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El-Rashidy, A. A., S. El Moshy, I. A. Radwan, D. Rady, M. Abbass, C. E. Dörfer, and K. F. M. El-Sayed, "Effect of Polymeric Matrix Stiffness on Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells: Concise Review", Polymers , vol. 13 , issue (17), , pp. 2950, 2021.
Abbass, M. M. S., D. Rady, I. A. Radwan, S. El Moshy, N. AbuBakr, M. Ramadan, N. Yussif, and A. Al Jawaldeh, Prevalence of periodontal diseases and its correlation with different risk factors among an adult Egyptian population: a cross-sectional study, : F1000Res, 2019. Abstract
Abbass, M. M. S., N. AbuBakr, I. A. Radwan, D. Rady, S. El Moshy, M. Ramadan, A. Ahmed, and A. Al Jawaldeh, "The potential impact of age, gender, body mass index, socioeconomic status and dietary habits on the prevalence of dental caries among Egyptian adults: a cross-sectional study.", F1000Research, vol. 8, pp. 243, 2019. Abstract

Dental caries is a major public health problem and the most widespread chronic disease to affect individuals throughout their lifetime. Little information exists about the prevalence of dental caries among Egyptian adults. Therefore, this study investigated the dental caries experience among Egyptian adults in correlation with different risk factors. A total of 359 Egyptian adults (age range, 18-74 years) were examined over a period of 3 months, starting on the 15 of November 2017 until the 13 of January 2018. Socio-demographic data, brushing frequency, body mass index (BMI) and eating habits were recorded and collected using a questionnaire. Dental examination was performed using the Decayed, Missing and Filled tooth (DMFT) index. In total, 86.63% of participants had dental caries experience. Of the participants, 60.45%, 48.47% and 55.43% had at least one decayed, missing and filled tooth, respectively. The mean number of decayed, missing, filled or DMFT for the whole sample were 2.4±3.6, 1.98±3.99, 1.79±2.45, 6.09±5.7, respectively. Decayed teeth were inversely correlated with socio-economic status (SES), education level, brushing frequency and milk consumption and positively correlated with grains, junk food and soda drinks consumption. Missing teeth were inversely correlated with SES, education level and brushing frequency, while positively correlated with age, BMI and caffeinated drink consumption. Conversely, filled teeth were positively correlated with age, BMI, SES and education level, while negatively correlated with grains and sugars in drinks. The present study clarifies that age, BMI, SES, education level and brushing frequency are risk factors significantly associated with dental caries prevalence amongst Egyptian adults. Egyptian adults' dietary habits might lead to obesity, which indirectly causes dental caries rather than directly as in children.

Abbass, M. M. S., S. A. Mahmoud, S. El Moshy, D. Rady, N. AbuBakr, I. A. Radwan, A. Ahmed, A. Abdou, and A. Al Jawaldeh, "The prevalence of dental caries among Egyptian children and adolescences and its association with age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits and other risk factors. A cross-sectional study.", F1000Research, vol. 8, pp. 8, 2019. Abstract

: Dental caries is a chronic, multifactorial disease, with limited data available for the Egyptian population. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of dental caries among Egyptian children and adolescents in correlation with age, gender, body mass index, socioeconomic status, parental education, biological risk factors and dietary habits. : A total number of 369 Egyptian children and adolescents (age ranges from 3-18 years) were examined over the period from 15 November 2017 to 13 January 2018. Socio-demographic data, oral hygiene measures and dietary habits for children were recorded. Dental status was analyzed using decayed, missing and filled tooth index (dmft) for deciduous dentition and (DMFT) index for permanent dentition. For mixed dentition (deft) index was used, d (decayed tooth indicated for filling), e (decayed tooth indicated for extraction) and f (filled tooth). : 74% of the children had dental caries with mean dmft: 3.23±4.07; deft: 4.21±3.21; DMFT: 1.04±1.56. In primary dentition, dmft of the children was positively correlated with age, beans, candies, crackers, chocolates and inversely correlated with gender, socio-economic status (SES), parental education, brushing frequency of the parent, brushing frequency of the parent to the child teeth, brushing frequency of the child and consumption of eggs, fruits/vegetables, milk and milk products. In mixed dentition, deft was positively correlated with candies, crackers, citric juices, while negatively correlated with age, SES, parental education, brushing frequency of the parent to the child, brushing frequency of the child, fruits/vegetables. In permanent dentition, DMFT in children was positively correlated with age and chocolates while not correlated with any of the remaining risk factors. : The present study clarifies the significant risk factors associated with dental caries amongst Egyptian children. This will help in planning strategies to prevent and treat such disease.


