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A
y A, E., E. - R. M, and E. - A. W, "Planning and prioritizing direct-acting antivirals treatment for HCV patients in countries with limited resources: Lessons from the Egyptian experience.", J Hepatol., vol. 2017 Sep 19, issue S0168-8278(17), pp. 32286-9, 2017.
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Darweesh, S. K., K. Elsaeed, H. Omar, M. E. Raziky, W. elakel, M. E. Serafy, S. A. Ismail, A. A. Gomaa, M. Mehrez, M. Elkassas, et al., "High SVR rate following retreatment of non-sustained virological responders to sofosbuvir based anti-HCV therapies regardless of RAS testing: A real-life multicenter study.", Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 13, issue 9, pp. 907-914, 2019. Abstract

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin (SOF/DCV/RBV) in treating non-sustained virological responders (non-SVR12) to prior sofosbuvir-based therapy, in absence of RAS testing in mass treatment, and determination of the optimal timing to start re-treatment. Real-life prospective observational study included prior non-responders to 24-weeks SOF-RBV (n = 679, 67%) or 12-weeks SOF- RBV- PEG (n = 335, 33%). Patients were re-treated with daily SOF/DCV/RBV for 12 (n = 270) or 24 weeks (n = 744). The primary efficacy endpoint was SVR12. The primary safety endpoints were reported adverse events (AEs) from baseline to SVR12 time point. We included 1,014 patients [age 52 ± 9 years, 58.48% men]. Cirrhosis was documented in 46.98% and 27.5% of SOF-RBV and SOF-RBV-PEG non-responders respectively. Overall, SVR12 was 90.6% [92.2% for 12 weeks therapy and 90.05% for 24 weeks therapy]. Mild AEs occurred in 5.13% (n=52) and 3.1% (n=32) discontinued treatment including eight on-treatment mortalities. Higher baseline FIB-4 and shorter interval before starting retreatment (<6 months) were independent predictors of non-SVR12 on multivariate regression analysis. SOF/DCV/RBV is an effective and safe treatment option for non-responders to prior sofosbuvir-based therapy. Six months interval before retreatment is optimal for achieving favorable SVR.

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El Raziky, M., M. Gamil, M. K. Ashour, E. A. Sameea, W. Doss, Y. Hamada, G. Van Dooren, R. DeMasi, S. Keim, I. Lonjon-Domanec, et al., "Simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for eight or 12 weeks in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced hepatitis C virus genotype 4 patients with or without cirrhosis.", Journal of viral hepatitis, vol. 24, issue 2, pp. 102-110, 2017 02. Abstract

The OSIRIS study investigated efficacy and safety of simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for eight or 12 weeks in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4-infected patients with METAVIR F0-F4 fibrosis. Sixty-three patients (33 treatment-naïve and 30 peg-interferon/ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV)-experienced) enrolled in a partly randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase IIa study. Patients with F0-F3 fibrosis were randomized (1:1) into two groups (A1 and A2), stratified according to treatment experience and METAVIR score, to receive either eight weeks (Group A1, n=20) or 12 weeks (Group A2, n=20) of treatment. Patients with compensated cirrhosis (METAVIR F4) received 12 weeks of treatment (Group B, n=23). Treatment comprised simeprevir 150 mg and sofosbuvir 400 mg daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after planned end of treatment (SVR12). Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout. Overall, 92% (95% CI: 82-97) of patients achieved SVR12; 75% (15/20) in Group A1 and 100% in groups A2 and B. Patients who did not achieve SVR12 (n=5) experienced viral relapse during the first 32 days following treatment and were all prior Peg-IFN/RBV null responders. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were asymptomatic lipase increase (14%), pruritus (14%), headache (13%) and hyperbilirubinaemia (11%). No patients discontinued due to TEAEs. In conclusion, simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks achieved a 100% SVR rate in HCV genotype 4-infected patients with or without compensated cirrhosis (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02278419). The AE and laboratory profile were favourable and consistent with previous data for simeprevir plus sofosbuvir in eight- and 12-week regimens.

