Copper: benefits and risks for poultry, livestock, and fish production.

ElSabry, M. I., F. K. R. Stino, and W. A. A. El-Ghany, "Copper: benefits and risks for poultry, livestock, and fish production.", Tropical animal health and production, vol. 53, issue 5, pp. 487, 2021. copy at


Protein production from animal origin should increase to meet the needs of a growing global population. This article presents an overview on copper (Cu) forms and their importance for animals' physiological functions. Moreover, it will focus on the current and promising nano-Cu applications in poultry, livestock, and fish production systems. Use of Cu as a feed additive directly or indirectly impacts the human food chain and may affect the safety and/or quality of food. Finally, the expected risks and hazards related to the use of nano-Cu that can affect animals, humans, and the environment are described. It is concluded that nano-Cu applications have the potential to provide an efficient solution for reducing the Cu amount in the poultry, livestock, and fish diets, which can help in reducing costs and environmental contamination and increasing animals' productivity. However, concerns over the safety of nano-Cu applications hamper their immediate implementation. Thus, rigorous risk assessments should be conducted to ensure the safety of animal-origin products in the case of supplementation animal diets with nano-copper.