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2013
Hassan, S. A. E. - M., Badr El-Dean Abd El-Haleam El-Zeany, H. W. Darwish, and M. Y. Salem, Analysis of Selected C.V.S. Acting Drugs, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractsaid_abd_el-monem_hassan.pdf

This thesis is concerned with the analysis of four selected drugs of the CVS
acting drugs namely Amlodipine besylate, Atorvastatin calcium, Valsartan and
Hydrochlorothiazide. In this work, different analytical techniques were applied for
the simultaneous quantitative determination of Amlodipine besylate and
Atorvastatin calcium in their laboratory prepared mixtures and in their tablet
dosage form using spectrophotometric methods. Stability study was carried out on
Amlodipine besylate and Atorvastatin calcium and stability indicating methods
were developed for the determination of both drugs in the presence of their acidic
degradation products using chemometric methods. Different analytical techniques
were applied for the simultaneous quantitative determination of Amlodipine
besylate, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in their laboratory prepared mixtures
and in their tablet dosage form using spectrophotometric, chemometric and
chromatographic methods. The aim of the present work was the development of
analytical procedures which would be feasible, sensitive and specific for the
determination of the studied drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and their
pharmaceutical dosage forms and Amlodipine besylate and Atorvastatin calcium
in the presence of their acidic degradation products.

Mohamed, S. N. A., I. M. Ibrahim, and S. M. Younan, Assessment of Cognitive Functions and Some Markers of Synaptic Plasticity in Diabetic Rats, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractshaimaa_nasr_amin_mohamed.pdf

Cognitive dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus
however, less addressed and recognized. This study aimed to investigate the
effect of type 1 and 2 diabetes on cognitive functions and related markers of
hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the possible impact of blocking Nmethyl-
d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by memantine. Seven rat groups
were included in this study: non-diabetic, non-diabetic-memantine, type 1
diabetic groups: Untreated, treated with insulin alone and treated with
insulin and memantine and type 2 diabetic groups: untreated and
memantine treated. Cognitive functions were assessed by Morris Water
Maze and passive avoidance test and immunohistochemistry was used for
detection of hippocampus pre and post-synaptic markers: synaptophysin
and postsynaptic density protein-95(PSD-95) respectively, learning and
memory plasticity marker: activity regulated cytoskeletal associated protein
(Arc) and the astrocytes reactivity marker: glial fibrillary acidic protein
(GFAP). Both type 1 and 2 untreated diabetic groups showed significantly
impaired cognitive performance with concomitant decrease in
synaptophysin and PSD-95 compared to the non-diabetic group. In addition
type 2 group showed a significant decrease in hippocampus GFAP and Arc
compared to the non-diabetic group. Treating type 1 diabetic group with
insulin alone significantly improved cognitive performance and PSD-95
and significantly decreased GFAP and Arc compared to untreated type 1
group. Blocking NMDA receptors by memantine (30 mg/kg/day) for 3
weeks significantly increased cognitive performance, synaptophysin, GFAP
and Arc in type 1 insulin-memantine group compared to type 1-insulin
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group and significantly increased synaptophysin, PSD-95 and Arc in type 2-
memantine group compared to untreated type 2 diabetic group. In conclusion,
cognitive functions are impaired in both types of diabetes mellitus and can be
improved by blockage of NMDA receptors which may spark future therapeutic
role of these receptors in diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction.

Mohammed, N. A., S. A. A. El-Latief, A. A. El-Latief, and A. E. - R. El-Naggar, Assessment of Suicidality Risk Factors and Its Management at Poison Control Center Cairo University, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractnareman_aly_mohammed.pdf

Suicidality is undoubtedly a pressing clinical issue. It represents a significant
public health problem worldwide. Suicide represents a complex and multi factorial
human behavior, mental illness, genetics, biological, psychosocial and cultural
factors that contribute to the etiology of suicidal behavior. Effective treatment of
suicidal behavior can potentially save an individual's life; therefore, this study was
conducted to assess the suicidality risk factors and its management. A descriptive
correlational design was utilized in this study. A sample is convenient; all patients
who were admitted to Poison Control Center, Cairo University over three months
were recruited. Socio-demographic/medical data sheet, Perceived Social Support
Scale, Beck Depressive Inventory Scale, Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale, Life
Stressors questionnaire and Management questionnaire were used to achieve the
purpose of this study. Results revealed that most of attempters were female
adolescents, showed a higher tendency to be single, unemployed, moderate
education , resided urban areas, using drug self poisoning ,showed none previous
attempts ,high suicidal ideation and moderate depression. The most prominent
problems were family problems. Attempters found low family support and high
friend support and without receiving any type of management except medical
management. To conclude suicide attempters need social and emotional support
from their significant others. Further studies about suicidal ideation assessment
among group at risk for early detection are recommended.

