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Khalaf, A. A., Mona K Galal, Marwa A Ibrahim, A. A. A. Allah, M. M. Afify, and R. Refaat, "The modulates the neurotoxicity induced by fipronil in male albino rats.", Bioscience reports, vol. 39, issue 3, 2019 Mar 29. Abstract

The extensive use of fipronil (FPN) may trigger hazards to more than insects. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the abrogating role of (TL) methanol extract (TLE) against the neurotoxic effects provoked by FPN. Fourty male albino rats were assigned into four equal groups. The first group served as control, the second one was orally administered FPN (10.5 mg/kg BW), the third group was given combination of FPN and TLE) (100 mg/kg BW), and the fourth one was orally given TLE. Our findings highlighted the efficacy of TLE as a neuroprotectant through a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) content by 25.8%, elevations of the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT,) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities by 30.9, 41.2, and 48.2% respectively. Consequently, the relative mRNA levels of both Bax and caspase-3 were down-regulated by 40.54% and caspase-3 by 30.35% compared with the control group. Moreover, restoration of the pathological tissue injuries were detected. In conclusion, TLE proved to be a potent neuroprotective agent against the FPN-induced toxicity.

Abdel Aziz, R. L., A. Abdel-Wahab, F. I. Abo El-Ela, N. E. - H. Y. Hassan, E. L. - S. H. A. Y. M. A. A. EL-NAHASS, Marwa A Ibrahim, and A. - T. A. Y. Khalil, "Dose- dependent ameliorative effects of quercetin and l-Carnitine against atrazine- induced reproductive toxicity in adult male Albino rats.", Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol. 102, pp. 855-864, 2018 Jun. Abstract

This study aimed to determine the protective effects of co-administration of Quercetin (QT) or l-Carnitine (LC) against the oxidative stress induced by Atrazine (ATZ) in the reproductive system of intact male Albino rats. 36 rats were divided equally into 6 groups. Rats in the control negative "CNT" group received 1.5 ml distilled water for 21 days. All rats in the other groups received ATZ (120 mg/kg bw) through gavage. Groups 3 and 4 were co-administered with either low or high dose of QT (10 "ATZLQT" and 50 "ATZHQT" mg/kg bw, respectively). Groups 5 and 6 were co-administered with either low or high dose of LC (200 "ATZLLC" and 400 "ATZHLC" mg/kg bw, respectively). At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and all samples were collected. ATZ significantly increased serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Also, ATZ increased significantly the sperm cell abnormalities and reduced both testicular IgA and serum testosterone levels. Testicular DNA laddering % and CYP17A1 mRNA expression were significantly reduced in ATZ group. Interestingly, co-administration with low dose QT or different doses of LC succeeded to counteract the negative toxic effects of ATZ on serum oxidative stress indicators, serum testosterone levels, testicular IgA level and improved testicular CYP17A1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, QT in low dose and LC in both low and high doses exerted a significant protective action against the reproductive toxicity of ATZ, while higher dose of QT failed induce immune-stimulant effect against ATZ in adult male Albino rats.

Afifi, N. A., Marwa A Ibrahim, and Mona K Galal, "Hepatoprotective influence of quercetin and ellagic acid on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.", Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, vol. 96, issue 6, pp. 624-629, 2018 Jun. Abstract

Despite all the studies performed to date, therapy choices for liver injuries are very few. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries remains a challenge. Quercetin (QR) and ellagic acid (EA) had potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The current study aimed at evaluating the potential hepatoprotective influence of QR and EA against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver toxicity in rats and the underlying mechanism using silymarin as a reference drug. Fifty mature male rats were orally treated daily with EA and QR in separate groups for 45 consecutive days, and then were injected with TAA twice with 24 h intervals in the last 2 days of the experiment. Administration of TAA resulted in marked elevation of liver indices, alteration in oxidative stress parameters, and significant elevation in expression level of fibrosis-related genes (MMP9 and MMP2). Administration of QR and EA significantly attenuated the hepatic toxicity through reduction of liver biomarkers, improving the redox status of the tissue, as well as hampering the expression level of fibrosis-related genes. In this study, QR and EA were proved to attenuate the hepatotoxicity through their antioxidant, metal-chelating capacity, and anti-inflammatory effects.

