Collaborative, P. Gorg, "{Pancreatic surgery outcomes: multicentre prospective snapshot study in 67 countries}", British Journal of Surgery, pp. znad330, 11, 2023. AbstractWebsite

{Pancreatic surgery remains associated with high morbidity rates. Although postoperative mortality appears to have improved with specialization, the outcomes reported in the literature reflect the activity of highly specialized centres. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes following pancreatic surgery worldwide.This was an international, prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional snapshot study of consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic operations worldwide in a 3-month interval in 2021. The primary outcome was postoperative mortality within 90 days of surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore relationships with Human Development Index (HDI) and other parameters.A total of 4223 patients from 67 countries were analysed. A complication of any severity was detected in 68.7 per cent of patients (2901 of 4223). Major complication rates (Clavien–Dindo grade at least IIIa) were 24, 18, and 27 per cent, and mortality rates were 10, 5, and 5 per cent in low-to-middle-, high-, and very high-HDI countries respectively. The 90-day postoperative mortality rate was 5.4 per cent (229 of 4223) overall, but was significantly higher in the low-to-middle-HDI group (adjusted OR 2.88, 95 per cent c.i. 1.80 to 4.48). The overall failure-to-rescue rate was 21 per cent; however, it was 41 per cent in low-to-middle- compared with 19 per cent in very high-HDI countries.Excess mortality in low-to-middle-HDI countries could be attributable to failure to rescue of patients from severe complications. The authors call for a collaborative response from international and regional associations of pancreatic surgeons to address management related to death from postoperative complications to tackle the global disparities in the outcomes of pancreatic surgery (NCT04652271; ISRCTN95140761).Pancreatic surgery can sometimes lead to health problems afterwards. Although some top hospitals report good results, it is not clear how patients are doing all over the world. The aim was to find out how people are recovering after pancreatic surgery in different countries, and to see whether where they live affects their health outcomes after pancreatic surgery. The health records of 4223 patients from 67 countries who had pancreatic surgery in a 3-month interval in 2021 were studied, especially looking at how many people faced serious complications or passed away within 90 days of the surgery. Almost 7 in 10 patients faced some health problems after operation. The chance of having a major health issue or dying after the surgery was higher in countries with fewer resources and less developed healthcare. For example, 10 of 100 patients died after the surgery in these countries, but only 5 of 100 patients did in richer countries. What stands out is that countries with fewer resources have a tougher time getting patients back to health when things go wrong after surgery. It is hoped that doctors and medical groups worldwide can work together to improve these outcomes and give everyone the best chance of recovering well after pancreatic surgery.}

El Barbary, M. M., B. Magdy, M. ElFiky, A. M. K. Wishahy, A. Hussein, M. L. Naguib, and M. E. Seoudi, Outcome of primary posterior tracheopexy in thoracoscopically repaired esophageal atresia neonates with tracheomalacia; single center's experience, , vol. 3, pp. 100048, 2023. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundTracheomalacia frequently develops in esophageal atresia patients (EA) especially in those with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Conservative management has been the standard treatment; however, it was reported that delay in management could result in chronic lung conditions. Thus, early surgical interventions have been recently recommended.
Patients and Methods
We enrolled patients presented with type-C esophageal atresia, with concomitant moderate to severe tracheomalacia, who had their thoracoscopic intervention done during the study period 2019–2022. Early and intermediate- term outcomes were studied and compared to another cohort with mild or no tracheomalacia.
During the allocated study period, 24 patients met the inclusion criteria for tracheopexy, but only 17 were followed up due to early demise of the other seven. During the follow-up period, 7/17 patients developed respiratory symptoms, which were attributed to esophageal stricture in 5 patients, recurrent TEF in 2 patients and one of them had residual tracheomalacia in addition to the developed recurrent TEF. The outcomes of the enrolled patients for tracheopexy were similar to those with no or mild tracheomalacia.
Primary posterior tracheopexy during the primary repair might be considered a safe and feasible option not only to alleviate respiratory symptoms secondary to tracheomalacia in EA patients, but also to decline the need of further surgical interventions. However, more comprehensive studies with long-term follow-ups are mandatory.

