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Aboulnaga, M., "Sustainability Measures of Public Buildings in Seaside Cities: The New Library of Alexandria (New Bibliotheca Alexandrina), Egypt", Design of Sustainable buildings on seaside zones, Switzerland , Springer , 2018.
Aboulnaga, M., A. Wanas, M. ElKhayat, and A. Elwan, "Low carbon Residential Building for Climate Change Adaptation: The Case of a Village House in the Delta Region, Egypt.", A.NERGY 2016 Conference at Incheon University: "Initiative for Green and Sustainable Asia", Incheon, South Korea, 2016. extended_abstract_-_ccr_prof_mohsen_aboulnaga_et_al_for___6th_anergy_2016_sk.pdf
Aboulnaga, M., P. Puma, and M. Elsharkawy, "SUSTAINABLE RESTORATION: SURVEY AND ANALYSIS OF THE BARON EMPAIN PALACE, CAIRO, EGYPT", Sustainable Mediterranean Construction, Land Culture, Research and Technology (SMC), vol. 14, pp. 96-104, 2021. da89e7a8-1ca1-4ac1-b976-9b582c485c43.jpeg1411.pdf
Aboulnaga, M., A. Amer, and A. Al-Sayed, "Towards Sustainable Development: Mega Project’s Strategic Environmental Assessment to Attain SDG 7, 9, 11, 12 & 13", Sustainable Mediterranean Construction (SMC), issue 12, pp. 101-106, 2020. 1215.pdf
Aboulnaga, M., and M. Mostafa, "Sustainability Principles and Features Learned from Vernacular Architecture: Guidelines for Future Developments Globally and Egypt", Sustainable Vernacular Architecture – How the Past can Enrich the Future , Switzerland , Springer Nature , 2019. Abstract


Vernacular architecture is the traditional architecture built by indigenous (local) people in a country. It can be considered sustainable as it exhibits the consideration of environmental, social, cultural and economic factors. Vernacular architecture has been built in many countries around the world. It reflects the culture and tradition of indigenous people using simple forms and local materials supported by simple construction skills. Africa has many examples of vernacular architecture using natural resources within reach locally. Also, Latin America, Asia and Europe show various and similar examples. By-and-large, vernacular architecture illustrates many aspects of sustainability and addresses sustainable development requirements in terms of needs and limitations. Nonetheless, vernacular buildings demonstrate compliance with and adherence to basic green principles. This chapter focuses on vernacular architecture in general and presents leading global and regional traditional buildings, including examples in Africa (58 countries) and Middle East (13 countries) to learn about and detect synergies and to assist in better understanding of the vernacular architecture worldwide and the selected cases in Egypt. In this review, building types, materials, elements of structure and forms were illustrated and assessed. Factors influencing vernacular architecture in many countries are presented and discussed. Comparison between vernacular architecture examples in Africa was conducted in terms of building types and climatic region, specifically under parameters such as building shape (form), colour and materials as well as structural and sustainability features. In addition, examples of vernacular architecture in Egypt were reviewed and illustrated, mainly: Aswan, Luxor and Western Desert. A comparison between examples of vernacular architecture in Siwa Oasis in Egypt was conducted in terms of use, building materials, structure and project description as well as social sustainability, economic sustainability and environmental sustainability. Finally, lessons learned from global, regional and Egyptian vernacular architecture as well as sustainability guidelines for future development are outlined.

Keywords: Vernacular architecture Sustainability principles Sustainable materials Guidelines Africa Egypt

Aboulnaga, M., "Sustainable Building for a Green and an Efficient Built Environment: New and Existing Case Studies in Dubai", Sustainability, Energy and Architecture: Case Studies in Realizing Green Buildings, UK and USA, Elsevier - Academic Press , 2014.
Aboulnaga, M., "High-Rise Buildings in the Context of Sustainability: Urban Metaphors of Greater Cairo, Egypt – A Case Study on Sustainability and Strategic Environmental Assessment ", Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies, Switzerland , Springer , 2017.
Aboulnaga, M., M. Sala, and A. Trombadore, "Open Innovation Strategies, Green Policies, and Action Plans for Sustainable Cities—Challenges, Opportunities, andApproaches......", Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cities and Regions , Switzerland , Springer , 2021. Book Cover.png
Aboulnaga, M., A. Alwan, and M. R. Elsharouny, "Climate Change Adaptation: Assessment and Simulation for Hot-Arid Urban Settlements – The Case Study of the Asmarat Housing Project in Cairo, Egypt.", Sustainable Building for a Cleaner Environment: Springer, Cham, 2019. Abstractlink.springer.comchapter10.1007978-3-319-94595-8_37.pdf

