Evaluation of the Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Periodontal Tissue Regeneration (Animal Study)

Citation:
Fawzy, K. M., M. El-Refai, M. S. E. I. - D. Darhous, and M. EI-Masry, Evaluation of the Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Periodontal Tissue Regeneration (Animal Study), , Egypt, Cairo University, 2012.

Thesis Type:

PhD Thesis

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the periodontal regenerative
potential of gingival margin-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in an
animal model. Periodontal defects were induced at six sites in eight miniature-pigs
in the premolar/molar area. Autologous cells were isolated from the gingival
margin of each animal, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies and
characterized flow-cytometrically for the expression of CD14, CD31, CD34,
CD45, CD117 and STRO-1. Colony-formation and multilineage differentiation
potential were tested. The cells were expanded ex-vivo and loaded on BioOss®-
(test-group-1)-and Collagen-(test-group-2)-scaffolds and transplanted into the
animals, together with unloaded scaffolds (control-groups-1 and -2), sites
receiving subgingival debridement (control-group-3) and non-treatment controls
(control-group-4). Clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival
recession (GR) and subtraction volumetric computed tomography (CT)
examinations were performed at -4 weeks, baseline and 12 weeks. The histological
attachment level (HAL) was evaluated after 12 weeks in each group. Results of
this study revealed that cells were plastic-adherent, showed colony formation,
were CD14-, CD34-, CD45-, CD31+, CD117+, STRO-1+ and could be
differentiated into osteoblastic, adipocytic and chondroblastic directions. Testgroup-
1 and -2 showed considerable gains in CAL, PD, gingival height and HAL.
A significant radiographic defect fill was observed in test -group-1 compared to
control-group-4. In conclusion, mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells from the
gingival cervical margin showed a significant potential in regenerative periodontal
treatment.

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