El Raziky, M, E. y A, Said SE, Abdelatty S, E. A. W, T. O, G. E. H., and M. M., "IP-10 Serum Level in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients: Relation to Fibrosis and Response to Combined Interferon/Ribavirin Therapy.", J Interferon Cytokine Res. , vol. Aug;35(8):6, pp. 49-5, 2015.
El Raziky, M. E. S., N. A. Zayed, Y. S. Ibrahim, F. Elrashdy, R. M. H. Shahin, M. Hassany, M. E. Serafy, W. Doss, V. N. Uversky, A. Yosry, et al., "Association analysis of genetic variants of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide NTCP gene (SLC10A1) and HBV infection status in a cohort of Egyptian patients", Gastroenterology Insights, vol. 12, issue 4, pp. 384-393, 2021.
El Serafy, M. A., A. M. Kassem, H. Omar, M. S. Mahfouz, and M. E. S. El Raziky, "APRI test and hyaluronic acid as non-invasive diagnostic tools for post HCV liver fibrosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.", Arab journal of gastroenterology : the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, issue 2, pp. 51-57, 2017 Jun. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for a sizable proportion of chronic liver disease cases and represents the most common indication for liver transplantation. Precise diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis stage is considered a funnel-neck in proper management and follow-up of HCV-infected patients. Given the possible complications of liver biopsy, a non-invasive method for assessing hepatic fibrosis is needed. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of APRI and hyaluronic acid as non-invasive diagnostic assessment tools for post HCV liver fibrosis.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Systematic literature searching identified studies performed on Egyptian territory to evaluate APRI and hyaluronic acid as non-invasive tests of fibrosis and using liver biopsy as the reference standard. Meta-analysis was performed for areas with an adequate number of publications. Validation of meta- analysis on APRI was done on a subset of 150 treatment-naïve post-hepatitis C patients.

RESULTS: Both APRI and hyaluronic acid have superior predictive power for hepatic cirrhosis (F4) than for significant fibrosis (F2-F3). The pooled estimate for sensitivities and specificities of APRI and hyaluronic acid to diagnose F4 were (84% and 82%) and (83% and 89%) respectively. In the subgroup of treatment naïve post-hepatitis C patients, APRI had higher diagnostic performance to diagnose liver cirrhosis with 93.8% sensitivity and 72.4% specificity (AUC; 0.908, 95%CI; 0.851-0.965, p-value; <0.001) compared to its accuracy to diagnose significant hepatic fibrosis with 65.1% sensitivity and 77.8% (AUC; 0.685, 95% CI; 0.59-0.78, p-value; 0.001).

CONCLUSION: APRI score and hyaluronic acid levels are simple and reliable non-invasive markers to detect advanced fibrosis among post-hepatitis C patients.

El-Khayat, H., E. M. Kamal, H. Mahmoud, A. Gomaa, B. Ebeid, Y. Sameh, A. Hasseb, M. E. Raziky, M. E. Serafy, W. Doss, et al., "Retreatment of chronic hepatitis C virus genotype-4 patients after non-structural protein 5A inhibitors' failure: efficacy and safety of different regimens.", European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 32, issue 3, pp. 440-446, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is an important regimen for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-4 infected patients. Retreatments for NS5A virologic failure are limited. The aim of this study is to provide real-life data regarding the effectiveness and safety of retreatment with different regimens after NS5A regimen virologic failure in GT4 patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 524 HCV patients (mean age 48 ± 11 years, 71% males), with virologic failure to sofosbuvir+daclatasvir, n = 450 and sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, n = 74 were included in this study. Patients were retreated with sofosbuvir + ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + ribavirin, n = 278 and sofosbuvir + simeprevir + daclatasvir + ribavirin, n = 246. Response was evaluated 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12).

RESULTS: Overall, SVR12 was 95.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 93.3%-97.1%]. In sofosbuvir + ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + ribavirin and sofosbuvir + simeprevir + daclatasvir + ribavirin, SVR12s were 94.9% (95% CI 92.5%-97.4%) and 95.5% (95% CI 92.8%-98%), respectively. In liver cirrhosis patients, SVR12s were 96.4% (95% CI 90.7%-100%) and 98% (95% CI 94.9%-100%), respectively. Relapse in the sofosbuvir + ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + ribavirin was n = 14 patients, and n = 11 patients in sofosbuvir + simeprevir + daclatasvir + ribavirin. Three patients developed hepatic encephalopathy, haematemesis, lower limb oedema, and one patient died in the SOF + OBV/PTV/RTV + RIB. In the sofosbuvir + simeprevir + daclatasvir + ribavirin, three patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma and one patient died. No treatment discontinuation due to anaemia.

