Use of the Scan-and-Plan Workflow in Next-Generation Robot-Assisted Pedicle Screw Insertion: Retrospective Cohort Study and Literature Review.

Citation:
Mao, J. Z., A. Khan, M. A. R. Soliman, B. R. Levy, M. J. McGuire, R. V. Starling, R. M. Hess, J. O. Agyei, J. E. Meyers, J. P. Mullin, et al., "Use of the Scan-and-Plan Workflow in Next-Generation Robot-Assisted Pedicle Screw Insertion: Retrospective Cohort Study and Literature Review.", World neurosurgery, vol. 151, pp. e10-e18, 2021.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using the scan-and-plan workflow and review current literature on surgical efficiency, safety, and accuracy of next-generation robot-assisted (RA) spine surgery.

METHODS: The records of patients who underwent RA pedicle screw fixation were reviewed. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was determined based on the Ravi classification system. To evaluate workflow efficiency, 3 demographically matched cohorts were created to analyze differences in time per screw placement (defined as operating room [OR] time divided by number of screws placed). Group A had <4 screws placed, Group B had 4 screws placed, and Group C had >4 screws placed. Intraoperative errors and postoperative complications were collected to elucidate safety.

RESULTS: Eighty-four RA cases (306 pedicle screws) were included for analysis. The mean number of screws placed was 2.1 ± 0.3 in Group A and 6.4 ± 1.2 in Group C; 4 screws were placed in Group B patients. The accuracy rate (Ravi grade I) was 98.4%. Screw placement time was significantly longer in Group A (101 ± 37.7 minutes) than Group B (50.5 ± 25.4 minutes) or C (43.6 ± 14.7 minutes). There were no intraoperative complications, robot failures, or in-hospital complications requiring a return to the OR.

CONCLUSIONS: The scan-and-plan workflow allowed for a high degree of accuracy. It was a safe method that provided a smooth and efficient OR workflow without registration errors or robotic failures. After the placement of 4 pedicle screws, the per-screw time remained constant. Further studies regarding efficiency and utility in multilevel procedures are necessary.