Kachapila, M., M. Monahan, A. O. Ademuyiwa, Y. M. Adinoyi, B. M. Biccard, C. George, D. N. Ghosh, J. Glasbey, D. G. Morton, O. Osayomwanbo, et al., Exploring the cost-effectiveness of high versus low perioperative fraction of inspired oxygen in the prevention of surgical site infections among abdominal surgery patients in three low- and middle-income countries, , vol. 7, pp. 100207, 2023. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundThis study assessed the potential cost-effectiveness of high (80–100%) vs low (21–35%) fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) after abdominal surgery in Nigeria, India, and South Africa.
Decision-analytic models were constructed using best available evidence sourced from unbundled data of an ongoing pilot trial assessing the effectiveness of high FiO2, published literature, and a cost survey in Nigeria, India, and South Africa. Effectiveness was measured as percentage of SSIs at 30 days after surgery, a healthcare perspective was adopted, and costs were reported in US dollars ($).
High FiO2 may be cost-effective (cheaper and effective). In Nigeria, the average cost for high FiO2 was $216 compared with $222 for low FiO2 leading to a −$6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −$13 to −$1) difference in costs. In India, the average cost for high FiO2 was $184 compared with $195 for low FiO2 leading to a −$11 (95% CI: −$15 to −$6) difference in costs. In South Africa, the average cost for high FiO2 was $1164 compared with $1257 for low FiO2 leading to a −$93 (95% CI: −$132 to −$65) difference in costs. The high FiO2 arm had few SSIs, 7.33% compared with 8.38% for low FiO2, leading to a −1.05 (95% CI: −1.14 to −0.90) percentage point reduction in SSIs.
High FiO2 could be cost-effective at preventing SSIs in the three countries but further data from large clinical trials are required to confirm this.

for and on Surgery, N. I. H. C. R. G. H. R. U. G., Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries, , pp. znad092, 2023/04/20. AbstractWebsite

Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres.This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries.In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia.This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries.The effects of climate change need urgent action. Most countries and organizations have made commitments to reduce carbon. Healthcare, and especially surgery, is responsible for producing a large amount of carbon and for other behaviours that are harmful to the environment. The aim of this study was to identify the most practical and safe interventions to make surgery more environmentally friendly. Interventions to achieve green surgery were found in the literature and added to a list. The list was ordered and shortened, following advice of doctors and patients. The safest and most practical interventions were at the top. The top three areas for change were to reduce the use of one-use items and energy, recycle, and manage waste appropriately. There are several ways that we can make surgery greener. The list produced gives us practical examples of what can be done.

NIHR Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery, G. S. C., "Use of Telemedicine for Post-discharge Assessment of the Surgical Wound: International Cohort Study, and Systematic Review with Meta-analysis", Annals of Surgery, 9900, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Objective:This study aimed to determine whether remote wound reviews using telemedicine can be safely upscaled, and if standardised assessment tools are needed.

Summary Background Data:

Surgical site infection is the most common complication of surgery worldwide, and frequently occurs after hospital discharge. Evidence to support implementation of telemedicine during postoperative recovery will be an essential component of pandemic recovery.


The primary outcome of this study was surgical site infection reported up to 30-days after surgery (SSI), comparing rates reported using telemedicine (telephone and/or video assessment) to those with in-person review. The first part of this study analysed primary data from an international cohort study of adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery who were discharged from hospital before 30-days after surgery. The second part combined this data with the results of a systematic review to perform a meta-analysis of all available data conducted in accordance with PRIMSA guidelines (PROSPERO:192596).


The cohort study included 15,358 patients from 66 countries (8069 high, 4448 middle, 1744 low income). Of these, 6907 (45.0%) were followed up using telemedicine. The SSI rate reported using telemedicine was slightly lower than with in-person follow-up (13.4% vs. 11.1%, P<0.001), which persisted after risk adjustment in a mixed-effects model (adjusted odds ratio: 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.84, P<0.001). This association was consistent across sensitivity and subgroup analyses, including a propensity-score matched model. In nine eligible non-randomised studies identified, a pooled mean of 64% of patients underwent telemedicine follow-up. Upon meta-analysis, the SSI rate reported was lower with telemedicine (odds ratio: 0.67, 0.47-0.94) than in-person (reference) follow-up (I2=0.45, P=0.12), although there a high risk of bias in included studies.