El-Razek, M. M. A., M. I. Husien, and M. M. Morsy, Bublic Hammams in Aleppo from the Beginning of Ayyubid Period to the End of Ottoman Stage A Comparative Archeological Study, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractmansour_mohammed_abd_el-razek.pdf

This research study the bublic Hammams in Aleppo since the beginning of the
Ayyubid period to the end of Ottoman stage, indicating to the city of Aleppo and
the emergence of the bublic Hammams on it by following the reasons that led to
the large numbers with indicating to distribution on different parts of the city,
explaining the reasons that influenced on lt`s collection, and study sources of
supply of these buildings to water and how to access to and distribution at its
various units and how to spend it after use, also discussed how these Hammams
work, and the stages of bathing on it, this research involved also a study of effaced
Hammams and descriptive study to Hammams which still remains on the city
under the period of study, in addition to the analytical study that involved the
architectural plans for Hammams, different units, and architectural elements,
addition to study raw materials and decorative elements used in the architecture
and decoration, in the end the research contains a comparative study between
bublic Hammams on Aleppo, Damascus and Cairo.

El-Kholy, R. M. B., M. R. Bonneu, S. A. El-Aziz, and A. M. Gad, The Effect of a Suggested Program for Teaching Novel Based on Language Decision Making Approach in Developing the First Year Secondary School Students' Critical Reading Skill, and its Achievement of the Standards Document for EFL Learning, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractrasha_mohamed_bahgat_el-kholy.pdf

The study of longitudinal data plays a significant role in medicine,
epidemiology and social sciences. Typically, the interest is in the dependence of
the outcome variable on the covariates. The generalized linear models (GLMs)
were proposed to unify the regression approach for a wide variety of discrete and
continuous longitudinal data. The responses (outcomes) in longitudinal data are
usually correlated since repeated observations are taken from the same subject.
Ignoring this type of correlation may affect the validity of the likelihood inference.
Hence, an extension of the GLMs, that account for such correlation, is needed.
This can be done by inclusion of random effects in the linear predictor; that is the
generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) (also called the random effects
models). The objective of this thesis is to calculate the maximum likelihood
estimates (MLEs) for the regression parameters of the logit model, when the
traditional assumption of normal random effects is relaxed. In this case, a more
convenient skewed distribution, such as the lognormal distribution, is used instead.
However, adding non-normal random effects to the GLMM complicates the
likelihood estimation considerably because the likelihood function can no longer
be expressed in a closed form. So, the direct numerical evaluation techniques
(such as Newton-Raphson) become analytically and computationally tedious. To
overcome such problems, the present study proposes and develops a Monte Carlo
EM (MCEM) algorithm, to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates for a logistic
regression model when the lognormal distribution is assumed as the random
effects density.

Musa, S. M. A., F. M. A. Attia, and N. F. Ahmed, Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractshereen_musa_azab_musa.pdf

carbon paste (CP) electrode modified with gold nanoparticles (GNMCPE) was
introduced. The advantages of the gold nanoparticles enhanced the sensitivity of
the CP-electrode significantly. In a mixture of DA, AA and UA the sensor shows
high selective response towards DA and no response for AA or UA. The effect of
various experimental parameters including time of deposition of gold
nanoparticles on CP-electrode, pH, scan rate, accumulation time and types of
electrolytes were studied to find the highest sensitivity for the determination of
DA. Another promising electrochemical sensor was developed using carbon paste
electrode, gold nanoparticles and Nafion (CP-electrode/Nafion modified with gold
nanoparticles-[electrode (2)]). This sensor is sensitive for the determination of
catecholamine compounds, in the presence of interference molecules.
Simultaneous determinations of DA with 5-TH and ACOP with L-DOPA in binary
mixtures were achieved with good separation. Also a highly sensitive and simple
method was investigated for the determination of acetaminophen and morphine
using both electrodes. Under optimized experimental conditions, their sensitivities
were improved greatly. Moreover, the present method was also applied for their
determination in the presence of common interferents and in binary mixture with
dopamine (DA). Also the effect of various experimental parameters on the
voltammetric response of TR and GSH were investigated using [electrode (2)]. At
the optimum conditions, the concentration of TR and GSH was determined and the
effects of common interferences on the current responses were studied. The results
showed that the method was simple and sensitive enough for their determination in
clinical preparations and in commercial tablet under physiological conditions with
good precision.