Background: Periodontal disease is considered the sixth major complication of diabetes mellitus. Apoptosis plays a functional role in limiting diabetic repair through diabetes-enhanced caspase-3 activity. The immune system has been shown to play an important role in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. The fact that diabetics are more susceptible to infections suggests that immunologic capability may be deranged and the inflammatory process is enhanced in term of increased level of immunoglobulins. Russell bodies, an uncommon finding that may be associated with chronic inflammatory conditions. T-cells might promote the formation of Russell bodies (Mott cells) through the release of soluble factors, such as IL-2 which acts in a paracrine fashion to support the survival and function of regulatory T – cells (Tregs).
Methods: The aim of the study was to determine the adaptive apoptotic and inflammatory alterations accompanying diabetes in human gingival. To fulfill this objective, gingival biopsies (one per person) were collected from 10 diabetic patients (Type 2 diabetes mellitus) with periodontitis (Diabetic group) and from 10 donors with no known history of diabetes mellitus or periodontitis (Control group).The sections were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and by the direct immunofluorescence technique.
Results: Histopathological examination of the diabetic gingiva showed the association of Russell bodies with the numerous inflammatory cells detected in the lamina propria. This was further assured by increased reaction for CD138. Also, there was increased immunoreactivity for caspase-3 and IL-2. The histomorphometric analysis data supported the immunohistochemical results as there has been a high significant increase in the area percentage of caspase-3, CD-138 and IL-2 immunoreaction in the gingiva of diabetic group in comparison to the control group. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed increased reaction for IgA and IgM in the inflammatory cells and Russell bodies.
Conclusions: Diabetes enhanced apoptosis results in a cascade of events; starting by inflammation and formation of Mott cells (Russell bodies) in addition to deterioration of the immune system in the form of increased immunoglobulins.

Ezzat, B. A., and M. M. S. Abbass, "The ability of H1 or H2 receptor antagonists or their combination in counteracting the glucocorticoids-induced alveolar bone loss in rats”", Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, 2013. Abstract

Background: The aim of the present study was to compare between three possible osteoporotic treatments in prevention of glucocorticoid-induced alveolar bone loss.
Methods: Fifty adult female Wistar rats with an average weight 150-200 g were randomized into 5 groups: group I (control) was intraperitoneally injected with saline. The other experimental groups (II & III, IV & V) were intraperitoneally injected with 200 µg/100g body weight dexamethasone. The experimental groups III, IV and V received intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/ kg/day pheniramine maleate (H1 receptor antagonist), ranitidine hydrochloride (H2 receptor antagonist) and concomitant doses of both H1 & H2 receptor antagonists respectively. After 30 days, the rats have been sacrificed. The mandibles were examined histologically histochemically and histomorphometrically. The bone mineral density was measured using DEXA.
Results: Histopathologically the glucocorticoid group showed wide medullary cavities with wide osteocytic lacunae. These marrow cavities were reduced in the prophylactic groups (III, IV) but increased in group V. Bone histomorphometric analysis revealed improvement in static bone parameters in groups III and IV and deterioration in group V in comparison to group II. The DEXA revealed significant reduction in the bone mineral density in all experimental groups compared to the control group.
Conclusions: In a rat model, the administration of H1 or H2 receptor antagonists separately could minimize the alveolar bone loss caused by the administration of glucocorticoids while concomitant administration of both H1 and H2 receptor antagonists deteriorated the bone condition.

Hakeam, G. A. A., K. Eid, M. A. Sharaf, Y. A. Badr, M. M. S. Abbass, and N. H. Solouma, "Laser Surface Modification of Poly (ε-caprolactone) Scaffold for Artificial Skin Applications", Am. J. Biomed. Sci, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2013. Abstractlaser_surface_modification_of_poly.pdf

Hard implants undergo detachment from the host tissues due to inadequate biocompatibility, poor adhesion and subsequent cell integration. Thereby, surface engineering seems to offer solutions for improved functionality and biocompatibility of material implants inside the biological environment. Polycaprolactone (PCL) thin film has been fabricated via uniaxial compression technique. Pulsed excimer laser was used to modify the PCL surface roughness. The laser pulses induced the formation of nanoripples on the membrane surface. The effect of laser parameters (pulse rate, energy and number of pulses) on the development of the nanoripples was studied. The surface morphology, roughness and the scaffold biocompatibility and cell viability were characterized using scanning electron microscopes (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and MTT assay micro-plate reader. This work showed that applying laser pulses at different rates significantly modified the surface criteria. The modified scaffold was more biocompatible, rough, with enhanced cell attachment, proliferation and provided adequate host for cells to differentiate rather than the unmodified scaffold. The results clearly revealed that the modified scaffold with nanoripples on its surface could be a candidate implant material for artificial skin applications.

