Unveiling the Chemical Composition, Bioactive Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Dried Egyptian Jew's Mallow Stems as a Promising Anticancer Agent.

Citation:
Ali, M. R., H. H. Ibrahim, and A. A. Salah-Eldin, "Unveiling the Chemical Composition, Bioactive Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Dried Egyptian Jew's Mallow Stems as a Promising Anticancer Agent.", Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 29, issue 6, 2024.

Abstract:

Phytochemicals from waste materials generated by agricultural and industrial processes have become globally significant due to their accessibility and potential effectiveness with few side effects. These compounds have essential implications in both medicine and the economy. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of the phytochemical profile, sugar types, and water-soluble vitamins of dried L."DJMS" extract (dried Jew's mallow stem) was carried out with HPLC. In addition, the chemical composition, TPC, chlorophyll a and b, beta-carotene, and antioxidant effect using DPPH were investigated. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of the DJMS was evaluated by SRB assay using Huh-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. In the quantitative study, DJMS extract showed a high antioxidant potential (67%) due to its content of bioactive compounds such as TPC (276.37 mg 100 g) and chlorophyll a and b (20.31, 12.02 mg 100 g, respectively), as well as some vitamins and minerals such as B-complex (B12; 146.8 mg 100 g and vitamin C 6.49 mg 100 g) and selenium (<0.2 μg kg). Moreover, the main sugar types found were sucrose and stachyose, which recorded 9.23 and 6.25 mg 100 g, respectively. Identifying phenolic and flavonoids showed that the major components were ellagic acid (4905.26 μg kg), ferulic acid (3628.29 μg kg), chlorogenic acid (3757.08 μg kg), luteolin-7--glucoside (4314.48 μg kg), naringin (4296.94 μg kg) and apigenin-6-rhamnose-8 glucoside (3078.87 μg kg). The dried stem extract showed significant MDA-MB-231 inhibition activity and reached 80% at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL of DJMS extract, related to the content of phytochemical components such as isoflavones like genistein (34.96 μg kg), which had a tremendous anticancer effect. Hence, the stem of Jew's mallow (which is edible and characterized by its viability and low production cost) possesses the capacity to serve as a pharmaceutical agent for combating cancer owing to its abundance of bioactive components.

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