Use of telemedicine to assess the surgical wound post-discharge is feasible, but risks underreporting of SSI. Standardised tools for remote assessment of SSI must be evaluated and adopted as telemedicine is upscaled globally.

Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Paterson, A., S. Maswime, A. Hardy, R. M. Pearse, and B. M. Biccard, Postoperative outcomes associated with surgical care for women in Africa: an international risk-adjusted analysis of prospective observational cohorts, , vol. 4, pp. 100100, 2022. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundImproving women's health is a critical component of the sustainable development goals. Although obstetric outcomes in Africa have received significant focus, non-obstetric surgical outcomes for women in Africa remain under-examined.
We did a secondary analysis of the African Surgical Outcomes Study (ASOS) and International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS), two 7-day prospective observational cohort studies of outcomes after adult inpatient surgery. This sub-study focuses specifically on the analysis of the female, elective, non-obstetric, non-gynaecological surgical data collected during these two large multicentre studies. The African data from both cohorts are compared with international (non-African) outcomes in a risk-adjusted logistic regression analysis using a generalised linear mixed-effects model. The primary outcome was severe postoperative complications including in-hospital mortality in Africa compared with non-African outcomes.
A total of 1698 African participants and 18 449 international participants met the inclusion criteria. The African cohort were younger than the international cohort with a lower preoperative risk profile. Severe complications occurred in 48 (2.9%) of 1671, and 431 (2.3%) of 18 449 patients in the African and international cohorts, respectively, with in-hospital mortality after severe complications of 23/48 (47.9%) in Africa and 78/431 (18.1%) internationally. Women in Africa had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.17–3.62; P=0.012) of developing a severe postoperative complication after elective non-obstetric, non-gynaecological surgery, compared with the international cohort.
Women in Africa have double the risk adjusted odds of severe postoperative complications (including in-hospital mortality) after elective non-obstetric, non-gynaecological surgery compared with the international incidence.

Gad, M. A., M. M. Qinawy, O. Abdelazim, S. N. Kaddah, M. M. Elbarbary, and M. A. Elfiky, Comparative study of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication versus Hill-Snow procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, , vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 8, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition in children. Complete fundoplication provides better reflux control but it results in more dysphagia and gas-bloat symptoms. Antireflux surgery without wrap has fewer adverse effects but a higher failure rate in controlling reflux. Until now, there is little evidence as to whether complete or partial fundoplication is the optimal procedure in this age group.

Kluyts, H. - L., G. J. Bedwell, A. G. Bedada, T. Fadalla, A. Hewitt-Smith, B. A. Mbwele, B. Mrara, A. Omigbodun, J. Omoshoro-Jones, E. W. Turton, et al., Determining the Minimum Dataset for Surgical Patients in Africa: A Delphi Study, , 2022. AbstractWebsite

It is often difficult for clinicians in African low- and middle-income countries middle-income countries to access useful aggregated data to identify areas for quality improvement. The aim of this Delphi study was to develop a standardised perioperative dataset for use in a registry.

Glasbey, J. C., T. E. F. Abbott, A. Ademuyiwa, A. Adisa, E. Alameer, S. Alshryda, A. P. Arnaud, B. Bankhead-Kendall, M. K. Abou Chaar, D. Chaudhry, et al., Elective surgery system strengthening: development, measurement, and validation of the surgical preparedness index across 1632 hospitals in 119 countries, , vol. 400, issue 10363, pp. 1607 - 1617, 2022. AbstractWebsite

