Publications

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Book Chapter
El-Shabrawi, M., "Menarcheal Age in Developing Countries", Auxology: Studying Human Growth and Development, Germany, Schweizerbart and Borntraeger science publishers, 2013. 12_book_flyer_auxology_duesseldorf_screen.pdf
Mortada HF El-Shabrawi, Ola El-Sisi, and N. M. Kamal, "Pediatric Liver Disease in the African Continent", Pediatric Hepatology and Liver Transplantation: Springer Publisher, 2019.
Conference Paper
Mortada HF El-Shabrawi, Ola El-Sisi, S. S. Doss, G. Anwar, R. Fawzy, and S. Kamal, "Growth Assessment of a Cohort of Egyptian Children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF)", ANTHROPOLOGISCHER ANZEIGER, vol. 68, no. 4: E SCHWEIZERBARTSCHE VERLAGS NAEGELE U OBERMILLER, SCIENCE PUBLISHERS, JOHANNESSTRASSE 3A, D 70176 STUTTGART, GERMANY, pp. 493–495, 2011. Abstract

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El-Shabrawi, M. H., N. A. Mohsen, M. M. Sherif, H. Riad, and A. M. El Henawy, "NON-INVASIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEPATIC FIBROSIS AND NECRO-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) INFECTION USING FIBROTEST AND ACTITEST", HEPATOLOGY, vol. 50, no. 4: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN, NJ 07030 USA, pp. 759A–759A, 2009. Abstract

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Journal Article
El-Shabrawi, M. H., S. Omran, S. Wageeh, M. Isa, Sawsan Okasha, Mona Isa, N. A. Mohsen, O. Zekry, E. Gamal, H. M. El-karaksy, and others, "99mTechnetium-macroaggregated albumin perfusion lung scan versus contrast enhanced echocardiography in the diagnosis of the hepatopulmonary syndrome in children with chronic liver disease", European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 22, no. 8: LWW, pp. 1006–1012, 2010. Abstract

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El-Karaksy, H., G. H Anwar, M. S. El-Raziky, M. El-Hawary, M. Hashem, R. El-Sayed, M. El-Shabrawi, N. Mohsen, H. Fouad, and G. Esmat, "Anti-HCV Prevalence among Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Egyptian Children", Current Diabetes Reviews, vol. 6, no. 6: Bentham Science Publishers, pp. 388–392, 2010. Abstract

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El-karaksy, H. M., L. M. Mohsen, D. 'aA. Saleh, M. S. Hamdy, N. A. Yassin, M. Farouk, M. E. Salit, and M. H. El-Shabrawi, "Applicability and efficacy of a model for prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: single center study in Egypt.", World journal of gastroenterology, vol. 20, issue 45, pp. 17075-83, 2014 Dec 07. Abstract

AIM: To identify possible maternal risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) acquisition and assess the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis given to infants born to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers.

METHODS: Screening of 2000 pregnant females was carried out using rapid test and confirmed by enzyme immunoassay. A questionnaire consisting of 20 questions about the possible risk factors for acquisition of HBV infection was filled for every pregnant HBsAg positive female in addition to at least 2 pregnant HBsAg negative females for each positive case. Infants of HBsAg positive women were offered passive and active immunoprophylaxis within the 1st 48 h after birth, in addition to 2nd and 3rd doses of HBV vaccine after 1 and 6 mo respectively. Infants were tested for HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb) at six months of age.

RESULTS: HBsAg was confirmed positive in 1.2% of tested pregnant women. Risk factors significantly associated with HBV positivity were; history of injections (OR = 5.65), history of seeking medical advice in a clinic (OR = 7.02), history of hospitalization (OR = 6.82), history of surgery (OR = 4) and family history of hepatitis (OR = 3.89) (P < 0.05). Dropout rate was 28% for HBsAg women whose rapid test was not confirmed and could not be reached to provide immunoprophylaxis for thier newborns. Immunoprophylaxis failure was detected in only one newborn (3.7%) who tested positive for HBsAg at 6 mo of age; and vaccine failure (seronegative to HBsAb after 4 doses of the vaccine) was detected in another one (3.7%). The success rate of the immunoprophylaxis regimen was 92.6%.

CONCLUSION: This pilot study shows that a successful national program for prevention of perinatal transmission of HBV needs to be preceded by an awareness campaign to avoid a high dropout rate.

El-Shabrawi, M., M. Salem, maha Abou-Zekri, S. El-Naghi, F. Hassanin, T. El-Adly, and A. El-Shamy, "The burden of different pathogens in acute diarrhoeal episodes among a cohort of Egyptian children less than five years old.", Przeglad gastroenterologiczny, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. 173-80, 2015. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea continues to cause significant morbidity in Egypt.

AIM: To determine the frequency and distribution of different enteropathogens in acute diarrhoeal episodes, utilising an expanded testing regimen, and to correlate clinical signs and symptoms associated with the detected pathogens.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The case-control study enrolled 356 patients < 5 years old with acute diarrhoea and 356 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Both cases and controls underwent a full history and physical examination, and provided two rectal swab specimens and a stool sample. Laboratory analysis included stool culture, microscopy, and indirect methods.

RESULTS: Rotavirus was detected in 11% of patients. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter, Shigella, and Salmonella were detected in 7%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of patients, respectively; and in 11.1%, 3.1%, 0.6%, and 0.6% of controls, respectively, with no significant statistical difference. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.9% of cases. Mixed infection was detected in 5.9% of cases and 0.9% of controls, with a significant difference (p < 0.001). No pathogen was detected in 66.3% of cases and in 83.5% of controls. Rotavirus infection was associated with recurrent vomiting, dehydration, and hospitalisation. Bacterial diarrhoea was associated with vomiting (52%) in ETEC infections, fever (80%) in Salmonella infections, mucus (100%) and blood (50%) in stools of Shigella infections, and convulsions (15%) in Campylobacter infections.

CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus is a prominent cause of diarrhoea among Egyptian children. Despite utilising an expanded testing regimen, more work is still needed for identification of other enteropathogens that constitute other causative agents of diarrhoea.

El-Shabrawi, M. H., and N. M. Kamal, "Burden of pediatric hepatitis C", World journal of gastroenterology: WJG, vol. 19, no. 44: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Ltd., pp. 7880, 2013. Abstract

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El-Shabrawi, M. H., and N. M. Kamal, "Burden of pediatric hepatitis C.", World journal of gastroenterology, vol. 19, issue 44, pp. 7880-8, 2013 Nov 28. Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health burden infecting 170-210 million people worldwide. Additional 3-4 millions are newly-infected annually. Prevalence of pediatric infection varies from 0.05%-0.36% in the United States and Europe; up to 1.8%-5.8% in some developing countries. The highest prevalence occurs in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon basin and Mongolia. HCV has been present in some populations for several centuries, notably genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. Parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy practiced in the 1960s until the early 1980s had spread HCV infection throughout Egypt. Parenteral acquisition of HCV remains a major route for infection among Egyptian children. Insufficient screening of transfusions, unsterilized injection equipment and re-used needles and syringes continue to be major routes of HCV transmission in developing countries, whereas vertical transmission and adolescent high-risk behaviors (e.g., injection drug abuse) are the major routes in developed countries. The risk of vertical transmission from an infected mother to her unborn/newborn infant is approximately 5%. Early stages of HCV infection in children do not lead to marked impairment in the quality of life nor to cognitive, behavioral or emotional dysfunction; however, caregiver stress and family system strain may occur. HCV slowly progresses to serious complications as cirrhosis (1%-2%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in the presence of risk factors as hemolytic anemias, obesity, treated malignancy, and concomitant human immune deficiency and/or hepatitis B virus co-infection. HCV vaccine remains elusive to date. Understanding the immune mechanisms in patients who successfully cleared the infection is essential for vaccine development. The pediatric standard of care treatment consists of pegylated interferon-α 2a or b plus ribavirin for 24-48 wk. The new oral direct acting antivirals, approved for adults, need further evaluation in children. Sustained virologic response varies depending on the viral load, genotype, duration of infection, degree of aminotransferase elevation, adiposity and single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin (IL)-28B locus. The goals of treatment in individual patients are virus eradication, prevention of cirrhosis and HCC, and removing stigmatization; meanwhile the overall goal is decreasing the global burden of HCV. IL-28B polymorphisms have been also associated with spontaneous clearance of vertically acquired HCV infection. The worldwide economic burden of HCV for children, families and countries is estimated to be hundreds of millions of US dollars per year. The United States, alone, is estimated to spend 199-336 million dollars in screening, monitoring and treatment during one decade. The emotional burden of having an HCV infected child in a family is more difficult to estimate.

El-Karaksy, H., M. El-Shabrawi, N. Mohsen, M. Kotb, N. El-Koofy, and N. El-Deeb, "Capillaria philippinensis: a cause of fatal diarrhea in one of two infected Egyptian sisters", Journal of tropical pediatrics, vol. 50, no. 1: Oxford Univ Press, pp. 57–60, 2004. Abstract

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El-Shabrawi, M., H. El-Karaksy, N. Mohsen, M. Isa, M. Al-Biltagi, and M. El-Ansari, "Celiac disease in children and adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis: a single-centre experience", Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 57, no. 2: Oxford University Press, pp. 104–108, 2011. Abstract

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El-Karaksy, H., M. Fahmy, M. S. El-Raziky, M. El-Hawary, R. El-Sayed, N. El-Koofy, F. El-Mougy, A. El-Hennawy, and M. El-Shabrawi, "A clinical study of Wilson’s disease: The experience of a single Egyptian Paediatric Hepatology Unit", Arab Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 3: Elsevier, pp. 125–130, 2011. Abstract

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El-Shabrawi, M. H. F., Z. E. El Din, M. Isa, N. Kamal, F. Hassanin, N. El-Koofy, G. El-Batran, S. A. El-Makarem, and A. El-Hennawy, "Colorectal polyps: a frequently-missed cause of rectal bleeding in Egyptian children", Annals of tropical paediatrics, vol. 31, no. 3: Maney Publishing Suite 1C, Joseph's Well, Hanover Walk, Leeds LS3 1AB, UK, pp. 213–218, 2011. Abstract

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El-Shabrawi, M. H. F., Z. E. El Din, M. Isa, N. Kamal, F. Hassanin, N. El-Koofy, G. El-Batran, S. A. El-Makarem, and A. El-Hennawy, "Colorectal polyps: a frequently-missed cause of rectal bleeding in Egyptian children", Annals of tropical paediatrics, vol. 31, no. 3: Maney Publishing Suite 1C, Joseph's Well, Hanover Walk, Leeds LS3 1AB, UK, pp. 213–218, 2011. Abstract

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El-Shabrawi, M., M. Isa, and others, "Commentary on: Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis using aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI) in adult patients with chronic liver disease", Hepatitis monthly, vol. 11, no. 5: Kowsar Medical Institute, pp. 378, 2011. Abstract

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El-Shabrawi, M., M. Isa, and others, "Commentary on: The optimal Dose of Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis C: From Literature Evidence to Clinical Practice", Hepatitis monthly, vol. 13, no. 2: Kowsar, 2013. Abstract

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Kamal, N. M., H. Y. Khan, Mortada HF El-Shabrawi, Ola El-Sisi, and L. M. Sherief, "Congenital chloride losing diarrhea: A single center experience in a highly consanguineous population.", Medicine, vol. 98, issue 22, pp. e15928, 2019. Abstract

Congenital chloride losing diarrhea (CCLD) is a rare type of chronic watery diarrhea due to mutations in SLC26A3 gene leading to defective chloride-bicarbonate exchanges with the resultant loss of chloride and retention of bicarbonate.We aim to define pediatric Saudi CCLD patients' characteristics to achieve prompt diagnosis, management, follow up with good quality of life, and prevention of complications in these patients.We carried retrospective data review of demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and outcome of all pediatric patients fulfilling the criteria of CCLD over 10 years from 2004 to 2014 from a single center in Taif region, Saudi Arabia.Forty-nine patients fulfilled the criteria of CCLD from 21 families with more than one affected patient in the same family in 90% of them and positive consanguinity in 91% of the cohort. Most patients were born preterm with intrauterine growth restriction and usually neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions with prematurity and its complications. Thirteen patients were discharged without diagnosis of CCLD and 3 were misdiagnosed as intestinal obstruction with unnecessary surgical intervention. Many complications do existed with renal complications being the most common with three patients received renal transplantation.Prematurity with abdominal distension and stool like urine were the commonest presentation of CCLD in Saudi children. Positive consanguinity and more than one affected sibling are present in most of our cohort.High index of suspicion by clinicians is a cornerstone for early diagnosis with subsequent favorable outcome.A multicenter national incidence study of CCLD in KSA and its genetic attributes is recommended. Premarital screening should be implemented specially for consanguineous marriage.