CONCLUSION: Salvage treatment for NS5A-treatment failure is effective and well tolerated in genotype-4 patients, in both noncirrhotic and compensated cirrhotic groups.

El-Raziky M, Khairy M, F. S. E. T. A. A. A. O., "Effect of Direct-Acting Agents on Fibrosis Regression in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients' Treatment Compared with Interferon-Containing Regimens.", J Interferon Cytokine Res., vol. 38, issue 3, pp. 129-136, 2018.
Elsharkawy, A., M. El-Raziky, W. El-Akel, K. El-Saeed, R. E. Etreby, M. Hassany, M. H. El-Sayed, K. Kabil, S. A. Ismail, M. El-Serafy, et al., "Planning and prioritizing direct-acting antivirals treatment for HCV patients in countries with limited resources: Lessons from the Egyptian experience.", Journal of hepatology, vol. 68, issue 4, pp. 691-698, 2018. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The introduction of direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Egypt led to massive treatment uptake, with Egypt's national HCV treatment program becoming the largest in the world. The aim of this paper is to present the Egyptian experience in planning and prioritizing mass treatment for patients with HCV, highlighting the difficulties and limitations of the program, as a guide for other countries of similarly limited resources.

METHODS: Baseline data of 337,042 patients, treated between October 2014 to March 2016 in specialized viral hepatitis treatment centers, were grouped into three equal time intervals of six months each. Patients were treated with different combinations of direct-acting antivirals, with or without ribavirin and pegylated interferon. Baseline data, percentage of patients with known outcome, and sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR12) were analyzed for the three cohorts. The outcomes of 94,258 patients treated in the subsequent two months are also included.

RESULTS: For cohort-1, treatment was prioritized for patients with advanced fibrosis (F3-F4 fibrosis, liver stiffness ≥9.5 kPa, or Fibrosis-4 ≥3.25). Starting cohort-2, all stages of fibrosis were included (F0-F4). The prioritization strategy in the initial phase caused delays in enrollment and massive backlogs. Cohort-1 patients were significantly older, and more had advanced fibrosis compared to subsequent cohorts. The percentage of patients with known SVR12 results were low initially, and increased with each cohort, as several methods to capture patient results were adopted. Sofosbuvir-ribavirin therapy for 24 weeks had the lowest SVR12 rate (82.7%); while other therapies were associated with SVR12 rates between 94% and 98%.

CONCLUSION: Prioritization based on fibrosis stage was not effective and enrollment increased greatly only after including all stages of fibrosis. The availability of generic drugs reduced costs, and helped massively increase uptake of the program. Post-treatment follow-up was initially very low, and although this has increased, further improvement is still needed.

LAY SUMMARY: We are presenting the largest national program for HCV treatment in the world. We clearly demonstrate that hepatitis C can be cured efficiently in large scale real-life programs. This is a clear statement that global HCV eradication is foreseeable, providing a model for other countries with limited resources and prevalent HCV. Moreover, the availability of generic products has influenced the success of this program.

Elsharkawy, A., M. El-Raziky, W. El-Akel, K. El-Saeed, R. E. Etreby, M. Hassany, M. H. El-Sayed, K. Kabil, S. A. Ismail, M. El-Serafy, et al., "Planning and prioritizing direct-acting antivirals treatment for HCV patients in countries with limited resources: Lessons from the Egyptian experience.", Journal of hepatology, 2017 Dec 06. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The introduction of direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Egypt led to massive treatment uptake, with Egypt's national HCV treatment program becoming the largest in the world. The aim of this paper is to present the Egyptian experience in planning and prioritizing mass treatment for patients with HCV, highlighting the difficulties and limitations of the program, as a guide for other countries of similarly limited resources.

METHODS: Baseline data of 337,042 patients, treated between October 2014 to March 2016 in specialized viral hepatitis treatment centers, were grouped into three equal time intervals of six months each. Patients were treated with different combinations of direct-acting antivirals, with or without ribavirin and pegylated interferon. Baseline data, percentage of patients with known outcome, and sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR12) were analyzed for the three cohorts. The outcomes of 94,258 patients treated in the subsequent two months are also included.

