Farag, M. A., A. R. Khattab, A. A. Maamoun, M. Kropf, and A. G. Heiss, "UPLC-MS metabolome based classification of Lupinus and Lens seeds: A prospect for phyto-equivalency of its different accessions.", Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), vol. 115, pp. 379-392, 2019. Abstract

Fabaceae is well-known for its seed nutritious and bioactive composition as exemplified by Lupinus and Lens. Developing efficient analytical approaches for profiling their bioactive matrix is a prerequisite to provide proof for their health benefits or nutritive traits. Eight Lupinus and Lens seed accessions were subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS)-based metabolomic study, which identified 66 metabolites, viz. flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenolics, fatty acids and sphingolipids. Chemometric tools were explored to assess heterogeneity across the two genera leading to elucidation of the species-most enriched and differential metabolites. The two dark-colored lentil cultivars are identified as the richest source of functional foods with presumed therapeutic benefits; however, Lupinus hispanicus was proved to be the most nutritive accession. To our knowledge, this study provides the first UPLC-MS-based comparative metabolite profiling of Lupinus and Lens seeds. This platform was also able to discern metabolites diversity at the intraspecific level among Lupinus species and Lens cultivars.

Farag, M. A., D. M. El-Kersh, A. Ehrlich, M. A. Choucry, H. El-Seedi, A. Frolov, and L. A. Wessjohann, "Variation in Ceratonia siliqua pod metabolome in context of its different geographical origin, ripening stage and roasting process.", Food chemistry, vol. 283, pp. 675-687, 2019. Abstract

Carob is a legume tree of a considerable commercial importance for the flavor and sweet industry. In this context, it is cultivated mostly for its pods, which are known for their nutritive value and multiple health benefits. However, metabolite patterns, underlying these properties are still mostly uncharacterized. In this study, the role of geographical origin, ontogenetic changes and thermal processing on the Ceratonia siliqua pod metabolome was assessed by mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics. Thereby, a total of 70 fruits primary metabolites, represented mainly by carbohydrates, organic and amino acids were detected. Analysis of secondary bioactive metabolites assessed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HR-MS) revealed in total 83 signals. The major signals, most significantly contributing in discrimination of C. siliqua specimens were assigned to tannins and flavonoids. PCA models derived from either UHPLC-MS or GC-MS proved to be powerful tools for discrimination of C. siliqua specimens.

m Fayek, N., M. A. Farag, A. R. Abdel Monem, M. Y. Moussa, S. M. Abd-Elwahab, and N. D. El-Tanbouly, "Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Four Citrus Peel Cultivars via Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry and Multivariate Data Analyses.", Journal of chromatographic science, vol. 57, issue 4, pp. 349-360, 2019. Abstract

Citrus plants are one of the most economical fruit bearing trees grown worldwide for their medicinal use as well as for the flavor and food industry. This study attempts to characterize the metabolome difference in polyphenols of four Citrus species fruit peels; C. reticulata Blanco cv. Egyptian, C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Olinda Valencia, C. aurantiifolia Swingle cv. Mexican and C. paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry platform. A total of 163 metabolites were characterized of which 28 were detected for the first time in Citrus cultivars including eight coumarin derivatives, three cinnamic acids conjugates, one polymethoxyflavone, 5 O-glycosides, 2 C-glycosides, three flavone-di-O-glucosides and six acetyl sugar derivatives of luteolin and kaempferol in addition to oxygenated and methylated fatty acids. Flavonoids amounted for the most abundant secondary metabolites class in the studied Citrus peels. The relative variability among these Citrus peels was estimated using clustering analysis with flavonoids accounting for cvs. segregation. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the chemical similarity of C. reticulata, C. sinensis and C. paradise peels and being distant them from that of C. aurantiifolia. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report for metabolite compositional differences in these four Citrus peels.

Farag, M. A., and Z. A. T. Shakour, "Metabolomics driven analysis of 11 Portulaca leaf taxa as analysed via UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and chemometrics.", Phytochemistry, vol. 161, pp. 117-129, 2019. Abstract

Portulaca oleracea, commonly known as purslane, is a popular plant of considerable value for its nutritive composition as well as traditional medicinal uses. P. oleracea is reported to possess neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities. Three taxa of P. oleracea L. (P. oleracea, P. rausii and P. granulatostellulata) are grown as mixed populations in several locations in Egypt. The close morphological similarities among these taxa warrants development of methods for their correct identification or classification. We aimed in this study to assess metabolome differences among three P. oleracea taxa via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in the context of their genetic diversity and/or geographical origin. A total of 85 metabolites were identified including 6 amino acids, 22 phenolic compounds, 16 alkaloids, and 11 fatty acids characterized based on their MS and UV spectra. Methoxylated flavone glycosides, O-flavonoids, C-flavonoids and four previously undescribed cyclodopa alkaloids are reported in P. oleracea for the first time. Multivariate data analyses were used for samples classification and revealing that cyclodopa alkaloids (oleracein A, C, K and N) contributed the most for accessions classification. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first metabolite profile of Portulaca and its compositional differences that provide chemical based evidence for its nutritive and/or health benefits.

