Respiratory system "short questions"

1- Indicate the level of the respiratory system where the followings take place:

  • First disappearance of the goblet cells

  • First disappearance of cilia

  • First disappearance of the glands

  • Last appearance of cartilage

  • Last appearance of smooth muscle

  • Transition of pseudostratified to simple columnar epithelium

  • Transition of simple columnar to simple cubical epithelium

  • Transition of simple columnar epithelium to simple squamous epithelium

2- Describe the main histological changes throughout the respiratory pathways

3- Enumerate the different parts of: conducting portion and respiratory portion of the airway

4- Describe the cells in the respiratory epithelium

5- Compare between the respiratory olfactory mucosa and respiratory mucosa

6- Describe olfactory neurons

7- Mention the lining epithelium of: nasopharynx- larynx- true vocal folds- false vocal folds- paranasal sinuses

8- Describe the tracheal glands as regards: type of secretion and site

9- The gaps of the free ends of tracheal cartilage are bridged by:......... and ………….

10- In a table form, compare between extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary bronchi

11- Describe with reference to site: trachialis muscle, fibroelastic ligament, MALT, pores of Kohn, interalveolar wall, blood air barrier

12- Mention the type and site of cartilage in the bronchial tree.

13- Compare between intrapulmonary bronchi and bronchioles.

14- Compare between the terminal and respiratory bronchioles.

15- How can you differentiate between respiratory bronchiole and alveolar sac?

16- List 4 functions for Clara cells.

17- How can you identify Clara cells among the epithelium lining the bronchiole?

18- Describe the origin, types, sites and functions of alveolar phagocytes.

19- Compare between pneumocytes type 1 and 2 as regards: percent, LM, EM and functions

20- Name the serous membrane surrounding the lungs, desdribe the histological picture