Morgan, A., Marwa A Ibrahim, Mona K Galal, H. A. Ogaly, and R. M. Abd-Elsalam, "Innovative perception on using Tiron to modulate the hepatotoxicity induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in male rats.", Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol. 103, pp. 553-561, 2018 Jul. Abstract

The extensive application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO NPs) in the food industry arouses a debate regarding the probable risk associated with their use. Several recent studies reported that most nanoparticles (NPs) have adverse actions on the liver. The objective of this study is to examine whether Tiron plays a modulatory role against apoptotic damage induced by TiO NPs in rat livers. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; a control group received phosphate-buffered saline, an intoxicated group received 100 mg/kg/day of TiO NPs for 60 days, a treated group received 470 mg/kg/day of Tiron for the last 14 days after TiO NPs administration, and a Tiron group received Tiron only as previously mentioned. Oral administration of TiO NPs significantly increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In the liver, TiO NPs increased oxidative stress through increasing lipid peroxidation and decreasing GSH concentration and the levels of the SOD and GPx enzymes. TiO NPs significantly upregulated the proapoptotic Bax gene and downregulated the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene. Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue reinforced the previous biochemical results. Apoptotic lesions were also obvious in this group. Treatment with Tiron as an antioxidant significantly decreased serum biochemistry, ameliorated oxidative stress in hepatic tissue, upregulated Bcl-2, decreased Bax expression and attenuated the histopathology of hepatic injury. These findings indicate that Tiron effectively diminishes the hazardous effects of TiO NPs on rat liver.

Kamel, S., Marwa A Ibrahim, E. S. T. Awad, H. M. A. El-Hindi, and S. A. Abdel-Aziz, "Molecular cloning and characterization of the novel CYP2J2 in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).", International journal of biological macromolecules, vol. 120, issue Pt B, pp. 1770-1776, 2018 Dec. Abstract

Although its economic, cultural and biological importance, many genes haven't been depicted, sequenced or analyzed to date for Camelus dromedarius. In the present paper, the full-length c-DNA of a novel CYP2J2 (GenBank accession number MH511989) was cloned from liver, heart, and kidney mRNA by RACE-PCR. The full-length c-DNA of the cloned CYP2J2 was sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics methods. The full-length c-DNA sequence was 2135 bp with no introns. The open reading frame (ORF) had 1341 nucleotides which coded for a putative protein of 446 amino acids. The deduced protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. It has two transmembrane regions. The nucleotides and deduced amino acids sequences of the cloned CYP2J2 were 1400 nucleotides and 47 amino acids shorter than the predicted homolog respectively. This study is the first description of the putative CYP2J2 gene, which opens the way to a new investigation-so far-never accomplished in Camelus dromedarius.

Rizk, F. H., N. I. Sarhan, N. A. Soliman, M. A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abd-Elsalam, and S. Abd-Elsalam, "Heat shock protein 47 as indispensible participant in liver fibrosis: Possible protective effect of lactoferrin.", IUBMB life, vol. 70, issue 8, pp. 795-805, 2018 08. Abstract

Lactoferrin (LF) was previously suggested to have a protective effect against liver fibrosis by preventing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. The effect of LF on heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) has not yet been studied so this study was designed to investigate LF effect on HSP47 as a potential target for management of liver fibrosis and comparing it with silymarin (SM) in a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis model. Rats were divided into four groups; normal control, TAA (TAA-treated), LF (LF + TAA-treated), and SM (SM + TAA-treated). After 6 weeks, both LF and SM improved the grade of cirrhosis, reduced collagen fibers deposition, inactivated HSCs, significantly decreased elevated liver enzymes, HSP47, hydroxyproline content, transforming growth factor-beta 1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide levels and the percentage of alpha smooth muscle actin positive HSCs compared with TAA group. Moreover, LF significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity compared with TAA group. It could be concluded that LF is a promising antifibrotic drug and could be considered as one of the HSP47 inhibitors but SM is still more potent. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(8):795-805, 2018.