Urban areas in hot-arid climatic zones, especially in Egypt, are facing real challenges in responding to heat island effect, providing thermal comfort and adapt to climate change (CC) impacts. Such challenges are mounting due to CC risks that are manifested worldwide, e.g., severe storms that recently slashed the Gulf of Mexico, Texas, and Florida, USA. Metrological data indicate that the increase in hot summer days would result in rapid multiplication in heat stress, death cases, and economic impacts. A severe event was observed in Cairo, Egypt, in August 2015, where air temperature was recorded high 49 °C above the normal temperature for 10 days, hence resulting in 200 cases that were hospitalized from heat stress and 98 deaths. The CC direct risks are not only limited to urban areas and public health. Due to the fact that Egypt is highly dependent on fossil fuels to produce electricity, GHG emissions, mainly CO2 will be significantly increasing. Therefore, sustainable and green measures and actions are vital to be considered and implemented in all sectors. Under such adverse CC impacts, it is necessary for all stakeholders to examine current urban projects in order to assess their ability to respond to CC adaptation measures. This paper presents the assessment of a low-income housing settlement that was recently built in Cairo. The Asmarat project is selected as the case study to simulate the long-term impact of CC scenarios by 2080 on one of the capital’s urban settlements and to test the role of passive cooling configurations in mitigating CC effect in cities to identify possible countermeasures. Simulation programs ENVI-met and DesignBuilder were used to assess and measure the resilience and sustainability of the selected urban project. The study simulates the urban microclimate in terms of the urban form by 2016 and 2080 to evaluate CC impact. Six measures were tested including passive cooling design configurations, building elevation, buildings’ envelops, vegetation, and water features, and orientation and high albedo were tested, and results were presented. These findings address adaptation policies, actions and measures, and simulations of the role of buildings’ retrofitting and cities’ upgrading in coping with CC mitigation/adaptation to narrow the information gap and yet understand the challenges facing the adaptation measures in hot-arid zones. The changes in climatic parameters resulted in an increased magnitude of thermal discomfort by 1 point on the PMV thermal sensation scale in the built environment within hot-arid climate zones. In addition, results indicate that adaptation measures through buildings’ retrofitting and upgrading cities’ strategies played a vital role in adapting with CC risks through the enhancement of outdoor and indoor thermal comfort and mitigating CO2 emissions.

Aboulnaga, M., F. Elwan, and R. Al-Sharouny, M., Urban Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Countries: Policies, Projects, and Scenarios, , Switzerland , Springer Nature, 2019.
Aboulnaga, M., and A. Wanas, "Sustainability of Higher Educational Buildings: Retrofitting Measures to Enhance Energy Performance — The Case of AASTMT Business Management School Building, Egypt,", Mediterranean Green Buildings and Renewable Energy, Switzerland , Springer , 2017.
Aboulnaga, M., P. Puma, and M. Elsharkawy, "Sustainability assessment of restored historic buildings: Case study of Baron Empain Palace in Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt – Representation analysis of the building and site", SBE21 Sustainable Built Heritage 14-16 April 2021, Bolzano-Bozen, Italy Accepted papers received: 22 September 2021 Published online: 26 October 2021, Bolzano — South Tyrol, Italy, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES), Volume 863, pp. 012009 (1-10), 2021. pdf.pdf
Aboulnaga, M., N. Amin, and B. Rebelle, "Climate Adaptation Action: The Role of Clean Energy and Strategic Action Plans of South Mediterranean Cities", Green Buildings and Renewable Energy, Switzerland — CHAM, Springer , 2020. Abstract

Local governments worldwide face challenges to meet the Paris Climate Agreement 2015 and its targets amid the high CO2 emissions. Municipalities should play a major role in addressing climate actions and transform cities to more sustainable energy resources to attain SDGs. The European Union initiated a major project ‘Cleaner Energy Saving Mediterranean Cities’ (CES-MED) from 2011 to 2018, which is under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) to support South Mediterranean countries in developing Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans—SECAP. This chapter presents strategic action plans to support and strengthen the capacity of local authorities to embrace and implement sustainable development and clean energy policies in line with existing national regulatory and legislative frameworks yet to understand the energy consumption in all sectors that utilize energy in the city, map energy consumption and CO2 emissions over 1 year, develop priority planned actions and establish climate actions. This chapter also highlights the assessment that was conducted on eight sectors such as transport, residential, tertiary and government buildings, agriculture, industry, waste, wastewater and tourism in two cities (Hurghada and Luxor) in Egypt. The assessment is based on the calculation of energy use and GHG emission according to the methodology of the European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC). The planned action and climate actions comprise of seven priority actions for the city of Hurghada and five priority actions for the city of Luxor including as follows: (1) transport, urban sustainable mobility master plan; (2) tourism, sustainable green boats; (3) tourism, green and sustainable hotels and resorts; (4) sustainable approach for governorate buildings; (5) sustainable approach for residential building; (6) solar energy development; and (7) green city awareness unit. However, in this paper, the first three priority actions are presented. Results in the city of Luxor (2015) indicate that total energy consumption and the corresponding global GHG emissions are estimated to be 4937 GWh/year and 1797 ktCO2eq/year, whereas these are 3338 GWh/year and 1338 ktCO2eq/year in Hurghada.