Farag, M. A., E. A. El Hawary, and M. M. Elmassry, "Rediscovering acidophilus milk, its quality characteristics, manufacturing methods, flavor chemistry and nutritional value.", Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, vol. 60, issue 18, pp. 3024-3041, 2020. Abstract

Fermented dairy products represent an excellent source for a wide range of probiotics with several health benefits that add to the positive value of conventional milk. Acidophilus milk is a regular milk enriched with , one of the beneficial bacterial species found in the colon, that renders the product to exhibit an immunostimulant, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, or chemopreventive effect especially against colon cancer; in addition, for lactose intolerance treatment. However, most of bacterial species are very demanding and require specific nutritional and environmental conditions to survive. Probiotics suggested levels in fermented milk range from 10-10 colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL). The supplementation or fortification of acidophilus milk with different additives can improve not only the probiotics viability, nutritional value, and sensory properties but also its health benefits; this presents a strategy to improve its overall quality that has yet to be fully exploited by the dairy industry. Nowadays, several acidophilus milk products are flavored or sweetened with no detailed report on accompanied physical or chemical changes, which would ultimately affect consumer's preference and consumption. The main goal of this review is to present an up to date overview of the different fortified acidophilus milk products in context of different probiotic species, additives, and flavor-promoting compounds generated during the fermentation process. Analysis of extrinsic factors (sensory profile) and intrinsic factors (physicochemical characteristics and flavors) can predict the consumers' impression for new products and contribute to establishing a reference standard for the dairy industry towards the development of novel functional foods. Moreover, introduction to advanced analytical technologies exemplified in metabolomics technology is presented to determine acidophilus milk metabolites profile and distinguish different potential markers to be applied in the future in industrial section to improve the safety, quality, and authenticity of other fermented dairy products.

Farag, M. A., S. A. Jomaa, A. Abd El-Wahed, and A. H. R. El-Seedi, "The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety.", Nutrients, vol. 12, issue 2, 2020. Abstract

Kefir is a dairy product that can be prepared from different milk types, such as goat, buffalo, sheep, camel, or cow via microbial fermentation (inoculating milk with kefir grains). As such, kefir contains various bacteria and yeasts which influence its chemical and sensory characteristics. A mixture of two kinds of milk promotes kefir sensory and rheological properties aside from improving its nutritional value. Additives such as inulin can also enrich kefir's health qualities and organoleptic characters. Several metabolic products are generated during kefir production and account for its distinct flavour and aroma: Lactic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and aroma compounds such as acetoin and acetaldehyde. During the storage process, microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir can further undergo changes, some of which improve its shelf life. Kefir exhibits many health benefits owing to its antimicrobial, anticancer, gastrointestinal tract effects, gut microbiota modulation and anti-diabetic effects. The current review presents the state of the art relating to the role of probiotics, prebiotics, additives, and different manufacturing practices in the context of kefir's physicochemical, sensory, and chemical properties. A review of kefir's many nutritional and health benefits, underlying chemistry and limitations for usage is presented.

Khattab, A. R., and M. A. Farag, "Current status and perspectives of xanthones production using cultured plant biocatalyst models aided by tools for its optimization.", Critical reviews in biotechnology, vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 415-431, 2020. Abstract

With an increasing interest in exploring the biocatalyst potential for the production of natural products (NP), research in NP biotechnology now follows. Xanthones constitute an important class of phytochemicals exhibiting a myriad of bioactivities and potential for interacting with multimolecular targets, and xanthones are considered to be privileged phytochemical scaffolds in medicinal chemistry. Recent advances in xanthones biosynthetic pathways are outlined and their metabolic engineering. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art processes for the biotechnological production of xanthones, its limitations, and potential improvements. The tissue culturing methods employed for the production of xanthones from different species of plant are reviewed addressing differences in xanthone classes. This review sheds the light of computational approaches, , response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN), for optimizing the culture performance and improving xanthones production.

