt.

El-Ghonaimy, E. A., S. A. Ibrahim, A. Youns, Z. Hussein, M. A. Nouh, T. El-Mamlouk, M. El-Shinawi, and M. M. Mohamed, "Erratum to: Secretome of tumor-associated leukocytes augment epithelial-mesenchymal transition in positive lymph node breast cancer patients via activation of EGFR/Tyr845 and NF-kB/p65 signaling pathway.", Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine, vol. 37, issue 10, pp. 14333, 2016 Oct.
Ibrahim, S. A., E. A. El-Ghonaimy, H. Hassan, N. Mahana, Mahmoud Abdelbaky Mahmoud, T. El-Mamlouk, M. El-Shinawi, and M. M. Mohamed, "Hormonal-receptor positive breast cancer: IL-6 augments invasion and lymph node metastasis via stimulating cathepsin B expression.", Journal of advanced research, vol. 7, issue 5, pp. 661-70, 2016 Sep. Abstract

Hormonal-receptor positive (HRP) breast cancer patients with positive metastatic axillary lymph nodes are characterized by poor prognosis and increased mortality rate. The mechanisms by which cancer cells invade lymph nodes have not yet been fully explored. Several studies have shown that expression of IL-6 and the proteolytic enzyme cathepsin B (CTSB) was associated with breast cancer poor prognosis. In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of recombinant human IL-6 on the invasiveness capacity of HRP breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was tested using an in vitro invasion chamber assay. The impact of IL-6 on expression and activity of CTSB was also investigated. IL-6 treatment promoted the invasiveness potential of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells displayed elevated CTSB expression and activity associated with loss of E-cadherin and upregulation of vimentin protein levels upon IL-6 stimulation. To validate these results in vivo, the level of expression of IL-6 and CTSB in the carcinoma tissues of HRP-breast cancer patients with positive and negative axillary metastatic lymph nodes (pLNs and nLNs) was assessed. Western blot and immunohistochemical staining data showed that expression of IL-6 and CTSB was higher in carcinoma tissues in HRP-breast cancer with pLNs than those with nLNs patients. ELISA results showed carcinoma tissues of HRP-breast cancer with pLNs exhibited significantly elevated IL-6 protein levels by approximately 2.8-fold compared with those with nLNs patients (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a significantly positive correlation between IL-6 and CTSB expression was detected in clinical samples of HRP-breast cancer patients with pLNs (r = 0.78, P < 0.01). Collectively, this study suggests that IL-6-induced CTSB may play a role in lymph node metastasis, and that may possess future therapeutic implications for HRP-breast cancer patients with pLNs. Further studies are necessary to fully identify IL-6/CTSB axis in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer.