El-Shamy, S., and M. A. Farag, "Novel trends in extraction and optimization methods of bioactives recovery from pomegranate fruit biowastes: Valorization purposes for industrial applications.", Food chemistry, vol. 365, pp. 130465, 2021. Abstract

Pomegranate biowastes present potential economic value worldwide owing to their several health benefits mediated by a complex mixture of unique bioactives. The exploitation of these bioactives has motivated the exploration of eco-friendly, efficient, and cost-effective extraction techniques to maximize their recovery. The current review aims to provide updated technical information about bioactives extraction mechanisms from pomegranate wastes (seeds and peel), their advantages and disadvantages, and factors towards optimization. A comparative overview of the modern green extraction techniques viz., supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and eutectic solvent mixture as alternatives to conventional extraction methods for seeds and peel is presented. Approaches focused on biowastes modification for properties improvement are also discussed. Such comprehensive review shall provide the best valorization practices of pomegranate biowastes and its application in food and non-food areas focusing on original methods, innovation, protocols, and development to be considered for other fruit biowastes.

Farag, M. A., A. Meyer, and S. E. Ali, "Bleaching effect in Sarcophyton spp. soft corals-is there a correlation to their diterpene content?", Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 28, issue 20, pp. 25594-25602, 2021. Abstract

Rising seawater temperature is one of the greatest threats to the persistence of coral reefs. While great efforts have been made to understand the metabolic costs of thermal acclimation, the exact roles of many secondary metabolites involved in the immediate response exhibited by soft corals remain largely unknown. Herein, an untargeted metabolomics approach using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was employed to investigate thermal stress-induced modifications to the de novo synthesis of secondary metabolites in two soft coral species, Sarcophyton ehrenbergi and S. glaucum. Exposure to elevated temperature resulted in symbiont photoinhibition primarily via either damage to photosystem II (PSII) or the loss of algal symbionts during coral bleaching. This was suggested by a decrease in pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) measurements of corals incubated at different temperatures. Thermal stress was also found to impair the production of diterpenoid secondary metabolites in soft corals. Principally, reduction in the levels of a number of diterpenes, viz. sarcophytoxide and deoxysarcophytoxide, in heat stressed S. ehrenbergi and S. glaucum was observed indicative that thermal acclimation is energetically costly and will necessitate downstream changes in secondary metabolic pathways. Our data suggest that, while the host controls the production of ecologically important terpenes, when energetic contribution from the algal symbiont is reduced or absent as a result of a bleaching event, energy reserves may be insufficient to maintain the production of such energetically cost chemicals. This study provides for the first time a holistic assessment of secondary metabolite changes imposed in soft corals during exposure and acclimation to elevated temperatures.

Sheashea, M., J. Xiao, and M. A. Farag, "MUFA in metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors: is MUFA the opposite side of the PUFA coin?", Food & function, vol. 12, issue 24, pp. 12221-12234, 2021. Abstract

Omega-9 fatty acids represent some of the main mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) found in plant and animal sources. They can be synthesized endogenously in the human body, but they do not fully provide all the body's requirements. Consequently, they are considered as partially essential fatty acids. MUFA represent a healthier alternative to saturated animal fats and have several health benefits, including the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its complications. This review concentrates on the major MUFA pharmacological activities in the context of MetS management, including alleviating cardiovascular disease (CVD) and dyslipidemia, central obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The beneficial effects of MUFA for CVD were found to be consistent with those of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for the alleviation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and high low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and triacylglcerol (TAG) levels, albeit MUFA had a more favorable effect on decreasing night systolic blood pressure (SBP). To reduce the obesity profile, the use of MUFA was found to induce a higher oxidation rate with a higher energy expenditure, compared with PUFA. For NAFLD, PUFA was found to be a better potential drug candidate for the improvement of liver steatosis in children than MUFA. Any advantageous outcomes from using MUFA for diabetes and insulin resistance (IR) compared to using PUFA were found to be either non-significant or resulted from a small number of meta-analyses. Such an increase in the number of studies of the mechanisms of action require more clinical and epidemiological studies to confirm the beneficial outcomes, especially over a long-term treatment period.

Bakry, I. A., L. Yang, M. A. Farag, S. A. Korma, I. Khalifa, I. Cacciotti, N. I. Ziedan, J. Jin, Q. Jin, W. Wei, et al., "A Comprehensive Review of the Composition, Nutritional Value, and Functional Properties of Camel Milk Fat.", Foods (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 10, issue 9, 2021. Abstract

Recently, camel milk (CM) has been considered as a health-promoting icon due to its medicinal and nutritional benefits. CM fat globule membrane has numerous health-promoting properties, such as anti-adhesion and anti-bacterial properties, which are suitable for people who are allergic to cow's milk. CM contains milk fat globules with a small size, which accounts for their rapid digestion. Moreover, it also comprises lower amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids concurrent with higher levels of essential fatty acids than cow milk, with an improved lipid profile manifested by reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. In addition, it is rich in phospholipids, especially plasmalogens and sphingomyelin, suggesting that CM fat may meet the daily nutritional requirements of adults and infants. Thus, CM and its dairy products have become more attractive for consumers. In view of this, we performed a comprehensive review of CM fat's composition and nutritional properties. The overall goal is to increase knowledge related to CM fat characteristics and modify its unfavorable perception. Future studies are expected to be directed toward a better understanding of CM fat, which appears to be promising in the design and formulation of new products with significant health-promoting benefits.

Ibrahim, H., A. Serag, and M. A. Farag, "Emerging analytical tools for the detection of the third gasotransmitter HS, a comprehensive review.", Journal of advanced research, vol. 27, pp. 137-153, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is currently considered among the endogenously produced gaseous molecules that exert various signaling effects in mammalian species. It is the third physiological gasotransmitter discovered so far after NO and CO. HS was originally ranked among the toxic gases at elevated levels to humans. Currently, it is well-known that, in the cardiovascular system, HS exerts several cardioprotective effects including vasodilation, antioxidant regulation, inhibition of inflammation, and activation of anti-apoptosis. With an increasing interest in monitoring HS, the development of analysis methods should now follow.

AIM OF REVIEW: This review stages special emphasis on the several analytical technologies used for its determination including spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrochemical methods. Advantages and limitations with regards to the application of each technique are highlighted with special emphasis on its employment for HS measurement ., biofluids, tissues.

KEY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS AND IMPORTANT FINDINGS OF REVIEW: Fluorescence methods applied for HS measurement offer an attractive non-invasive and promising approach in addition to its selectivity, however they cannot be considered as H2S-specific probes. On the other hand, colorimetric assays are among the most common methods used for HS detection, albeit their employment HS measurement has not yet been possible . Separation techniques such as gas or liquid chromatography offer higher selectivity compared to direct spectrophotometric or fluorescence methods especially for suitable for endpoint HS measurements . plasma or tissue samples. Despite all the developed analytical procedures used for HS determination, the need for highly selective, much work should be devoted to resolve all the pitfalls of the current methods.

Yao, P., Y. Gao, J. Simal-Gandara, M. A. Farag, W. Chen, D. Yao, D. Delmas, Z. Chen, K. Liu, H. Hu, et al., "Litchi ( Sonn.): a comprehensive review of phytochemistry, medicinal properties, and product development.", Food & function, vol. 12, issue 20, pp. 9527-9548, 2021. Abstract

Since ancient times, litchi has been well recognized as a functional food for the management of various ailments. Many bioactives, including flavanoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, and lignans, have been identified from litchi with a myriad of biological properties both and . In spite of the extensive research progress, systemic reviews regarding the bioactives of litchi are rather scarce. Therefore, it is crucial to comprehensively analyze the pharmacological activities and the structure-activity relationships of the abundant bioactives of litchi. Besides, more and more studies have focused on litchi preservation and development of its by-products, which is significant for enhancing the economic value of litchi. Based on the analysis of published articles and patents, this review aims to reveal the development trends of litchi in the healthcare field by providing a systematic summary of the pharmacological activities of its extracts, its phytochemical composition, and the nutritional and potential health benefits of litchi seed, pulp and pericarp with structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, its by-products also exhibited promising development potential in the field of material science and environmental protection. Furthermore, this study also provides an overview of the strategies of the postharvest storage and processing of litchi.

Serag, A., Z. Shakkour, A. M. Halboup, F. Kobeissy, and M. A. Farag, "Sweat metabolome and proteome: Recent trends in analytical advances and potential biological functions.", Journal of proteomics, vol. 246, pp. 104310, 2021. Abstract

Metabolome and proteome profiling of biofluids, e.g., urine, plasma, has generated vast and ever-increasing amounts of knowledge over the last few decades. Paradoxically, omics analyses of sweat, one of the most readily available human biofluids, have lagged behind. This review capitalizes on the current knowledge and state of the art analytical advances of sweat metabolomics and proteomics. Moreover, current applications of sweat omics such as the discovery of disease biomarkers and monitoring athletic performance are also presented in this review. Another area of emerging knowledge that has been highlighted herein lies in the role of skin host-microbiome interactions in shaping the sweat metabolite-protein profiles. Discussion of future research directions describes the need to have a better grasp of sweat chemicals and to better understand how they function as aided by advances in omics tools. Overall, the role of sweat as an information-rich biofluid that could complement the exploration of the skin metabolome/proteome is emphasized.

Elshahed, M. S., A. Miron, A. C. Aprotosoaie, and M. A. Farag, "Pectin in diet: Interactions with the human microbiome, role in gut homeostasis, and nutrient-drug interactions.", Carbohydrate polymers, vol. 255, pp. 117388, 2021. Abstract

Pectins are a part of daily diet as well as food additives that are indigestible polysaccharides by human enzymes, however, they can be easily degraded by gut bacteria with the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Knowledge of pectin gut homeostasis and further how pectin affect gut bacterial communities is insufficient and limited. This review focuses on providing the whole story of how pectin functions as prebiotics in the gut. Understanding the interplay between functional and immunological responses inside animal or human gut as influenced by pectin in diets is provided. The interaction between pectin and gut microbiota is presented from both sides, in terms of how pectin affects gut microbiome and or the fermentation products produced in response by gut bacteria. This knowledge can be used to define preferred dietary pectins, targeting beneficial bacteria, and favoring balanced microbiota communities in the gut to maximize pectins' health benefits.

Zayed, A., M. T. Badawy, and M. A. Farag, "Valorization and extraction optimization of Citrus seeds for food and functional food applications.", Food chemistry, vol. 355, pp. 129609, 2021. Abstract

Valorization of food byproducts has attracted recently considerable attention. Citrus fruits provide considerable non-edible residues reach 80% in juice production. They are considered agri-wastes to comprise peel, pulp and seeds. Previous investigations have focused on peel and pulp to recover value-added products. The review presents for the first-time phytochemical composition of Citrus seeds' products, i.e., oil and extracts. Fatty acids, phytosterols and tocopherols amounted as the major bioactives in Citrus seeds, in addition to limonoids, dietary fibers and flavonoids. Besides their nutritional values, these chemicals have promising applications including production of biodiesel, food enhancers and antioxidants, especially from mandarin and grapefruit seeds. Optimum conditions of the different Citrus seeds' valorization are discussed to improve extraction yield and lessen environmental hazards of solvent extraction. This review presents the best utilization practices for one of the largest cultivated fruit seeds worldwide and its different applications.

Chen, Z., M. A. Farag, Z. Zhong, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, and Y. Wang, "Multifaceted role of phyto-derived polyphenols in nanodrug delivery systems.", Advanced drug delivery reviews, vol. 176, pp. 113870, 2021. Abstract

As naturally occurring bioactive products, several lines of evidence have shown the potential of polyphenols in the medical intervention of various diseases, including tumors, inflammatory diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Notably, owing to the particular molecular structure, polyphenols can combine with proteins, metal ions, polymers, and nucleic acids providing better strategies for polyphenol-delivery strategies. This contributes to the inherent advantages of polyphenols as important functional components for other drug delivery strategies, e.g., protecting nanodrugs from oxidation as a protective layer, improving the physicochemical properties of carbohydrate polymer carriers, or being used to synthesize innovative functional delivery vehicles. Polyphenols have emerged as a multifaceted player in novel drug delivery systems, both as therapeutic agents delivered to intervene in disease progression and as essential components of drug carriers. Although an increasing number of studies have focused on polyphenol-based nanodrug delivery including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, resveratrol, tannic acid, and polyphenol-related innovative preparations, these molecules are not without inherent shortcomings. The active biochemical characteristics of polyphenols constitute a prerequisite to their high-frequency use in drug delivery systems and likewise to provoke new challenges for the design and development of novel polyphenol drug delivery systems of improved efficacies. In this review, we focus on both the targeted delivery of polyphenols and the application of polyphenols as components of drug delivery carriers, and comprehensively elaborate on the application of polyphenols in new types of drug delivery systems. According to the different roles played by polyphenols in innovative drug delivery strategies, potential limitations and risks are discussed in detail including the influences on the physical and chemical properties of nanodrug delivery systems, and their influence on normal physiological functions inside the organism.

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