ELKODOOS, R. E. H. A. B. A. B. D. - F., S. O. H. E. I. R. A. BADR-ELDEIN, and G. E. H. A. N. M. ISMAIL, FAMILY CAREGIVER’S KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES OF CHILDREN WITH PHENYLKETONURIA AT ABO- EL REESH HOSPITAL, , 2013. Abstractcu_pdf.pdf

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a chronic disorder which needs family caregivers' daily effort to deal with the child's disabilities and to maintain a special rehabilitation and diet program. Family caregivers play a pivotal role in the management of childhood Phenylketonuria. Aim of this study: To assess family caregivers' knowledge and self-reported practice regarding Phenylketonuria at the Child clinic of metabolic disorder of the Social Preventive Medicine Center, Abo El-Reesh, Cairo governorate. Design: A descriptive research design was utilized to fit the purpose of the study. Setting: The study was conducted at the clinic of metabolic disorder of the Social Preventive Medicine Center, Abo El-Reesh hospital, Cairo governorate. Sample: A sample of 140 family caregivers and their children with Phenylketonuria were included in the study, and the data were collected in six months from October 2011 till March 2012. Tools for data collection: Data was collected using structured interviewing questionnaire, knowledge sheet, and practice sheet (self reported questions) for the family caregiver’s home practices regarding PKU. Results: The study indicates that nearly one quarter of the family caregivers have unsatisfactory total knowledge scores, more than half of the family caregivers have satisfactory total knowledge scores, while minority of the family caregivers have good total knowledge scores. The majority of the family caregivers had a poor level of practice, while only (4.3%) of them had got good level of the practice score, while (3.6%) of the caregivers had fair level. A highly statistically significance correlation was found between the family caregivers’ total knowledge scores and their total practices scores which means that the family caregivers’ knowledge had an effect on their practices, as when family caregivers have a good knowledge level regarding their children conditions; this will improve their practices regarding care of their children with PKU. Conclusion: The study concluded that, the family caregivers had poor level of knowledge and yet the vast majority of children still achieved poor dietary control and poor care. Recommendations: Based on the study results it is recommended to develop a training program regarding Phenylketonuria to provide them with knowledge and skills to help them in caring for their children at home.

El-Atfehy, N. M. M. M., K. M. Osman, and M. M. Ali, Genomic Comparison and Characterization of Salmonella Enterica Serovars by the Use of Different Molecular Techniques, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractnayera_mahmoud_m._m._el-atfehy.pdf

Out of 557 samples of different sources the incidence was 11.66%, whereas the
highest percentage was 14.42% among ducks followed by pigeon (11.33%) then
chicken (9.47%) while the lowest percentage of Salmonella isolation was from
turkey (6.25%). The Salmonella serovars showed100% of Congo red binding
affinity with different combining intensities and gave a broad-spectrum of
haemagglutination patterns also showed a wide range of percentage of survival in
duck's and chicken's sera for 3 hours (85.7% - 57 %) and for 6 hr (83.3% -
28.6%).also produced cytopathic effect in different degrees or even death of the
Vero cells and MDCK cells also Embryo lethality assay showed (100% ). The
findings from the present study showed that the InvA gene was expressed in all the
Salmonella serotypes by PCR and the virulotyping analysis for 10 virulence genes
(avrA, bcfC, gipA, mgtC, ssaQ, sopB, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, and spi4D) by
conventional PCR which showed that the dominant gene was sopB (97.1%) of the
examined serovars followed by bcfC (95.7%), ssaQ (68.6%), avrA (64.3%), mgtC
(54.3%), spi4D (52.9%), sodC1 (35.7%), spvC (28.6%), sopE1 (10%) while the
gipA gene was absent .the SDS-PAGE was used to establish the relationship
between the related serovars. It was noticed that the band 36 KDa shared in all S.
Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolates and other Salmonella isolates(30/70),
followed by protein bands between 20 to 24 KDa (18/70) . 94.3% of the isolates
demonstrated multiple-resistance for all antimicrobial agents. Resistance
prevalence was significantly higher among the poultry isolates than human
isolates. Resistance to colistin sulphate was detected only among pigeon and
human isolates and at an intermediate frequency. Also, resistance to ciprofloxacin
was detected among chicken at a high frequency (100%) and at a low frequency
among ducks (3%). The results of the sopB sequencing revealed complete identity
(100%) between five of our selected examined Salmonella serovar isolated from
different sources (5/6) while The untypable Salmonella serovar that was isolated
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from the imported chicken (isolate number 69) showed several points of mutations
(3 true mutations) resulting in grouping with S. Agona str. SL483 with identity
(99.5%). The sequencing of the bcfC gene revealed the same results except the
detection of five points of mutations in the untypable Salmonella serovar isolated
from the imported chicken (isolate number 69 in this study) in, resulting in
grouping with S. Newport str. SL254.