RESULTS: For cohort-1, treatment was prioritized for patients with advanced fibrosis (F3-F4 fibrosis, liver stiffness ≥9.5 kPa, or Fibrosis-4 ≥3.25). Starting cohort-2, all stages of fibrosis were included (F0-F4). The prioritization strategy in the initial phase caused delays in enrollment and massive backlogs. Cohort-1 patients were significantly older, and more had advanced fibrosis compared to subsequent cohorts. The percentage of patients with known SVR12 results were low initially, and increased with each cohort, as several methods to capture patient results were adopted. Sofosbuvir-ribavirin therapy for 24 weeks had the lowest SVR12 rate (82.7%); while other therapies were associated with SVR12 rates between 94% and 98%.

CONCLUSION: Prioritization based on fibrosis stage was not effective and enrollment increased greatly only after including all stages of fibrosis. The availability of generic drugs reduced costs, and helped massively increase uptake of the program. Post-treatment follow-up was initially very low, and although this has increased, further improvement is still needed.

LAY SUMMARY: We are presenting the largest national program for HCV treatment in the world. We clearly demonstrate that hepatitis C can be cured efficiently in large scale real-life programs. This is a clear statement that global HCV eradication is foreseeable, providing a model for other countries with limited resources and prevalent HCV. Moreover, the availability of generic products has influenced the success of this program.

Elsharkawy, A., S. A. Alem, R. Fouad, M. E. Raziky, W. elakel, M. Abdo, O. Tantawi, M. Abdallah, M. Bourliere, and G. Esmat, "Changes in liver stiffness measurements and fibrosis scores following sofosbuvir based treatment regimens without interferon.", Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, vol. 32, issue 9, pp. 1624-1630, 2017 Sep. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Accurate evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases is crucial, as liver fibrosis is important in order to make therapeutic decisions, determine prognosis of liver disease and to follow-up disease progression. Multiple non-invasive methods have been used successfully in the prediction of fibrosis; however, early changes in non-invasive biomarkers of hepatic fibrosis under effective antiviral therapy are widely unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes of transient elastography values as well as FIB-4 and AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) in patients treated with Sofosbuvir-based treatment regimen.

METHODS: This is a retrospective study including 337 chronic HCV Egyptian patients with genotype 4 mainly. They were treated with Sofosbuvir-based treatment regimen. Transient elastography values were recorded as well as FIB-4 and APRI were calculated at baseline and SVR12.

RESULTS: There was a significant improvement of platelets counts, ALT and AST levels, which in turn cause significant improvement in FIB-4 and APRI scores at SVR12. Liver stiffness measurements were significantly lower in SVR12 (14.8 ± 10.7 vs 11.8 ± 8.8 kPa, P = 0.000). About 77% of responders and 81.1% of cirrhotic patients showed improvement in liver stiffness measurements at SVR12.Univariate and multivariate regression analysis showed that failure to achieve improvement in liver stiffness measurements were significantly associated with relapsers and low baseline liver stiffness measurement.

CONCLUSION: Sofosbuvir-based treatment resulted in a clinically significant improvement in parameters of liver fibrosis.

Elsharkawy, A., R. Fouad, W. Elakel, M. El Raziky, M. Hassany, G. Shiha, M. Said, I. Motawea, T. El Demerdash, S. Seif, et al., "Sofosbuvir-based treatment regimens: real life results of 14 409 chronic HCV genotype 4 patients in Egypt.", Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 45, issue 5, pp. 681-687, 2017 03. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is one of the most important health problems in Egypt. The Ministry of Health's National Treatment Programme introduced sofosbuvir-based therapy in October 2014.

AIM: To assess the clinical effectiveness and predictors of response to SOF-based treatment regimens, either dual therapy, with SOF/ribavirin (RBV) for 6 months or triple therapy with SOF/peg-IFN-alfa-2a/RBV for 3 months, in a cohort of patients treated in National Treatment Programme affiliated centres in Egypt.

METHODS: Between October 2014 and end of 2014, patients who were eligible for treatment were classified according to their eligibility for interferon therapy: Group 1 (interferon eligible) were treated with triple therapy for 12 weeks and Group 2 (interferon ineligible) were treated with dual therapy for 24 weeks. Difficult to treat patients included those with F3-F4 on Metavir score, Fib-4 >3.25, albumin ≤3.5, total Bilirubin >1.2 mg/dL, INR >1.2 and platelet count <150 000 mm.