The 2015 Lancet Commission on global surgery identified surgery and anaesthesia as indispensable parts of holistic health-care systems. However, COVID-19 exposed the fragility of planned surgical services around the world, which have also been neglected in pandemic recovery planning. This study aimed to develop and validate a novel index to support local elective surgical system strengthening and address growing backlogs.
First, we performed an international consultation through a four-stage consensus process to develop a multidomain index for hospital-level assessment (surgical preparedness index; SPI). Second, we measured surgical preparedness across a global network of hospitals in high-income countries (HICs), middle-income countries (MICs), and low-income countries (LICs) to explore the distribution of the SPI at national, subnational, and hospital levels. Finally, using COVID-19 as an example of an external system shock, we compared hospitals' SPI to their planned surgical volume ratio (SVR; ie, operations for which the decision for surgery was made before hospital admission), calculated as the ratio of the observed surgical volume over a 1-month assessment period between June 6 and Aug 5, 2021, against the expected surgical volume based on hospital administrative data from the same period in 2019 (ie, a pre-pandemic baseline). A linear mixed-effects regression model was used to determine the effect of increasing SPI score.
In the first phase, from a longlist of 103 candidate indicators, 23 were prioritised as core indicators of elective surgical system preparedness by 69 clinicians (23 [33%] women; 46 [67%] men; 41 from HICs, 22 from MICs, and six from LICs) from 32 countries. The multidomain SPI included 11 indicators on facilities and consumables, two on staffing, two on prioritisation, and eight on systems. Hospitals were scored from 23 (least prepared) to 115 points (most prepared). In the second phase, surgical preparedness was measured in 1632 hospitals by 4714 clinicians from 119 countries. 745 (45·6%) of 1632 hospitals were in MICs or LICs. The mean SPI score was 84·5 (95% CI 84·1–84·9), which varied between HIC (88·5 [89·0–88·0]), MIC (81·8 [82·5–81·1]), and LIC (66·8 [64·9–68·7]) settings. In the third phase, 1217 (74·6%) hospitals did not maintain their expected SVR during the COVID-19 pandemic, of which 625 (51·4%) were from HIC, 538 (44·2%) from MIC, and 54 (4·4%) from LIC settings. In the mixed-effects model, a 10-point increase in SPI corresponded to a 3·6% (95% CI 3·0–4·1; p<0·0001) increase in SVR. This was consistent in HIC (4·8% [4·1–5·5]; p<0·0001), MIC (2·8 [2·0–3·7]; p<0·0001), and LIC (3·8 [1·3–6·7%]; p<0·0001) settings.
The SPI contains 23 indicators that are globally applicable, relevant across different system stressors, vary at a subnational level, and are collectable by front-line teams. In the case study of COVID-19, a higher SPI was associated with an increased planned surgical volume ratio independent of country income status, COVID-19 burden, and hospital type. Hospitals should perform annual self-assessment of their surgical preparedness to identify areas that can be improved, create resilience in local surgical systems, and upscale capacity to address elective surgery backlogs.
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery, NIHR Academy, Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel Research UK, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, and Medtronic.

ElFiky, M., M. Gad, M. Elbarbary, S. Kaddah, and G. Eltagy, "Implementation of a bowel management program in the treatment of incontinence in children for primary healthcare providers", Annals of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 21-25, 2017. Abstract166976-article_text-430068-1-10-20180219.pdfWebsite

Objectives: Our surgical team has devised a bowel management program (BMP) as a basic approach for primary healthcare providers with the least use of resources.

Background: Soiling in children is a major problem that has a serious impact on the child’s social and psychological life. Causes vary from idiopathic constipation to postoperative or neuropathic causes as meningomyelocele.

Participants and methods: Seventy five children suffering from fecal incontinence were assessed and divided into true incontinence and pseudoincontinence groups. The BMP was applied to both categories in the form of proper diet control, enemas, drugs, and bowel habit alteration. The program was fashioned according to the age, type, severity, and response of each case. A fecal incontinence scoring system was used to assess the results.

Results: All cases with pseudoincontinence attained 50% or more improvement in incontinence score whereas the true incontinence cases attained excellent results except in post high anorectal malformation repairs and neurologic groups.

Conclusion: Most of the cases suffering from constipation with pseudoincontinence can be treated properly by BMPs, whereas the minority suffering from true incontinence need multidisciplinary work to achieve acceptable results.