Hassan, M. A. E. - K. I., E. M. Ahmed, S. A. R. Mohamed, and M. R. A. El-Ezz, Impact of Nursing Management Protocol on Selected Postoperative Outcomes Among Children with Open Heart Surgery at Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractmarwa_abd_el-kreem_ibrahim_hassan.pdf

Open-heart surgery is a common medical procedure that can save
lives and improve the quality of heart. The current study was conducted to
evaluate the impact of nursing management protocol on selected postoperative
outcomes among children with open heart surgery at Cairo University Specialized
Pediatric Hospital. The study utilized a pre- post-test quasi-experimental research
design. A total sample of 70 children who were undergoing open heart surgery
was selected from the surgical unit. Data required for the study were collected
through the use of three data collection tools developed by the researcher. The first
one is structured interview schedule which includes the sociodemographic data
about children and their families it also involve history of child's illness. The
second one was the postoperative assessment data sheet to assess the children
during postoperative phase. It includes established child postoperative outcomes
criteria related to: (1) respiratory functions;(2) wound condition; (3) renal
functions and characteristics of urine; (4) chest tubes drainage system. And the
third one was the nursing management protocol. It is apparent from the current
study's results that, there were highly statistically significant differences between
the pre and post application of the nursing management protocol at first and
second days after surgery regarding respiratory rate, pulse, temperature and others.
As well as, there were highly statistically significant differences between pre and
post application of the nursing management protocol at first and second days after
surgery as regards the means of oxygen saturation, PaO2, PcO2, and others. The
study results concluded that, the effectiveness of the designed nursing
management protocol on improving postoperative outcomes among children who
participated in the current study. The study recommended the integration of the
designed nursing management protocol in the care of children undergoing open
heart surgeries in PCICU.

Abed, S. R. M., A. A. E. - W. Mohamed, and A. H. El-Rashidy, The International Liability for Violation of Civilians' and Heads Rights During Armed Conflicts in International Law, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractshady_rashed_mohamed_abed.pdf

This study is connected with many practical facts which indicate the violation
extent against civilians. The study deals with Gaza war in 2008/2009 raised by
Israel against the civilians in Gaza and they declare also the crimes against them in
violation of the International Humanitarian Law.

Helal, M. M. A. E. - H., E. A. El-Gendy, and A. Mostageer, A Model for Marker-Assisted Selection for Fast Growth in Native Egyptian Chickens, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractmostafa_mohamed_abd_el-hamid_helal.pdf

The objective of this study was to use the data of growth patterns of local
chickens accompanied with their molecular data to develop a strategy for markerassisted
selection for growth. Four lines were used and have been derived from a
naturally heat resistant local breed in Egypt. They were a homozygous normallyfeathered
selected line (CE1), homozygous naked-neck selected line (CE3) and
their corresponding control lines (CE2 and CE4). Lines CE1 and CE3 have been
selected for high 6-wk BW for five generations. Three generations were obtained
for this study. Lines CE1 and CE3 were significantly heavier at 6 weeks of age
than their corresponding control lines CE2 and CE4 by 24.15 and 27.07% in the
base generation and by 51.4 and 34.5% in the second selected generation. The
differences reached to 57.1 and 62.8% at 18 weeks of age in the base generation
and 49.3 and 28.7% in the second selected generation. Line CE1 was significantly
heavier than line CE3 throughout the growing period. The total number of alleles
per locus averaged 7.78 alleles. Polymorphism percentage averaged 50.1 and
55.1% in lines CE1 and CE3 versus 38.6 and 49.6% in lines CE2 and CE4.
Percentage of unique alleles averaged 4.3 and 4.6% in lines CE1 and CE3. Many
polymorphic allelic bands were differed in their frequencies between high and low
performed families in lines CE1 and CE3. A total of 34 polymorphic alleles in 19
loci were flown over generations and the flow trends were different in different
lines and families within lines. Principle component analysis was applied to the
data of both lines and two main components were found and three canonical
correlations were obtained. Four and five bands were persistently concomitant
with the highly performed families in lines CE1 and CE3, respectively. These
bands would have brought 6-wk BW into higher levels of performance by 25.1
and 16.6% in the second generation if they would have been considered in the
selection for 6-wk BW.