Farag, M. A., A. AbdelWareth, I. E. Sallam, M. El Shorbagi, N. Jehmlich, K. Fritz-Wallace, S. Serena Schäpe, U. Rolle-Kampczyk, A. Ehrlich, L. A. Wessjohann, et al., "Metabolomics reveals impact of seven functional foods on metabolic pathways in a gut microbiota model.", Journal of advanced research, vol. 23, pp. 47-59, 2020. Abstract

Functional food defined as dietary supplements that in addition to their nutritional values, can beneficially modulate body functions becomes more and more popular but the reaction of the intestinal microbiota to it is largely unknown. In order to analyse the impact of functional food on the microbiota itself it is necessary to focus on the physiology of the microbiota, which can be assessed in a whole by untargeted metabolomics. Obtaining a detailed description of the gut microbiota reaction to food ingredients can be a key to understand how these organisms regulate and bioprocess many of these food components. Extracts prepared from seven chief functional foods, namely green tea, black tea, (prickly pear, cactus pear), black coffee, green coffee, pomegranate, and sumac were administered to a gut consortium culture encompassing 8 microbes which are resembling, to a large extent, the metabolic activities found in the human gut. Samples were harvested at 0.5 and 24 h post addition of functional food extract and from blank culture in parallel and analysed for its metabolites composition using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). A total of 131 metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, alcohols, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic compounds, nitrogenous compounds, nucleic acids, phenolics, steroids and sugars, with amino acids as the most abundant class in cultures. Considering the complexity of such datasets, multivariate data analyses were employed to classify samples and investigate how functional foods influence gut microbiota metabolisms. Results from this study provided a first insights regarding how functional foods alter gut metabolism through either induction or inhibition of certain metabolic pathways, i.e. GABA production in the presence of higher acidity induced by functional food metabolites such as polyphenols. Likewise, functional food metabolites ., purine alkaloids acted themselves as direct substrate in microbiota metabolism.

Shakour, Z. A. T., N. m Fayek, and M. A. Farag, "How do biocatalysis and biotransformation affect dietary flavonoids chemistry and bioactivity? A review.", Critical reviews in biotechnology, vol. 40, issue 5, pp. 689-714, 2020. Abstract

Flavonoids, especially flavanones, flavones and polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are distinctive bioactive compounds of fruits. peel and juice by-products potentially represent rich sources of these flavonoids that exhibit a myriad of biological activities both in and systems. Recently, much attention has been made toward biotransformation processes as a promising tool for the structural modification of natural products to be used in the drug and food industries along with its role in solving pollution problems related to by-products disposal. In this article, we present a state of the art review on both and biotransformation processes of juice and waste carried out by microorganisms, plant cell cultures, animal and human liver microsomes targeting its flavonoids composition. Such review highlights the main metabolic pathways for enzymatic and microbial reactions involved in these processes and suggest for reactions that need to be more capitalized for a wider application in industrial bioprocesses of by-products. Biotransformation and biocatalysis applications included employment of citrus by-products enriched in flavonoids as a low-cost, economical and natural sources of sugar substitutes, antifungal, anticancer drugs, hydrolyzable enzymes, probiotics and flavonoid aglycones. Further, biological effects of the biotransformed metabolites are discussed in relation to its parent compound highlighting potentials and or any limitations for each reaction type. Applications covered in biotransformation include for nutraceutical/food and cosmetics industries.

Ramadan, N. S., L. A. Wessjohann, A. Mocan, D. C. Vodnar, N. H. El-Sayed, S. A. El-Toumy, D. A. Mohamed, Z. A. Aziz, A. Ehrlich, and M. A. Farag, "Nutrient and Sensory Metabolites Profiling of L. (Starfruit) in the Context of Its Origin and Ripening Stage by GC/MS and Chemometric Analysis.", Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 25, issue 10, 2020. Abstract

L. is a tropical tree with edible fruit that grows at different climatic conditions. Despite its nutritive value and reported health benefits, it is a controversial fruit owing to its rich oxalate content. The present study aimed at investigating aroma and nutrient primary metabolites distribution in fruits grown in Indonesia, Malaysia (its endemic origin) versus Egypt, and at different ripening stages. Two techniques were employed to assess volatile and non-volatile metabolites including headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) joined with gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS post silylation, respectively. Twenty-four volatiles were detected, with esters amounting for the major class of volatiles in Egyptian fruit at ca. 66%, with methyl caproate as the major component, distinguishing it from other origins. In contrast, aldehydes predominated tropically grown fruits with the ether myristicin found exclusively in these. Primary metabolites profiling led to the identification of 117 metabolites viz. sugars, polyols and organic acids. Fructose (38-48%) and glucose (21-25%) predominated sugar compositions in ripe fruits, whereas sorbitol was the major sugar alcohol (2.4-10.5%) in ripe fruits as well. Oxalic acid, an anti-nutrient with potential health risks, was the major organic acid detected in all the studied fruits (1.7-2.7%), except the Malaysian one (0.07%). It increases upon fruit ripening, including considerable amounts of volatile oxalate esters detected via SPME, and which must not be omitted in total oxalate determinations for safety assessments.