RESULTS: Twelve weeks post-treatment data were available on 14 409 patients; 8742 in group 1 and 5667 in group 2. In group 1, the sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR12) was 94% and in group 2 the SVR12 was 78.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in which treatment failure is the dependent variable was done. Male gender, being a difficult to treat patient and previous interferon therapy were significant predictors of nonresponse in both treatment groups.

CONCLUSION: Results of sofosbuvir-based therapies in Egypt achieved similar rates of SVR12 as seen in phase III efficacy studies.

Esmat, G., and M. E. Raziky, "Cirrhosis: A Practical Guide to Management:changing outcome with antiviral or antifibrotic therapies", Cirrhosis: A practical guide to management, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2015.
Esmat, G., T. Elbaz, M. E. Raziky, A. Gomaa, M. Abouelkhair, H. G. E. deen, A. Sabry, M. Ashour, N. Allam, M. Abdel-Hamid, et al., "Effectiveness of ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir in interferon-naïve and treated patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype-4.", Journal of hepatology, 2017 Sep 19. Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HCV-genotype-4 (GT4) has become very effective, it remains very expensive, and affordable options are needed, especially in limited resource countries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of ravidasvir (an NS5A inhibitor) and sofosbuvir to treat patients with chronic HCV-GT4 infection.

METHODS: A total of 300 patients with HCV-GT4 infection were recruited in three groups: treatment-naïve patients with or without compensated Child-A cirrhosis (Group 1); interferon-experienced patients without cirrhosis (Group 2); and interferon-experienced patients with cirrhosis (Group 3). Groups 1 and 2 received ravidasvir 200 mg QD plus sofosbuvir 400 mg QD for 12 weeks and were randomized 1:1 to treatment with or without weight-based ribavirin. Group 3 patients received ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir with ribavirin and were randomized 1:1 to a treatment duration of 12 weeks or 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12).

RESULTS: A total of 298 patients were enrolled: 149 in Group 1, 79 in Group 2 and 70 in Group 3. SVR12 was achieved in 95.3% of all patients who started the study, including 98% of patients without cirrhosis and 91% of patients with cirrhosis, whether treatment-naïve or interferon-experienced. Ribavirin intake and history of previous interferon therapy did not affect SVR12 rates. No virologic breakthroughs were observed and the study treatment was well tolerated.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, was well tolerated and associated with high sustained virologic response rate for HCV-GT4 infected patients with and without cirrhosis, regardless of previous interferon-based treatments.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02371408.

LAY SUMMARY: This study evaluated efficacy and safety of the new oral hepatitis C drug ravidasvir in combination with the approved oral drug sofosbuvir in 298 patients infected with hepatitis C type 4. Our results showed that treatment with ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, was well tolerated and associated with high response rate in patients with and without cirrhosis.

Etreby, R. E., W. elakel, M. E. Raziky, and G. Esmat, "Response to Real life Egyptian experience of efficacy / safety of Simeprevir\ Sofosbuvir in HCV genotype IV.", Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver, vol. 37, issue 5, pp. 766, 2017 May.
Etreby, R. E., W. elakel, M. Said, M. El Kassas, S. Seif, T. Elbaz, M. E. Raziky, S. Abdel Rehim, S. Zaky, R. Fouad, et al., "Real life Egyptian experience of efficacy and safety of Simeprevir/Sofosbuvir therapy in 6211 chronic HCV genotype IV infected patients.", Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver, vol. 37, issue 4, pp. 534-541, 2017 04. Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Major changes have emerged during the last few years in the therapy of chronic HCV. Several direct acting antiviral agents have been developed showing potent activity with higher rates of sustained virological response, even in difficult-to-treat patients. This study explores real life experience concerning efficacy, safety and possible predictors of response for the first cohort of Egyptian patients with chronic HCV genotype IV treated with Sofosbuvir/Simprevir combination therapy.

METHODS: This real life study recruited the first (6211) chronic HCV genotype IV Egyptian patients, who received antiviral therapy in viral hepatitis specialized treatment centres affiliated to the National committee for control of viral hepatitis. All enrolled patients received 12 weeks course of daily combination of sofosbuvir (400 mg) and simeprevir (150 mg). Patients were closely monitored for treatment safety and efficacy.