El-Shabrawi, M. H., and N. M. Kamal, "Current management options for tyrosinemia", Orphan Drugs: Research and Reviews, vol. 3, pp. 1–9, 2013. Abstract

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Salah, S., M. El-Shabrawi, H. M. Lotfy, H. F. Shiba, maha Abou-Zekri, and yomna farag, "Detection of Mediterranean fever gene mutations in Egyptian children with inflammatory bowel disease.", International journal of rheumatic diseases, vol. 19, issue 8, pp. 806-13, 2016 Aug. Abstract

AIM: The aim of the current study is to investigate the prevalence of familial Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) mutations in a cohort of Egyptian children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to characterize familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)-IBD patients, helping better understanding of IBD pathogenesis.

METHODS: The study enrolled 17 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 15 with Crohn's disease(CD), 10 with indeterminate colitis (IC) and 33 healthy children as controls. All cases and controls were tested for 12 FMF gene mutations by reverse hybridization after multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sampling.

RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent of the IBD patients carried the mutations, with Sequence variant V627A being the commonest versus 42.4% of controls. No associations were found between MEFV gene mutations, and phenotypic characteristics of IBD patients.

CONCLUSION: IBD patients, in populations with a high background carrier rate of MEFV variants, should be screened for MEFV gene mutations, especially those diagnosed as indeterminate colitis. Testing larger numbers of healthy Egyptian children for MEFV gene mutation is important to further determine the allele frequency in Egypt.

Salah, S., M. El-Shabrawi, H. M. Lotfy, H. F. Shiba, maha Abou-Zekri, and yomna farag, "Detection of Mediterranean fever gene mutations in Egyptian children with inflammatory bowel disease.", International journal of rheumatic diseases, vol. 19, issue 8, pp. 806-13, 2016 Aug. Abstract

AIM: The aim of the current study is to investigate the prevalence of familial Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) mutations in a cohort of Egyptian children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to characterize familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)-IBD patients, helping better understanding of IBD pathogenesis.

METHODS: The study enrolled 17 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 15 with Crohn's disease(CD), 10 with indeterminate colitis (IC) and 33 healthy children as controls. All cases and controls were tested for 12 FMF gene mutations by reverse hybridization after multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sampling.

RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent of the IBD patients carried the mutations, with Sequence variant V627A being the commonest versus 42.4% of controls. No associations were found between MEFV gene mutations, and phenotypic characteristics of IBD patients.

CONCLUSION: IBD patients, in populations with a high background carrier rate of MEFV variants, should be screened for MEFV gene mutations, especially those diagnosed as indeterminate colitis. Testing larger numbers of healthy Egyptian children for MEFV gene mutation is important to further determine the allele frequency in Egypt.

El-Shabrawi, M., N. Kmal, K. Kaerger, and K. Voigt, "Diagnosis of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis: a mini-review", Mycoses, vol. 57, issue 3, pp. 139-143, 2014.
El-Shabrawi, M. H., N. M. Kamal, K. Kaerger, and K. Voigt, "Diagnosis of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis: a mini-review.", Mycoses, vol. 57 Suppl 3, pp. 138-43, 2014 Dec. Abstract

Basidiobolus ranarum (Entomophthoromycotina) very rarely affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To date, reported paediatric GI basidiobolomycosis cases are 27 worldwide; 19 from Saudi Arabia and 8 from other parts of the world. Often these cases present a diagnostic dilemma, are prone to misdiagnosis and lack of disease confirmation by proper molecular methodologies. The fungal mass removed by surgery is usually sent for conciliar histopathology, isolation by fungal cultures and final molecular testing for basidiobolomycosis. The incidence of basidiobolomycoses, their predisposing factors and the molecular diagnosis of the fungus causing the disease in combination with a phylogenetic framework are reviewed.