Ali, S. E., R. A. El Gedaily, A. Mocan, M. A. Farag, and H. R. El-Seedi, "Profiling Metabolites and Biological Activities of Sugarcane ( Linn.) Juice and its Product Molasses a Multiplex Metabolomics Approach.", Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 24, issue 5, 2019. Abstract

Sugarcane ( L.) is an important perennial grass in the Poaceae family cultivated worldwide due to its economical and medicinal value. In this study, a combined approach using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was employed for the large-scale metabolite profiling of sugarcane juice and its by-product molasses. The polyphenols were analysed via UPLC-UV-ESI-MS, whereas the primary metabolites such as sugars and organic and amino acids were profiled using NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). UPLC/MS was more effective than NMR spectroscopy or GC/MS for determining differences among the metabolite compositions of the products. Under the optimized conditions, UPLC/MS led to the identification of 42 metabolites, including nine flavonoids, nine fatty acids, and two sterols. C/O Flavone glycosides were the main subclass detected, with tricin-7-O-deoxyhexosyl glucuronide being detected in sugarcane and molasses for the first time. Based on GC/MS analysis, disaccharides were the predominant species in the sugarcane juice and molasses, with sucrose accounting for 66% and 59%, respectively, by mass of all identified metabolites. The phenolic profiles of sugarcane and molasses were further investigated in relation to their in vitro antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging assays such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging ability (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In view of its higher total phenolic content (TPC) (196 ± 2.1 mg GAE/100 g extract) compared to that of sugarcane juice (93 ± 2.9 mg GAE/100 g extract), molasses exhibited a substantially higher antioxidant effect. Interestingly, both extracts were also found to inhibit α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes, suggesting a possible antihyperglycaemic effect. These findings suggest molasses may be a new source of natural antioxidants for functional foods.

Ali, S. E., R. A. El Gedaily, A. Mocan, M. A. Farag, and H. R. El-Seedi, "Profiling Metabolites and Biological Activities of Sugarcane ( Linn.) Juice and its Product Molasses a Multiplex Metabolomics Approach.", Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 24, issue 5, 2019. Abstract

Sugarcane ( L.) is an important perennial grass in the Poaceae family cultivated worldwide due to its economical and medicinal value. In this study, a combined approach using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was employed for the large-scale metabolite profiling of sugarcane juice and its by-product molasses. The polyphenols were analysed via UPLC-UV-ESI-MS, whereas the primary metabolites such as sugars and organic and amino acids were profiled using NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). UPLC/MS was more effective than NMR spectroscopy or GC/MS for determining differences among the metabolite compositions of the products. Under the optimized conditions, UPLC/MS led to the identification of 42 metabolites, including nine flavonoids, nine fatty acids, and two sterols. C/O Flavone glycosides were the main subclass detected, with tricin-7-O-deoxyhexosyl glucuronide being detected in sugarcane and molasses for the first time. Based on GC/MS analysis, disaccharides were the predominant species in the sugarcane juice and molasses, with sucrose accounting for 66% and 59%, respectively, by mass of all identified metabolites. The phenolic profiles of sugarcane and molasses were further investigated in relation to their in vitro antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging assays such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging ability (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In view of its higher total phenolic content (TPC) (196 ± 2.1 mg GAE/100 g extract) compared to that of sugarcane juice (93 ± 2.9 mg GAE/100 g extract), molasses exhibited a substantially higher antioxidant effect. Interestingly, both extracts were also found to inhibit α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes, suggesting a possible antihyperglycaemic effect. These findings suggest molasses may be a new source of natural antioxidants for functional foods.

Sakna, S. T., A. Mocan, H. N. Sultani, N. A. B. A. W. E. Y. A. M. EL-FIKY, L. A. Wessjohann, and M. A. Farag, "Metabolites profiling of Ziziphus leaf taxa via UHPLC/PDA/ESI-MS in relation to their biological activities.", Food chemistry, vol. 293, pp. 233-246, 2019. Abstract

Ziziphus plants are well recognized for their nutritive and medicinal value worldwide, albeit their chemical profile has yet to be fully reported. The secondary metabolites profile of three traditionally used Ziziphus leaf accessions was investigated via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and electrospray ionization mass detectors (UHPLC/PDA/ESI-MS). A total of 102 metabolites were characterized revealing the first holistic approach onto Ziziphus leaf metabolome and to include the first report of several novel flavonoids and cyclopeptide alkaloids. Fragmentation pattern for cyclopeptide alkaloids was proposed via ESI-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed close metabolite resemblance among Z. spina-christi and Z. mauritiana leaf specimens found enriched in saponins and distinct from that of Z. jujuba in which quercetin-3-O-(2-pentosyl)-rhamnoside was most abundant. Further, in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic assays revealed for Z. spina-christi and Z. mauritiana strong effects compared to Z. jujuba and in correlation with their metabolites repertoire.