RESULTS: Overall sustained virological response 12 rate was 94.0% while the end of treatment response rate was 97.6%. sustained virological response 12 rates in easy and difficult-to-treat groups were 96% and 93% respectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant association of low albumin (<3.5), cirrhosis and Fib-4 score (>3.25) with treatment failure. Fatal adverse events occurred in 23/6211 cases (0.37%) due to liver cell failure adverse events or SAEs leading to treatment discontinuation occurred in 97 patients (1.6%).

CONCLUSION: Sofosbuvir/Simeprevir combination is an effective and well tolerated regimen for patients with chronic HCV genotype IV.

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Fathalah, W. F., M. A. A. Abdel Aziz, N. H. Abou El Soud, and M. E. S. El Raziky, "High Dose of Silymarin in Patients with Decompensated Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.", Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 37, issue 11, pp. 480-487, 2017 Nov. Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem being the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Egypt. HCV-induced decompensated liver cirrhosis patients have a median survival of 2 years even with currently used new treatments. Silymarin is the most commonly used herbal product in chronic liver disease for its anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of silymarin in high dose on the clinical and biochemical status of chronic HCV-associated decompensated liver cirrhosis. The study was conducted on 62 chronic HCV-decompensated cirrhotic patients. Patients were randomized according to treatment plans: group A, included 31 patients who received silymarin in dose of 1,050 mg/day, and group B, included 31 patients who received silymarin in dose of 420 mg/day. Patients were subjected to baseline history taking, laboratory evaluation, abdominal ultrasound, Child scoring, and quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaire. Follow-up was done every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Silymarin in high dose had an effect on reducing alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase levels (P ≤ 0.01), as well as improving albumin (P = 0.04), bilirubin (P = 0.02), and international normalized ratio (P = 0.03), thus resulted in improvement in Child score (P = 0.048), however, regular silymarin regimen (420 mg/day) failed to achieve the previous biochemical changes. High-dose regimen of silymarin also had a positive impact on improving QoL. No serious adverse events were reported. Silymarin in high dose is a good choice for improvement of liver biochemical profile and QoL in chronic HCV cirrhotic patients.

Fouad, H., M. E. Raziky, E. M. Hassan, G. M. A. Aziz, S. K. Darweesh, and A. R. Sayed, "Regulatory and activated effector T cells in chronic hepatitis C virus: Relation to autoimmunity.", World journal of hepatology, vol. 8, issue 30, pp. 1287-1294, 2016 Oct 28. Abstract

AIM: To investigate how Tregs are regulated in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patientsassessment of Tregs markers (granzyme 2, CD69 and FoxP3), Teffs markers [TNFRSF4 (OX40), INFG] and,genes.

METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 120 subjects divided into 4 groups: Group I (= 30) treatment naïve chronic HCV patients; Group II (= 30) chronic HCV treated with Peg/Riba; Group III (= 30) chronic HCV associated with non-organ specific autoantibody and Group IV (= 30) healthy persons as a control group. Tregs and Teffs markers were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS: Chronic HCV patients exhibited significant higher levels of both Teffs and Tregs in comparison to healthy control group. Tregs markers were significantly decreased in Peg/Riba treated HCV patients in comparison to treatment naïve HCV group. In HCV patients with antinuclear antibody (ANA) +ve, Tregs markers were significantly decreased in comparison to all other studied groups. Teffs markers were significantly elevated in all HCV groups in comparison to control and in HCV group with ANA +ve in comparison to treatment naïve HCV group.

CONCLUSION: Elevated Tregs cells in chronic HCV patients dampen both CD4and CD8autologous T cell immune response. Interferon-α and ribavirin therapy suppress proliferation of Tregs. More significant suppression of Tregs was observed in HCV patients with autoantibodies favoring pathological autoimmune response.

Fouad, Y., G. Esmat, R. Elwakil, S. Zakaria, A. Yosry, I. Waked, M. El-Raziky, W. Doss, M. El-Serafy, E. Mostafa, et al., "The egyptian clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of metabolic associated fatty liver disease.", Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, vol. 28, issue 1, pp. 3-20, 2022. Abstract

The landscape of chronic liver disease in Egypt has drastically changed over the past few decades. The prevalence of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has risen to alarming levels. Despite the magnitude of the problem, no regional guidelines have been developed to tackle this disease. This document provides the clinical practice guidelines of the key Egyptian opinion leaders on MAFLD screening, diagnosis, and management, and covers various aspects in the management of MAFLD. The document considers our local situations and the burden of clinical management for the healthcare sector and is proposed for daily clinical practical use. Particular reference to special groups was done whenever necessary.