Morgan, A. M., Marwa A Ibrahim, and A. M. Hussien, "The potential protective role of Akropower against Atrazine- induced humoral immunotoxicity in rabbits.", Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol. 96, pp. 710-715, 2017 Dec. Abstract

Introduction to the herbicide Atrazine (ATR) can bring about immunotoxicity, aside from other unfavorable results for the creature and human wellbeing. We went for clarifying the genotoxic mechanisms required in humoral immunotoxicity of Gesaprim (ATR) and their constriction by Akropwer. Forty rabbits (1.5kg±20%) were utilized and appointed into 4 equal groups. group 1: control; group 2: Received Atrazine at 1/10 LD via food; group 3: Received Akropwer at 1ml/1l/day by means of drinking water; group 4: Received both Atrazine and Akropwer associatively by the same said dosage and course. Atrazine and Akropower exposure were accomplished for 60days. The genotoxic mechanisms of Atrazine- induced humoral immunotoxicity were explained by increased serum total protein and albumin levels, decreased RHDV antibody titer only after four weeks of vaccination and increased level of spleen Fas and Caspase-III genes expression in Atrazine-exposed rabbits. Marked splenocytes apoptosis were detected in the immunohistochemical examination by caspase-III technique and TUNEL assay. Akropower attenuated ATR-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Fas and Caspase-III genes expression and suppression of their signaling pathway. In conclusion, induction of apoptosis by overexpression of Fas and Caspase-III genes gives a new insight into the mechanism of ATR immunotoxicity. The protective part of Akropower, on the other hand, was characterized by attenuation of Fas and Caspase-III genes mediated apoptosis.

Ogaly, H. A., A. A. Khalaf, Marwa A Ibrahim, Mona K Galal, and R. M. Abd-Elsalam, "Influence of green tea extract on oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by deltamethrin in rat brain.", Neurotoxicology and teratology, vol. 50, pp. 23-31, 2015 Jul-Aug. Abstract

In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against neurotoxicity and oxidative damage induced by deltamethrin (DM) in male rats. Four different groups of rats were used: the 1st group was the vehicle treated control group, the 2nd group received DM (0.6 mg/kg BW), the 3rd group received DM plus GTE, and the 4th received GTE alone (25 mg/kg BW). The brain tissues were collected at the end of the experimental regimen for subsequent investigation. Rats that were given DM had a highly significant elevation in MDA content, nitric oxide concentration, DNA fragmentation and expression level of apoptotic genes, TP53 and COX2. Additionally, a significant reduction in the total antioxidant capacity in the second group was detected. The findings for the 3rd group highlight the efficacy of GTE as a neuro-protectant in DM-induced neurotoxicity through improving the oxidative status and DNA fragmentation as well as suppressing the expression of the TP53 and COX2 genes. In conclusion, GTE, at a concentration of 25mg/kg/day, protected against DM-induced neurotoxicity through its antioxidant and antiapoptotic influence; therefore, it can be used as a protective natural product against DM-induced neurotoxicity.

Marwa A Ibrahim, A. A. Khalaf, Mona K Galal, H. A. Ogaly, and A. H M Hassan, "Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.", Nanoscale research letters, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 363, 2015 Dec. Abstract

The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

Ibrahem, M. D., and Marwa A Ibrahim, "The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through estimation of P53 level.", Journal of advanced research, vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 133-6, 2014 Jan. Abstract

The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP) on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

Mona K Galal, Abdel Azim A Khalaf, H. A. Ogaly, and Marwa A Ibrahim, "Vitamin E attenuates neurotoxicity induced by deltamethrin in rats.", BMC complementary and alternative medicine, vol. 14, pp. 458, 2014 Dec 02. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The safety of Deltamethrin (DM) has been raised as a point of concern. The current investigation was envisaged to explore the responsiveness of oxidative stress parameters, DNA fragmentation and expression levels of TP53, cycloxygenase 2 (COX2) and cytochrome p4502E1 (CYP2E1) as toxicological endpoint in rats treated with DM. as well as attention was provided to the neuroprotective effect of vitamin E (VE).

METHODS: Four different groups of rats were used in this study, group I served as control, group II received DM (0.6 mg/kg BW), group III received both DM plus VE and finally group IV received VE only (200 mg/kg BW). The treatment regimen was extending for one month for all groups and the brain tissues were collected for further analysis.

RESULTS: The obtained results showed a highly statistically significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) content, nitric oxide concentration, and DNA fragmentation percentage and expression level of CYP2E1, TP53 and COX2 genes, in addition statistical significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity in DM treated group as compared to control were detected. Oral administration of VE attenuated the neurotoxic effects of DM through improvement of oxidative status, DNA fragmentation percentage and suppressing the expression level of CYP2E1, TP53 and COX2 genes.