Farrag, A. R. H., H. M. I. Abdallah, A. R. Khattab, A. I. Elshamy, A. E. - N. E. G. Gendy, T. A. Mohamed, M. A. Farag, T. Efferth, and M. - E. F. Hegazy, "Antiulcer activity of Cyperus alternifolius in relation to its UPLC-MS metabolite fingerprint: A mechanistic study.", Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, vol. 62, pp. 152970, 2019. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Gastric ulcer is one of the main prevalent gastrointestinal multi-etiological disorders with many associated complications and adverse effects. Our aim was to develop safer antiulcer therapies based on methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of tubers and aerial parts from Cyperus alternifolius.

METHODS: Gastric ulceration was experimentally generated by administration of single oral doses of indomethacin (30 mg/kg) to fasted rats. The animals received methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of C. alternifolius tuber and methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of aerial parts at two dose levels (50 or 100 mg/kg). Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was used as standard anti-ulcer drug. After 4 h, the ulcer number and the total ulcer score were determined and TNF-α was assessed. Also, pathological and histochemical examination for gastric mucosa were performed. The metabolome heterogeneity of the different extracts was explored using (UPLC-MS) aided by supervised pattern recognition, i.e., orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). A second OPLS-DA model was employed to link the UPLC-MS derived metabolome of the different extracts to their antiulcer activity to identify activity mediating metabolites.

RESULTS: The extracts significantly reduced ulcer number, total ulcer score and TNF-α content in the stomach. Methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of tubers were most effective even more than ranitidine. In parallel, the histopathological examination showed an improvement of damaged mucosa. A high PAS reaction was observed in the treated groups indicating a relieve of the mucosal layer. A mechanistic clue of the C. alternifolius antiulcer potential was provided by the identification of its bioactive compounds using OPLS-DA. Both methanol extracts of tubers and aerial parts were more enriched in phenolic acids. The ethyl acetate extract of the aerial part was more abundant in two aldehydes. A mechanism of action was postulated based on their reported actions viz. α-carbonic anhydrase inhibition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity by its antioxidant activity and downregulation of several inflammatory mediators.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report on the antiulcer activity of C. alternifolius tubers with identification of the key bioactive compounds and the mode of action. Future phytochemical and biological evaluation of the identified bioactive compounds are needed to confirm the plant tubers as safer alternative or adjunct therapy compared to conventional antiulcer drugs.

Khaled, S. E., F. A. - M. Hashem, M. H. Shabana, A. - M. M. Hammam, A. N. A. Madboli, D. A. Al-Mahdy, and M. A. Farag, "A biochemometric approach for the assessment of Phyllanthus emblica female fertility effects as determined via UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS and GC-MS.", Food & function, vol. 10, issue 8, pp. 4620-4635, 2019. Abstract

Phyllanthus emblica L. fruits have long been used in Ayurvedic medicine for their many health benefits. In this study, we present P. emblica fruit crude extract and fractions' effects on the female reproductive system by assessing its estrogenic and gonadotropic activities. Results revealed that the non-polar petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited the strongest estrogenic and follicle-stimulating hormone-like [FSH] activity, while the n-butanol fraction exhibited a significant luteinizing hormone-like [LH] activity. The ethyl acetate fraction showed neither estrogenic nor gonadotropic activities and in contrast it may impair female fertility suggesting that different metabolite classes contribute to the plant's overall effect on female fertility. To pinpoint active agents in these fractions, UPLC/ESI-qTOF-MS- was employed for secondary metabolite profiling with 100 metabolites annotated including ellagitannins, gallic acid derivatives, terpeneoids, sterols, phthalates and fatty acids. Correlation between extracts/fraction bioassays and UPLC/MS data was attempted using orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealing that guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, phthalates, diterpenes and oxygenated fatty acids showed positive correlation with estrogenic and gonadotropic activities. In contrast, mucic acid gallates, gallic acid derivatives and ellagitannins correlated negatively. GC/MS analysis of the non-polar bioactive fractions viz. petroleum ether and chloroform was also attempted which revealed its enrichment in fatty acids/fatty acyl esters (34%) and phenolic compounds (19.6%). This study provides the first report on the estrogenic and gonadotropic activities of P. emblica fruits in relation to their metabolite fingerprint.

Khalifa, S. A. M., N. Elias, M. A. Farag, L. Chen, A. Saeed, M. - E. F. Hegazy, M. S. Moustafa, A. Abd El-Wahed, S. M. Al-Mousawi, S. G. Musharraf, et al., "Marine Natural Products: A Source of Novel Anticancer Drugs.", Marine drugs, vol. 17, issue 9, 2019. Abstract

Cancer remains one of the most lethal diseases worldwide. There is an urgent need for new drugs with novel modes of action and thus considerable research has been conducted for new anticancer drugs from natural sources, especially plants, microbes and marine organisms. Marine populations represent reservoirs of novel bioactive metabolites with diverse groups of chemical structures. This review highlights the impact of marine organisms, with particular emphasis on marine plants, algae, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, sponges and soft corals. Anti-cancer effects of marine natural products in in vitro and in vivo studies were first introduced; their activity in the prevention of tumor formation and the related compound-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicities were tackled. The possible molecular mechanisms behind the biological effects are also presented. The review highlights the diversity of marine organisms, novel chemical structures, and chemical property space. Finally, therapeutic strategies and the present use of marine-derived components, its future direction and limitations are discussed.