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G, E., and E. R. M, "Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.", J Med Virol. 2016 11. , vol. Jan, 2016.
GAMAL ESMAT, M. D., and M. E. Raziky, "Text of Hepologoshoenterology Part1 HEPATOLOGY Chapter III: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)", Text of Hepologoshoenterology Part1 HEPATOLOGY, cairo, Atlas Publishing & Informative Production S.A.E, 2015.
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Mansour, L. A., M. E. Raziky, A. A. Mohamed, E. H. Mahmoud, S. Hamdy, and E. H. El Sayed, "Circulating Hypermethylated RASSF1A as a Molecular Biomarker for Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma", Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, vol. 18, issue 6, pp. 1637-1643, 2017 06 25. Abstract

Background: Detection of circulating DNA can be applied for the diagnosis of many malignant neoplasms, including the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular pathogenesis of HCC is complex, involving different genetic and epigenetic alterations, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations and altered molecular pathways. RASSF1A is a well-established tumor suppressor gene which suffers frequent inactivation due to promoter hypermethylation of CPG islands in multiple tumors including HCC, resulting in the reduction or loss of gene expression. Objective: To examine the role of circulating RASSF1A as a non-invasive diagnostic marker for HCC. Participant and Methods: A total of 45 HCC patients with a background of HCV infection, 40 cases of HCV infection without tumours and 40 apparently healthy controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, routine laboratory investigations, assessment of serum AFP and detection of circulating hypermethylated RASSF1A gene by methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme digestion and real-time PCR. Results: The level of hypermethylated RASSF1A was significantly elevated in the HCC group as compared to the HCV and control groups (p=0.001 for both). Copy number in serum was associated with increased tumor size (p value <0.001). On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between RASSF1A and AFP (p=0.5). Using ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off for circulating serum RASSF1A to differentiate the HCC group was 8 copies/μl. Conclusion: The presence of hypermethylated RASSF1A in serum may be a useful and informative biomarker for HCC diagnosis and might be introduced as a screening method for populations at risk of HCC development.

Mona Salema, S. A. Atti, M. El Raziky, S. K. Darweesh, and M. Elsharkawy, "Clinical Significance of Plasma Osteopontin Level as a Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma", Gastroenterology Research , vol. 6(5), pp. 191-199, 2011.
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Ramzy, I., A. Elsharkawy, R. Fouad, H. A. Hafez, M. E. Raziky, W. elakel, M. El-Sayed, H. Khattab, M. Shehata, M. Elsharkawy, et al., "Impact of old Schistosomiasis infection on the use of transient elastography (Fibroscan) for staging of fibrosis in chronic HCV patients.", Acta tropica, vol. 176, pp. 283-287, 2017 Dec. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In tropical regions, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) - Schistosomiasis coinfection remains one of the health problems. With the new era of HCV treatment and the variety of methods of assessment of liver fibrosis so we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of FibroScan for staging hepatic fibrosis in HCV-Schistosomiasis coinfected patients.

METHODOLOGY: Three groups of patients were enrolled. Group 1: chronic HCV with out antischistosomal antibody (122 patients), Group 2: chronic HCV with positive antischistosomal antibodies and without periportal tract thickening (122 patients), Group 3: chronic HCV with positive antischistosomal antibodies and ultrasonographic picture of periportal tract thickening (108 patients). Routine laboratory workup, serum Antischistosomal antibody, and Schistosomal antigen in serum were performed. Ultrasound guided liver biopsy with histopathological examination; abdominal ultrasound and fibroscan examination were done for all patients.

RESULTS: The agreement between results of liver biopsy and results of fibroscan in the staging of fibrosis was the best in group 1 (55.7%), Although the agreement was higher among those with no periportal tract thickening (70.7%) and the disagreement was higher among those with positive schistosomal serology (66.5%), yet this relation was not statistically significant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that disagreement is significantly associated with older age, higher BMI (≥30), and increase in anti Schistosomal antibody titer.

CONCLUSION: Fibroscan is a reliable, non-invasive tool for staging hepatic fibrosis among HCV-schistosomiasis co-infected patients with no effect of the induced periportal tract thickening on the readings. Only higher antischistosomal antibody titres may cause disagreement between liver biopsy and fibroscan.