El-Wahab, T. M. A. A., A. M. A. Marzouk, and N. A. F. Khattab, An Orthopantomographic Study for Age and Sex Estimation: A Comparative Study Among Egyptians and Tunisians Adults, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstracttamer_mahmoud_ahmed_abd_el-wahab.pdf

Background & Objectives: Bioanthropological research must be built upon a
foundation of accurate age and sex estimates. Age and sex estimation from dental
radiographs is a non-destructive, simple method to obtain information. The
objectives of the present dissertation were to analyze six dental age and sex
estimation methods regarding their comparative validity and practical
implementation using 600 digital orthopantograms. Furthermore, a purpose of the
investigation was to supplement the literature with data on dental age and sex
estimation in Egyptians and Tunisians individuals. Methods: The
orthopantomograms were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set
forth for the study. Aging and sexing of modern Egyptian and Tunisian
populations as follows: Sex assessment using discriminant Function analysis of
mandibular measurements, mandibular ramus flexure and of mandibular canine
index, The estimated gender was then compared with the known gender and
percentage accuracy of determination was calculated, while age was assessed
using orthopantomographic indices of the pulp of mandibular canine namely
coronal pulp cavity index, pulp-tooth area index and linear measurement of the
pulp cavity. Results: The results showed that the mandibular ramus flexure,
mandibular canine index and discriminant function analysis for sex determination
among the study populations using digital orthopantomogrms can be used to
diagnose sex with an average accuracy up to 86%. Similarly the pulp tooth area,
the coronal pulp cavity index and linear measurement of pulp were used for age
estimation using mandibular canines, statistically significant correlation between
age and the study variables was revealed. This work revealed no significant
difference between chronological and estimated ages. Different equations for age
estimation in the resent research yielded an error of age estimation about 2.5 years
as a mean value for both the Egyptians and Tunisians which is much lower than
most that of anthropological methods.
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Moreover, it was shown that a combination of variables potentially leads to
increases of the predictive power beyond the capabilities of each method alone for
both age and sex estimation. A new function for sex determination for the
Egyptians and Tunisian was derived as population specific method for sex
determination that yielded a more accurate sex estimate. Conclusion:
Consequently, it was concluded that, this research showed promising results for
dental age and sex estimation in a non-invasive manner using dental digital
orthopantomograms of Egyptian and Tunisians populations. Moreover,
population-specific equations were introduced to enhance the accuracy of the
estimates. Future research should aim at acquiring larger sample sizes, in order to
reduce standard errors of age and sex estimation, and studying the effect of race,
culture and pathology on model parameters. Also the application of the proposed
methods in forensic and archeological contexts.

Ali, N. F. S. T., K. A. EI-Razek, A. A. Ewais, and N. D. E. I. - D. A. El-Hamid, Parents' Quality of Life and It's Relationship to Happiness of Their Deaf Children, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractnagat_fathy_said_taha_ali.pdf

The Current study aimed at identifying the quality of life for parents of deaf
children and its relationship to the happiness feeling of their children. The
researcher used the descriptive method of research. The Sample of the study
consisted of two groups of children: the first Group consisted of 40 deaf children
aged between 5-7 years with their parents (mothers- fathers) at AI Amal School
for Deaf and hard of hearing at Lebanon Square at Giza Governorate, AI Amal
School for Deaf and Hard of Hearing at Shubra at Cairo Governorate, and AI
Amal School for Deaf and Hard of Hearing at Sayeda Zeinab at Cairo
Governorate. Second group consisted of 50 normal children aged between 5-7
years and their parents (mother- father) at AI Madina AI Jam'ia, Dokki at Gaiza
Governorate. The results of the study showed that There were statistically
significant differences between mean scores of normal children's parents and
parents of deaf children in quality of life feelings in favor of normal children's
parents.There were statistically significant differences between mean scores of
normal children's mothers and mothers of deaf children in quality of life feelings
in favor of normal children's mothers. There were no statistically significant
differences between mean scores of normal children's mothers and mothers of deaf
children in quality of life feelings. There were no statistically significant
differences between mean scores of deaf and normal children on the happiness
feeling index. There Were statistically significant differences between score means
of deaf children for high sensitive parents of life quality, and score means of deaf
children for low sensitive parents of life quality on the scale of feeling happiness
in each of (family dimension and total degree on the scale) in favor of deaf
children for high sensitive parents of life quality.