Waly, G. H., M. M. S. Abbass, and K. A. M. Eid, "Long-term in vivo performance of composite chitosan/cellulose scaffolds with different nano-hydroxyapatite ratios for bone engineering", Egyptian Dental Journal, 2013. Abstractlong-term_in_vivo_performance_of_composite.pdf

Objective: The current study aims to compare the long term in vivo performance of composite chitosan/cellulose/nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds containing different nano-hydroxyapatite concentrations. Materials and methods: The nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) powder was prepared using the co-precipitation method. The powder was characterized using photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning electron microscopic examination (SEM). Four scaffold groups were prepared; group A (control) containing only chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) while groups B, C and D were composite chitosan/HEC/nHA scaffolds with nHA/chitosan ratios of 20, 40 and 60 wt% respectively. The scaffolds’ microstructure was microscopically examined by SEM. The compressive strength of the four scaffold groups was measured (n=8). The scaffolds were implanted for two and four months in the tibias of New Zealand white rabbits. At the end of the implantation periods, the animals were euthanized and their tibias were retrieved and dissected free of soft tissues. Histological and histomorphometric evaluations were performed (n=4 for each scaffold group at each implantation period). The bone mineral density (BMD) of the scaffold-filled bone defects was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DEXA) (n=4 for each scaffold group at each implantation period). For statistical analysis, Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons while Bonferroni post hoc test was used for multiple 2-group comparisons. Student’s t-test was used when comparing two groups. Results: The prepared nHA powder particles had irregular shapes and an average size of 28±3 nm. SEM examination of the prepared scaffolds showed an interconnected porous structure for all groups with the pore size decreasing as the nHA concentration increased. The compressive strength increased with increasing the nHA content. Histologically, groups C and D showed more bone formation than the other two groups. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that the defects filled with groups C and D scaffolds showed the highest bone area % followed by those filled with group B then group A. The defects filled by the four groups had higher BMD than normal bone only after two months. There was no significant difference between the four groups neither after two or four months. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of the nHA in the chitosan/cellulose/nHA composite scaffolds, up to certain limit, significantly improves the long-term in vivo performance when used for bone engineering.

Abbass, M. M., N. S. Korany, A. H. Salama, J. J. Dmytryk, and B. Safiejko-Mroczka, "The relationship between receptor for advanced glycation end products expression and the severity of periodontal disease in the gingiva of diabetic and non diabetic periodontitis patients.", Archives of oral biology, vol. 57, issue 10, pp. 1342-54, 2012 Oct. Abstract

Objective: Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in many chronic diseases, including diabetic complications. In this study we examined the relationship between RAGE expression and the morphological changes seen in the gingiva of diabetic and periodontitis patients.
Design: Gingival biopsies from 15 diabetic patients with periodontitis, 25 non diabetic patients with periodontitis and 10 healthy individuals were collected. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and immunohistochemically to detect RAGE. Samples were examined in light and fluorescence microscopes and histomorphometric analysis was performed.
Results: Increased number of inflammatory cells and changes in collagen and vasculature were observed in diabetic and non diabetic patients with periodontitis. RAGE was weakly expressed in healthy gingiva. The strongest reaction with anti-RAGE antibody was found in the gingiva of diabetic patients with periodontitis followed by the severe periodontitis patients. RAGE expression in inflammatory cells was stronger than in the epithelium. The number of inflammatory cells in the gingiva was higher in the diabetic periodontitis patients than in the non diabetic severe periodontitis patients.
Conclusions: RAGE is strongly expressed in the gingiva of diabetic patients with periodontitis and with severe periodontitis alone, the latter indicating RAGE activation even in the absence of hyperglycemia. However our findings are based on relatively small sample size. With a larger patient population, some of our other findings may have reached statistical significance.

Korany, N. S., and M. M. Abbass, "In Vivo evidence of Aloe Vera role on cell proliferation and apoptosis in ligature induced periodontitis", Egyptian Dental Journal, vol. 58, 2012. Abstractin_vivo_evidence_of_aloe_vera_role.pdf

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the proliferative and apoptotic effect of Aloe Verain the treatment of induced periodontitis in Wistar rats.
Design: Thirty adult male Wistar rats with an average weight 200-250 g were used in this study. Sterile 4/0 silk ligatures were placed around the maxillary central incisors to induce periodontitis. The 30 animals were divided randomly into 3 groups, 10 rats in each group. Group I (periodontitisgroup), group II (Oral group) were given Aloe Vera extract (300mg/kg) by oral gavage, whilein-group III (intraperitoneal group) rats were given Aloe Vera intraperitoneally in the dose of (300mg/kg). The animals were sacrificed at the end of 30 days.The maxillae of each group (10 specimens each) were dissected around theincisors. The specimens were stained with heamatoxylin and eosin. PCNA and Caspase- 3 were used for detecting proliferative and apoptotic changes respectively.
Results: Histological results of both groups II & III revealed thicker bone trabeculae formation, and enhanced angiogenesis. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in the area percentage of bone in both groups II &III, compared to group I with a statistically significant difference between the three studied groups (P=0.0016). Group II revealed the greatest PCNA area percentage, but witha statistically non-significant difference between the 3 studied groups (P=0.221).The highest Caspase-3 immunoreactivity was revealed in Group I. A statistically significant difference of Caspase-3 area percentage was present between the three groups (p≤0.0001).
Conclusions: Aloe-Vera administration proved to be effective in the treatment of periodontitis by enhancing proliferation and decreasing apoptosis of alveolar bone cells.

Abbass, M. M., A. H. Salama, B. S. Mroczka, and N. S. Korany, "The immunofluorescent expression of receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the gingiva of diabetic patients", The 1st International Dental Congress, Cairo, 2008.