CONCLUSION: From this study we concluded that VE supplementation has beneficial impacts on DM neurotoxicity in rats through its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties.

Khairy, H. M., Marwa A Ibrahim, and M. D. Ibrahem, "Phenological and liver antioxidant profiles of adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to toxic live cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing) cells.", Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences, vol. 67, issue 11-12, pp. 620-8, 2012 Nov-Dec. Abstract

Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) constitute the greater part of the phytoplankton. Microcystis aeruginosa is amongst the most ubiquitously distributed cyanobacterial species, and almost invariably produces cyclic heptapeptide toxins called microcystins (MCs). The present study was designed to investigate the phenological and liver antioxidant profiles of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus chronically exposed to toxic live M. aeruginosa cells. Fish were grown in the absence and presence of M. aeruginosa in three different concentrations for seven days, and subsequently reared for another 30 days in the absence of the cyanobacteria. While cyanobacteria did not cause any fish mortality, there was a progressive development of yellowish discolouration in the livers of exposed fish. In the livers, the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA) were elevated in response to the concentration of M. aeruginosa. Moreover, DNA fragmentation and DNA-protein crosslinks were measured. These parameters can thus be considered potential biomarkers for the fish exposure to M. aeruginosa. The present study sheds light on cyanobacterial blooms like health, environmental, and economic problem, respectively.

Ibrahem, M. D., H. M. Khairy, and Marwa A Ibrahim, "Laboratory exposure of Oreochromis niloticus to crude microcystins (containing microcystin-LR) extracted from Egyptian locally isolated strain (Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing): biological and biochemical studies.", Fish physiology and biochemistry, vol. 38, issue 3, pp. 899-908, 2012 Jun. Abstract

Cyanobacterial blooms exert negative impacts on fisheries and water management authorities. Recently, it has gained global attention, as elevated earth warming and environmental pollution are accelerating algal growth. Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) is a worldwide and the most commonly cultured fish in Egypt. The biological interaction of the living organisms to the surrounding environment must continuously be assessed to predict future effects of the ongoing hazards on fish. The study was designed to examine the possible biological and biochemical response of O. niloticus exposed to different concentrations of microcystins crude extract (containing microcystin-LR). Three equal groups of O. niloticus were assigned for intraperitoneal injection of three different doses: 100, 200, and 400 μg m(-1) dried aqueous microcystins extract, for 10 days. Clinical, condition factor (K) and hepatosomatic index (HIS) were estimated. Biochemical alterations were evaluated via lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation assay and electrophoretic analysis of fragmented DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that there were discernible behavioral and clinical alterations. Significant differences in K and HIS were observed between treatments. Also, significant elevations were observed in lipid peroxidation level and in the DNA fragmentation percentage in the exposed fish to the doses of 200 and 400 μg m(-1) of microcystins crude extract. The current study addresses the possible toxic effects of microcystins crude extract to O. niloticus. The results cleared that microcystins crude extract (containing MC-LR) is toxic to O. niloticus in time- and dose-dependent manners.

Marwa A Ibrahim, A. M. El Behairy, M. A. Ghoneim, and H. A. Amer, "Protective effect of curcumin and chlorophyllin against DNA mutation induced by cyclophosphamide or benzo[a]pyrene.", Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences, vol. 62, issue 3-4, pp. 215-22, 2007 Mar-Apr. Abstract

The current study was carried out to evaluate the potency of curcumin and chlorophyllin as natural antioxidants to reduce the oxidative stress markers induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) and benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P] which were used as free radical inducers. For this purpose, 126 male albino rats were used. The animals were assigned into 4 main groups: negative control group; oxidant-treated group (subdivided into two subgroups: cyclophosphamide-treated group and benzo[a]pyrene-treated group); curcumin-treated group; and chlorophyllin-treated group. Liver samples were collected after two days post the oxidant inoculation and at the end of the experimental period (10 weeks). These samples were examined for determination of liver microsomal malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration. Both CP and B(a)P caused increments in DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA, concentration of 8-OHdG and induced point mutation. Treatment of rats with either curcumin or chlorophyllin revealed lower DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA concentration, concentration of 8-OHdG and prevented induction of mutations, i.e., reversed the oxidative stress induced by CP and B(a)P and proved that they were capable of protecting rats against the oxidative damage evoked by these oxidants.