Saleh, N. A. M., and M. E. - S. Mahmoud, The Performance of the Adaptive Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart with Estimated Parameters, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractnesma_ali_mahmoud_saleh.pdf

The Adaptive Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (AEWMA) control
chart has the advantage of detecting in balance mixed range of mean shifts. Its
performance has been studied under the assumption that the process parameters
are known. Under this assumption, previous studies have shown that AEWMA
provides superior statistical performance when compared to other different types
of control charts. In practice, however, the process parameters are usually
unknown and are required to be estimated. Using a Markov chain approach, it is
shown that the performance of the AEWMA control chart is affected when
parameters are estimated compared with the known parameters case. The effect of
different standard deviation estimators on the chart performance is also
investigated. Finally, a performance comparison is conducted between the EWMA
chart and the AEWMA chart when the process parameters are unknown. We
recommend the use of the AEWMA chart over the ordinary Exponentially
Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart especially when a small number of
Phase I samples is available to estimate the unknown parameters.

El-Doub, T. A. E. - A. M., E. - H. A. E. - B. Rady, and A. H. Youssef, Statistical Properties of Estimators for Variable Coefficients Models, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstracttareq_abd_el-aziz_m._el-doub.pdf

Many approaches have been developed to face the estimation problems in
panel data; such as Generalized Least Square (GLS) technique which is used in
Swamy (1970), and Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) which is used in
Hansen (1982) and Verbeek (2004). Generalized Least Square is a known
procedure used in estimating the unknown parameters in the linear regression
model and it can be used in situations where Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) is
statistically inefficient, or gives misleading inferences. The GMM is a very general
statistical technique for obtaining estimates of parameters of statistical models.
Many estimators are known as special cases of (GMM) such as (OLS),
Instrumental Variables (IV) and two Stage Least Squares (2-SLS). The study is
concerned with solving the problem of the negative variance concerning the (GLS)
method and hence a comparative study of (GLS) and GMM procedures with
Simple Panel Data (SPD) and Multiple Panel Data (MPD) is introduced and
discussed simulated data from several models that we used to compare the two
procedures under different conditions of panel data such as: ample sizes, models,
parameters values, and standard deviation. For comparison, we applied the bias,
the Mean Square Error (MSE), the Variances and the rate of Negative Variances.
We found from the above mentioned approaches that (GMM) is more capable and
accurate in estimation than (GLS) in case of random coefficients and nonnegative
definite. Finally, a criminal statistics data from ministry of interior (MOI) in state
of Kuwait were used. We first have to test the coefficients variation to proved that
the coefficients was random or fixed in the real data and we found that the
coefficients are random and (GMM) was better in sense of (MSE) than (GLS) in
case of random coefficients which support our simulation study.

Mohamed, N. H. A., S. A. E. - A. Sharaf, I. A. Mandour, and H. M. El-Karaksy, A Study of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Response to Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in Egyptian Children, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractnormeen_hany_aly_mohamed.pdf

Background: According to the world Health Organization (WHO) report
(2002), at least 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus
(HCV).Egypt with the highest prevalence of HCV infection (15%), its rural
villages have a high prevalence of HCV infection in children younger than 10
years of age. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) an anti-inflammatory cytokine, down regulates
the protective inflammatory response, adversely affecting the response to antiviral
treatment. The IL-10 promoter is highly polymorphic, two single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs) G1082A and C592A that form three haplotypes (AA, AC,
and GC) have been shown to be associated with differential IL-10 expression in
humans. Aim of work: determine the prevalence of the 2 SNPs G1082A and
C592A in the IL-10 promotor region and their effect on response to antiviral
therapy in a cohort of children and young adults with HCV infection.
Patients and methods: forty HCV patients underwent baseline quantitation of
HCV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and baseline biochemical testing
and were followed up for seventy-two weeks, both clinically and via laboratory
assessment HCV-RNA viral load and liver function tests. The genotype status of
IL-10 was assessed by real time PCR-Taqman probe based assay. Results and
conclusion: there was no significant association between polymorphisms in the
IL-10 gene (G1082A and C592A) or cytokine haplotype as regards response to
therapy or severity of HCV infection in children. As for the SNP C592A; there
was a statistically significant association between the score of fibrosis and
different genotypes (P < 0.004), concluding that the (A) allele is risky. HCV RNAcount
and gamma glutamyl transferase pretreatment levels were found to be
predictors of response to interferon therapy in HCV infected children in this study.