Farag, M. A., N. Hegazi, E. Dokhalahy, and A. R. Khattab, "Chemometrics based GC-MS aroma profiling for revealing freshness, origin and roasting indices in saffron spice and its adulteration.", Food chemistry, vol. 331, pp. 127358, 2020. Abstract

Saffron, stigmas of Crocus sativus, is one of the most precious spices used as food colorant and flavoring agent. Due to its scarce source and high cost, it is liable to fraudulent admixture with allied plants "safflower and calendula". In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine authenticity, adulterants detection, and to assess the roasting impact on its aroma. A total of 93 volatiles were identified belonging to different classes viz. aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, mono-and sesquiterpenes, oxides/ethers and pyrans/furans. Principle component analysis (PCA) identified safranal and 2-caren-10-al as discriminatory volatile markers of saffron from its allied flowers, later found enriched in estragole, β-caryophyllene and eugenol. PCA model also revealed markers for freshly dried versus long-stored saffron, with ketoisophorone as freshness marker versus safranal as an ageing indicator. Safranal was further identified as a marker to distinguish saffron from safflower, whereas calendula aroma was predominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons.

Fahmy, H., N. Hegazi, S. El-Shamy, and M. A. Farag, "Pomegranate juice as a functional food: a comprehensive review of its polyphenols, therapeutic merits, and recent patents.", Food & function, vol. 11, issue 7, pp. 5768-5781, 2020. Abstract

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an ancient perennial plant species of the Punicaceae family and is regarded as the 'miracle fruit' for its seeds being consumed as food, juice and as a functional food. Significant modern pharmacological and clinical evidence has highlighted the wide medicinal applications of pomegranate fruit parts and its juice. Pomegranate juice (PJ) that is superior to other fruit juices is a fortified source of dietary polyphenols with potential antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols of PJ include tannins, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. The presence of these beneficial phytochemicals is directly linked to its favourable health benefits viz., obesity and diabetes management and anti-inflammatory effects. This comprehensive review capitalizes on PJ with emphasis on the interrelationship between its holistic chemical composition, metabolism and biological effects. Moreover, the review recapitulates on the diverse health benefits of PJ and related patents in the field of PJ production to ensure the best produced juice quality.

Barnum, G. M., T. O. Kurtz, and G. L. Hoff, "Hemophilus influenzae pericarditis in an adult.", The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, vol. 88, issue 12, pp. 1519-22, 1988.
Emad, A. M., S. F. Ali, E. A. Abdel-Rahman, M. R. Meselhy, M. A. Farag, S. S. Ali, and E. A. Abdel-Sattar, "Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Apium graveolens L. extracts mitigate against fatal acetaminophen-induced acute liver toxicity.", Journal of food biochemistry, pp. e13399, 2020. Abstract

In the present work, antioxidant activity, total phenolics (TP), and total flavonoids (TF) contents of aqueous and methanol extracts of celery were determined, in addition to untargeted metabolites profiling its methanol celery root extract (MCRE) via UPLC-MS. Although MCRE exhibited the lowest TPC and TFC levels, it presented the most potential hydroxyl radical quenching effect using electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping technique. Treatment of Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity (AAH) rats with MCRE lowered serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, TNF-α, and IL-1β significantly. Additionally, MCRE significantly increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) levels relative to AAH rats. Strikingly, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of all groups revealed a 100% prevention of acetaminophen-induced mortality of rats by MCRE pretreatment (100 mg/kg/day). MCRE prevented AAH-associated severe weight loss and elicited normal behavior in the rescued rats. Our results suggest that pretreatment with MCRE can mitigate against overdosed acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure and warrant further investigations on the potential of postinjury intervention. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity (AAH) accounts for alerting numbers of overdose-related acute liver failure and liver transplant cases with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Currently proposed mechanisms implicate mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of AAH, which underline current interventions employing antioxidants to combat liver damage by over-dosed acetaminophen. The present work uncovers potent protective effects of some celery extracts (and their fractions) against acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Treatment of rats with fatal liver injury with methanol extract of celery root significantly reduced secretion of liver enzymes and markedly decreased inflammatory as well as oxidative stress markers in these animals. This, in turn, rescued challenged rats exposed to fatal doses of acetaminophen completely, which establishes methanol extracts of celery roots as effective therapeutic intervention against AAH. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using EPR technique, and the secondary metabolites related to antioxidant activity were characterized via UPLC-MS.

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