Gad, M. A., M. M. Qinawy, O. Abdelazim, S. N. Kaddah, M. M. Elbarbary, and M. A. Elfiky, "Comparative study of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication versus Hill-Snow procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial", Annals of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 8, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition in children. Complete fundoplication provides better reflux control but it results in more dysphagia and gas-bloat symptoms. Antireflux surgery without wrap has fewer adverse effects but a higher failure rate in controlling reflux. Until now, there is little evidence as to whether complete or partial fundoplication is the optimal procedure in this age group.

for and on Surgery, N. I. H. C. R. G. H. R. U. G., "Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries", British Journal of Surgery, vol. 110, issue 7, pp. 804-817, 2023/04/20. AbstractWebsite

Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres.This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries.In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia.This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries.The effects of climate change need urgent action. Most countries and organizations have made commitments to reduce carbon. Healthcare, and especially surgery, is responsible for producing a large amount of carbon and for other behaviours that are harmful to the environment. The aim of this study was to identify the most practical and safe interventions to make surgery more environmentally friendly. Interventions to achieve green surgery were found in the literature and added to a list. The list was ordered and shortened, following advice of doctors and patients. The safest and most practical interventions were at the top. The top three areas for change were to reduce the use of one-use items and energy, recycle, and manage waste appropriately. There are several ways that we can make surgery greener. The list produced gives us practical examples of what can be done.

Torborg, A., H. Meyer, M. ElFiky, M. Fawzy, M. Elhadi, A. O. Ademuyiwa, B. B. Osinaike, A. Hewitt-Smith, M. T. Nabukenya, R. Bisegerwa, et al., Outcomes after surgery for children in Africa (ASOS-Paeds): a 14-day prospective observational cohort study, , 2024. AbstractWebsite

Safe anaesthesia and surgery are a public health imperative. There are few data describing outcomes for children undergoing anaesthesia and surgery in Africa. We aimed to get robust epidemiological data to describe patient care and outcomes for children undergoing anaesthesia and surgery in hospitals in Africa.
This study was a 14-day, international, prospective, observational cohort study of children (aged <18 years) undergoing surgery in Africa. We recruited as many hospitals as possible across all levels of care (first, second, and third) providing surgical treatment. Each hospital recruited all eligible children for a 14-day period commencing on the date chosen by each participating hospital within the study recruitment period from Jan 15 to Dec 23, 2022. Data were collected prospectively for consecutive patients on paper case record forms. The primary outcome was in-hospital postoperative complications within 30 days of surgery and the secondary outcome was in-hospital mortality within 30 days after surgery. We also collected hospital-level data describing equipment, facilities, and protocols available. This study is registered with, NCT05061407.
We recruited 8625 children from 249 hospitals in 31 African countries. The mean age was 6·1 (SD 4·9) years, with 5675 (66·0%) of 8600 children being male. Most children (6110 [71·2%] of 8579 patients) were from category 1 of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score undergoing elective surgery (5325 [61·9%] of 8604 patients). Postoperative complications occurred in 1532 (18·0%) of 8515 children, predominated by infections (971 [11·4%] of 8538 children). Deaths occurred in 199 (2·3%) of 8596 patients, 169 (84·9%) of 199 patients following emergency surgeries. Deaths following postoperative complications occurred in 166 (10·8%) of 1530 complications. Operating rooms were reported as safe for anaesthesia and surgery for neonates (121 [54·3%] of 223 hospitals), infants (147 [65·9%] of 223 hospitals), and children younger than 6 years (188 [84·3%] of 223 hospitals).
Outcomes following anaesthesia and surgery for children in Africa are poor, with complication rates up to four-fold higher (18% vs 4·4–14%) and mortality rates 11-fold higher than high-income countries in a crude, unadjusted comparison (23·15 deaths vs 2·18 deaths per 1000 children). To improve surgical outcomes for children in Africa, we need health system strengthening, provision of safe environments for anaesthesia and surgery, and strategies to address the high rate of failure to rescue.
Jan Pretorius Research Fund of the South African Society of Anaesthesiologists and Association of Anesthesiologists of Uganda.

Refaee, E. E. L., T. M. Ali, A. A. Menabbawy, M. ElFiky, A. E. Fiki, S. Mashhour, and A. Harouni, "Machine learning in action: Revolutionizing intracranial hematoma detection and patient transport decision-making", Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: Traumatic intracranial hematomas represent a critical clinical situation where early detection and management are of utmost importance. Machine learning has been recently used in the detection of neuroradiological findings. Hence, it can be used in the detection of intracranial hematomas and furtherly initiate a management cascade of patient transfer, diagnostics, admission, and emergency intervention. We aim, here, to develop a diagnostic tool based on artificial intelligence to detect hematomas instantaneously, and automatically start a cascade of actions that support the management protocol depending on the early diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A plot was designed as a staged model: The first stage of initiating and training the machine with the provisional evaluation of its accuracy and the second stage of supervised use in a tertiary care hospital and a third stage of its generalization in primary and secondary care hospitals. Two datasets were used: CQ500, a public dataset, and our dataset collected retrospectively from our tertiary hospital. Results: A mean dice score of 0.83 was achieved on the validation set of CQ500. Moreover, the detection of intracranial hemorrhage was successful in 94% of cases for the CQ500 test set and 93% for our local institute cases. Poor detection was present in only 6–7% of the total test set. Moderate false-positive results were encountered in 18% and major false positives reached 5% for the total test set. Conclusion: The proposed approach for the early detection of acute intracranial hematomas provides a reliable outset for generating an automatically initiated management cascade in high-flow hospitals.

Hitchman, L., and M. Machin, "Impact of COVID-19 on vascular patients worldwide: analysis of the COVIDSurg data.", The Journal of cardiovascular surgery, vol. 62, issue 6, pp. 558-570, 2021. Abstractr37y2021n06a0558.pdf

BACKGROUND: The COVIDSurg collaborative was an international multicenter prospective analysis of perioperative data from 235 hospitals in 24 countries. It found that perioperative COVID-19 infection was associated with a mortality rate of 24%. At the same time, the COVER study demonstrated similarly high perioperative mortality rates in vascular surgical patients undergoing vascular interventions even without COVID-19, likely associated with the high burden of comorbidity associated with vascular patients. This is a vascular subgroup analysis of the COVIDSurg cohort.

METHODS: All patients with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 in the 7 days prior to, or in the 30 days following a vascular procedure were included. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were pulmonary complications (adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and respiratory failure). Logistic regression was undertaken for dichotomous outcomes.

RESULTS: Overall, 602 patients were included in this subgroup analysis, of which 88.4% were emergencies. The most common operations performed were for vascular-related dialysis access procedures (20.1%, N.=121). The combined 30-day mortality rate was 27.2%. Composite secondary pulmonary outcomes occurred in half of the vascular patients (N.=275, 45.7%).

CONCLUSIONS: Mortality following vascular surgery in COVID positive patients was significantly higher than levels reported pre-pandemic, and similar to that seen in other specialties in the COVIDSurg cohort. Initiatives and surgical pathways that ensure vascular patients are protected from exposure to COVID-19 in the peri-operative period are vital to protect against excess mortality.

Collaborative, P. Gorg, "{Pancreatic surgery outcomes: multicentre prospective snapshot study in 67 countries}", British Journal of Surgery, pp. znad330, 11, 2023. AbstractWebsite

{Pancreatic surgery remains associated with high morbidity rates. Although postoperative mortality appears to have improved with specialization, the outcomes reported in the literature reflect the activity of highly specialized centres. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes following pancreatic surgery worldwide.This was an international, prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional snapshot study of consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic operations worldwide in a 3-month interval in 2021. The primary outcome was postoperative mortality within 90 days of surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore relationships with Human Development Index (HDI) and other parameters.A total of 4223 patients from 67 countries were analysed. A complication of any severity was detected in 68.7 per cent of patients (2901 of 4223). Major complication rates (Clavien–Dindo grade at least IIIa) were 24, 18, and 27 per cent, and mortality rates were 10, 5, and 5 per cent in low-to-middle-, high-, and very high-HDI countries respectively. The 90-day postoperative mortality rate was 5.4 per cent (229 of 4223) overall, but was significantly higher in the low-to-middle-HDI group (adjusted OR 2.88, 95 per cent c.i. 1.80 to 4.48). The overall failure-to-rescue rate was 21 per cent; however, it was 41 per cent in low-to-middle- compared with 19 per cent in very high-HDI countries.Excess mortality in low-to-middle-HDI countries could be attributable to failure to rescue of patients from severe complications. The authors call for a collaborative response from international and regional associations of pancreatic surgeons to address management related to death from postoperative complications to tackle the global disparities in the outcomes of pancreatic surgery (NCT04652271; ISRCTN95140761).Pancreatic surgery can sometimes lead to health problems afterwards. Although some top hospitals report good results, it is not clear how patients are doing all over the world. The aim was to find out how people are recovering after pancreatic surgery in different countries, and to see whether where they live affects their health outcomes after pancreatic surgery. The health records of 4223 patients from 67 countries who had pancreatic surgery in a 3-month interval in 2021 were studied, especially looking at how many people faced serious complications or passed away within 90 days of the surgery. Almost 7 in 10 patients faced some health problems after operation. The chance of having a major health issue or dying after the surgery was higher in countries with fewer resources and less developed healthcare. For example, 10 of 100 patients died after the surgery in these countries, but only 5 of 100 patients did in richer countries. What stands out is that countries with fewer resources have a tougher time getting patients back to health when things go wrong after surgery. It is hoped that doctors and medical groups worldwide can work together to improve these outcomes and give everyone the best chance of recovering well after pancreatic surgery.}

El Barbary, M. M., B. Magdy, M. ElFiky, A. M. K. Wishahy, A. Hussein, M. L. Naguib, and M. E. Seoudi, Outcome of primary posterior tracheopexy in thoracoscopically repaired esophageal atresia neonates with tracheomalacia; single center's experience, , vol. 3, pp. 100048, 2023. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundTracheomalacia frequently develops in esophageal atresia patients (EA) especially in those with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Conservative management has been the standard treatment; however, it was reported that delay in management could result in chronic lung conditions. Thus, early surgical interventions have been recently recommended.
Patients and Methods
We enrolled patients presented with type-C esophageal atresia, with concomitant moderate to severe tracheomalacia, who had their thoracoscopic intervention done during the study period 2019–2022. Early and intermediate- term outcomes were studied and compared to another cohort with mild or no tracheomalacia.
During the allocated study period, 24 patients met the inclusion criteria for tracheopexy, but only 17 were followed up due to early demise of the other seven. During the follow-up period, 7/17 patients developed respiratory symptoms, which were attributed to esophageal stricture in 5 patients, recurrent TEF in 2 patients and one of them had residual tracheomalacia in addition to the developed recurrent TEF. The outcomes of the enrolled patients for tracheopexy were similar to those with no or mild tracheomalacia.
Primary posterior tracheopexy during the primary repair might be considered a safe and feasible option not only to alleviate respiratory symptoms secondary to tracheomalacia in EA patients, but also to decline the need of further surgical interventions. However, more comprehensive studies with long-term follow-ups are mandatory.

Kachapila, M., M. Monahan, A. O. Ademuyiwa, Y. M. Adinoyi, B. M. Biccard, C. George, D. N. Ghosh, J. Glasbey, D. G. Morton, O. Osayomwanbo, et al., Exploring the cost-effectiveness of high versus low perioperative fraction of inspired oxygen in the prevention of surgical site infections among abdominal surgery patients in three low- and middle-income countries, , vol. 7, pp. 100207, 2023. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundThis study assessed the potential cost-effectiveness of high (80–100%) vs low (21–35%) fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) after abdominal surgery in Nigeria, India, and South Africa.
Decision-analytic models were constructed using best available evidence sourced from unbundled data of an ongoing pilot trial assessing the effectiveness of high FiO2, published literature, and a cost survey in Nigeria, India, and South Africa. Effectiveness was measured as percentage of SSIs at 30 days after surgery, a healthcare perspective was adopted, and costs were reported in US dollars ($).
High FiO2 may be cost-effective (cheaper and effective). In Nigeria, the average cost for high FiO2 was $216 compared with $222 for low FiO2 leading to a −$6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −$13 to −$1) difference in costs. In India, the average cost for high FiO2 was $184 compared with $195 for low FiO2 leading to a −$11 (95% CI: −$15 to −$6) difference in costs. In South Africa, the average cost for high FiO2 was $1164 compared with $1257 for low FiO2 leading to a −$93 (95% CI: −$132 to −$65) difference in costs. The high FiO2 arm had few SSIs, 7.33% compared with 8.38% for low FiO2, leading to a −1.05 (95% CI: −1.14 to −0.90) percentage point reduction in SSIs.
High FiO2 could be cost-effective at preventing SSIs in the three countries but further data from large clinical trials are required to confirm this.

NIHR Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery, G. S. C., "Use of Telemedicine for Post-discharge Assessment of the Surgical Wound: International Cohort Study, and Systematic Review with Meta-analysis", Annals of Surgery, 9900, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Objective:This study aimed to determine whether remote wound reviews using telemedicine can be safely upscaled, and if standardised assessment tools are needed.

Summary Background Data:

Surgical site infection is the most common complication of surgery worldwide, and frequently occurs after hospital discharge. Evidence to support implementation of telemedicine during postoperative recovery will be an essential component of pandemic recovery.


The primary outcome of this study was surgical site infection reported up to 30-days after surgery (SSI), comparing rates reported using telemedicine (telephone and/or video assessment) to those with in-person review. The first part of this study analysed primary data from an international cohort study of adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery who were discharged from hospital before 30-days after surgery. The second part combined this data with the results of a systematic review to perform a meta-analysis of all available data conducted in accordance with PRIMSA guidelines (PROSPERO:192596).


The cohort study included 15,358 patients from 66 countries (8069 high, 4448 middle, 1744 low income). Of these, 6907 (45.0%) were followed up using telemedicine. The SSI rate reported using telemedicine was slightly lower than with in-person follow-up (13.4% vs. 11.1%, P<0.001), which persisted after risk adjustment in a mixed-effects model (adjusted odds ratio: 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.84, P<0.001). This association was consistent across sensitivity and subgroup analyses, including a propensity-score matched model. In nine eligible non-randomised studies identified, a pooled mean of 64% of patients underwent telemedicine follow-up. Upon meta-analysis, the SSI rate reported was lower with telemedicine (odds ratio: 0.67, 0.47-0.94) than in-person (reference) follow-up (I2=0.45, P=0.12), although there a high risk of bias in included studies.


Use of telemedicine to assess the surgical wound post-discharge is feasible, but risks underreporting of SSI. Standardised tools for remote assessment of SSI must be evaluated and adopted as telemedicine is upscaled globally.

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