Zaghloul, M. A. S., N. M. Salem, and S. M. E. - Sheikh, A Study of the Raman Spectrum of Simple Clathrate Hydrates of Hydrogen, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractmohamed_ashraf_saad_zaghloul.pdf

Clathrate hydrates are molecular structures in which water molecules form
molecular cages that host other species of molecules. These structures are formed
as a result of phase transition under specific temperatures and pressures. The shape
and stability of the structure is dependent on the guest molecules. Clathrate
hydrates are immensely present in nature, and are expected to appear in various
applications like in transport, and storage of other molecules. They are also
thought of as the future worldwide energy reservoir. Raman spectroscopy offers an
effective way to understand the dynamics of such crucial structures. Raman
spectroscopic measurements were obtained from samples of simple clathrate
hydrates of hydrogen and hydrogen deuteride, using a novel cell that allowed us to
witness the formation of clathrates, and perform in situ measurements upon them.
Understanding the Raman spectrum will help unravel new and interesting traits of
enclathrated molecules, as it reveals their quantum dynamics inside molecular
cages. The cluttered region of the Raman spectrum assigned to the vibrational
states with different occupancies have been analyzed, and a new interpretation of
this region of the spectrum is proposed in this work, based on calculations of
average occupancy per large cage for samples formed at different synthesis
pressures, and subjected to heating and quenching cycles.

Mosleh, M. A. I. E. - S., M. A. Kaddah, and F. A. Abd, A Three Dimensional Comparative Study of Two Rapid Maxillary, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractmennat_allah_ihab_el-sayed_mosleh.pdf

Maxillary constriction is considered one of the common orthodontic problems
that could be accompanied by unilateral or bilateral posterior cross-bite narrow
nasal cavity, and dental crowding. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate
and to compare three dimensionally the dento-skeletal changes concurrent with
tooth-borne and bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders. Material and methods:
The study was conducted on 20 growing female patients with a mean age of 12±2
years old . They weredivided into two equal groups; the first group was treated by
tooth borne (Hyrax) expander supported by four stainless steel bands, whereas the
second group received bone borne (Hyrax) expanders anchored directly to the
palatal bone through four mini-screws. Orthodontic study models, intra- and extraoral
photographs, and cone beam computed tomography( CBCT) images were
taken before and immediately after treatment were taken. Cone beam computed
tomography scans was the tool of assessment in this comparative study. Results:
On comparing both groups,subjects in tooth borne expander group showed a
significant increase in nasal widths (P =0.018 ). There was a higher significant
increase in intercuspal widths of first premolars (P =0.046 ) and first permanent
molars ( P = 0.015) noticed in the tooth borne group. The tooth borne group
resulted in a higher significant increase in thebuccolingual inclination ( buccal
rolling ) of the upper first premolars compared to the bone borne group.
Superimpostionof three dimensional images revealed skeletal expansion in canine,
first premolar and first molar regions in both groups. Conclusion: The greatest
skeletal and dental changesoccuredin the transverse dimension in both expanders
whereas, the vertical and anteroposterior changes were minute. Both groups
produced basal bone expansion at the level of the hard palate. Regarding the dental
expansion, the tooth borne expander produced more dental expansion than bone
borne expander resulting in a buccal rolling effect in the upper first premolar teeth.
As for the nasal width changes, there was a greater increase noticed in the tooth
borne expander group.

Lotfy, N. M. A., S. M. Sabry, H. M. A. Atta, and S. A. G. El-Din, Transplantation of Ex-Vivo Expanded Epithelial Stem Cells in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (Laboratory/Clinical Prospective Interventional Non- Controlled Nonrandomized Study), , Egypt, Cairo University, 2013. Abstractnancy_maher_ahmed_lotfy.pdf

Limbal stem-cell deficiency can be congenital or acquired; it can also be partial
or total. Treatment options include: conjunctival-limbal autografts, keratolimbal
lamellar allograft, and living-related conjunctival-limbal allografts. A novel
method of transplanting limbal stem cells is via ex-vivo expansion of limbal stem
cells; with the advantages of: a smaller limbal biopsy, reduced risk of precipitating
stem cell failure in the donor eye, and allowing the option of taking a further
biopsy if required.

2012
EI-Said, A. E. I. - H., I. A. E. I. - M. Sidhom, H. S. Moussa, and V. E. I. - S. EI-Borai, Acute Leukemia in Children with Down Syndrome, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2012. ahmed_ei-hussein_ei-said.pdf
Towab, A., A. S. M. Khalil, E. A. W. Osman, and Z. Mokhtar, "Age Differences in Reactivity to Daily Stressors: The Role of Personal Control", Journal of American Science, vol. 8, issue 12, 2012. cu_pdf.pdf
El-Rahman, M. K. A., M. G. El-Bardicy, M. Y. Salem, N. Morcos, and A. El-Kosasy, Analytical and Stability Studies on some Drugs Affecting the Muscloskeletal System, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2012. Abstractmohamed_khaled_abd_el-rahman.pdf

Most pharmaceutical compounds are subjected to some degradation with the
subsequent partial or even complete loss of pharmacological activity or the
conversion into harmful or toxic substances. A stability indicating procedure may
be defined as a procedure that affords selective determination of a drug in presence
of its degradation products. This work is concerned with the quantitative
determination of the intact molecules of some for some drugs affecting the
musculoskeletal system, namely, diacerein, neostigmine bromide, allopurinol,
benzbromarone and orphenadrine citrate in raw materials, in presence of their
degradation products and in their pharmaceutical dosage forms using different
analytical techniques. Simple spectrophotometric, ion-selective electrode based
potentiometric and chromatographic methods were developed for the stability
indicating determination of diacerein, neostigmine bromide, orphenadrine citrate
and for the analysis of a mixture of allopurinol and benzbromarone.

El-Arnaoty, M. E. - S., A. A. Fahmy, and S. A. El-Rahman, Arabic Opinion Holder Extractor, , Egypt, Cairo University, 2012. Abstractmohamed_el-sayed_el-arnaoty.pdf

With the increasing availability of blogs, Internet forums and social networks,
electronic press sites, people have the chance to express their opinions and
sentiments and make them available to everyone. These opinions provide valuable
information for decision-making processes. Therefore, the computational
treatment of sentiments and opinions bearing text has been viewed as a promising,
while challenging, area of research that can serve different purposes. To fulfill
this, we need to identify first named entities, references to pronouns and other
anaphors, and finally decide which of them is the holder of the expressed opinion.

Mohamed, S. N. A., I. M. Ibrahim, and S. M. Younan, Assessment of Cognitive Functions and Some Markers of Synaptic Plasticity in Diabetic Rats, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2012. Abstract

Cognitive dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus however, less addressed and recognized. This study aimed to investigate the effect of type 1 and 2 diabetes on cognitive functions and related markers of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the possible impact of blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by memantine. Seven rat groups were included in this study: non-diabetic, non-diabetic-memantine, type 1 diabetic groups: Untreated, treated with insulin alone and treated with insulin and memantine and type 2 diabetic groups: untreated and memantine treated. Cognitive functions were assessed by Morris Water Maze and passive avoidance test and immunohistochemistry was used for detection of hippocampus pre and post-synaptic markers: synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein-95(PSD-95) respectively, learning and memory plasticity marker: activity regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) and the astrocytes reactivity marker: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Both type 1 and 2 untreated diabetic groups showed significantly impaired cognitive performance with concomitant decrease in synaptophysin and PSD-95 compared to the non-diabetic group. In addition type 2 group showed a significant decrease in hippocampus GFAP and Arc compared to the non-diabetic group. Treating type 1 diabetic group with insulin alone significantly improved cognitive performance and PSD-95 and significantly decreased GFAP and Arc compared to untreated type 1 group. Blocking NMDA receptors by memantine (30 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks significantly increased cognitive performance, synaptophysin, GFAP and Arc in type 1 insulin-memantine group compared to type 1-insulin
group and significantly increased synaptophysin, PSD-95 and Arc in type 2-memantine group compared to untreated type 2 diabetic group. In conclusion, cognitive functions are impaired in both types of diabetes mellitus and can be improved by blockage of NMDA receptors which may spark future therapeutic role of these receptors in diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction.