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2022
Negm, M., A. Bahaa, A. Farrag, R. M. Lithy, H. A. Badary, M. Essam, S. Kamel, M. Sakr, W. Abd El Aaty, M. Shamkh, et al., "Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on inflammatory markers, disease severity, depression, and quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: A prospective cohort study.", BMC gastroenterology, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 203, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) during the month of Ramadan is part of the religious rituals of Muslims. The effect of intermittent fasting on disease activity in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is still unknown. This is the first study to assess the effect of IF during Ramadan on inflammatory markers in patients diagnosed with IBD. The effects on clinical disease activity, quality of life, and levels of depression were also assessed.

METHODS: Patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) who intended to observe Ramadan fasting were recruited. The following were assessed immediately before and at the end of Ramadan: Serum CRP and stool calprotectin, partial Mayo score, Harvey Bradshaw index (HBI), Simple IBD questionnaire (SIBDQ), and Hamilton depression scale questionnaire.

RESULTS: 80 patients diagnosed with IBD were recruited (60 UC, 20 CD). Serum CRP and stool calprotectin did not show a significant change before vs after fasting (median CRP 0.53 vs 0.50, P value = 0.27, Calprotectin 163 vs 218 respectively, P value = 0.62). The partial Mayo score showed a significant rise after fasting (median 1 before vs 1 after fasting, mean: 1.79 vs 2.33 respectively, P value = 0.02). Harvey-Bradshaw index did not show a significant change after fasting (median 4 vs 5, P value = 0.4). Multiple linear regression revealed that older age and a higher baseline calprotectin were associated with a higher change in Mayo score after fasting (P value = 0.02 and P value = 0.01, respectively). No significant change was detected in SIBDQ or Hamilton depression scale scores.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients diagnosed with UC, IF during Ramadan was associated with worsening of clinical parameters, the effect was more pronounced in older patients and those with higher baseline calprotectin levels. However, IF during Ramadan was not associated with an adverse effect on objective inflammatory markers (CRP and calprotectin).

2021
El-Bendary, M., S. Abd-Elsalam, T. Elbaz, W. El-Akel, A. Cordie, T. Elhadidy, H. Elalfy, K. Farid, M. Elegezy, A. El-Badrawy, et al., "Efficacy of combined Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia: a multicenter Egyptian study.", Expert review of anti-infective therapy, pp. 1-5, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Limited experimental and clinical evidence suggests a potential role for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in treating COVID19. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of generic sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in treating COVID-19 patients with pneumonia.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicenter prospective study involved 174 patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomized into two groups. Group A (96 patients) received sofosbuvir (400 mg)/daclatasvir (60 mg) for 14 days in combination with conventional therapy. Group B (78 patients) received conventional therapy alone. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected at baseline, after 7, 14, and 28 days of therapy. Primary endpoint was rate of clinical/virological cure.

RESULTS: A lower mortality rate was observed in group (A) (14% vs 21%, P = 0.07). After 1 month of therapy, no differences were found in rates of ICU admission, oxygen therapy, or ventilation. Additionally, a statistically significant shorter duration of hospital stay (9% vs 12%, P < 0.01) and a faster achievement of PCR negativity at day 14 (84% versus 47%, P < 0.01) were noticed in group (A).

CONCLUSION: Adding sofosbuvir/daclatasvir to conventional therapy of COVID-19 is promising. Their use is associated with shorter hospital stay, faster PCR negativity and may be reduced mortality.

Anwar, I., M. Said, M. Essam, K. Hosny, D. Mansour, N. Zayed, A. E. adway, M. Elamir, S. mogawr, M. Shazly, et al., "Outcome of Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) in Egyptian Cohort of Long-Term Liver Transplant Recipients: Single Center Experience", Journal of Transplant Surgery, 2021. outcome_of_corona_virus_disease_covid-19_in_egypti.pdf
, "Patient care and clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to African high-care or intensive care units (ACCCOS): a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study.", Lancet (London, England), vol. 397, issue 10288, pp. 1885-1894, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There have been insufficient data for African patients with COVID-19 who are critically ill. The African COVID-19 Critical Care Outcomes Study (ACCCOS) aimed to determine which resources, comorbidities, and critical care interventions are associated with mortality in this patient population.

METHODS: The ACCCOS study was a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study in adults (aged 18 years or older) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection who were referred to intensive care or high-care units in 64 hospitals in ten African countries (ie, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, and South Africa). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality censored at 30 days. We studied the factors (ie, human and facility resources, patient comorbidities, and critical care interventions) that were associated with mortality in these adult patients. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04367207.

FINDINGS: From May to December, 2020, 6779 patients were referred to critical care. Of these, 3752 (55·3%) patients were admitted and 3140 (83·7%) patients from 64 hospitals in ten countries participated (mean age 55·6 years; 1890 [60·6%] of 3118 participants were male). The hospitals had a median of two intensivists (IQR 1-4) and pulse oximetry was available to all patients in 49 (86%) of 57 sites. In-hospital mortality within 30 days of admission was 48·2% (95% CI 46·4-50·0; 1483 of 3077 patients). Factors that were independently associated with mortality were increasing age per year (odds ratio 1·03; 1·02-1·04); HIV/AIDS (1·91; 1·31-2·79); diabetes (1·25; 1·01-1·56); chronic liver disease (3·48; 1·48-8·18); chronic kidney disease (1·89; 1·28-2·78); delay in admission due to a shortage of resources (2·14; 1·42-3·22); quick sequential organ failure assessment score at admission (for one factor [1·44; 1·01-2·04], for two factors [2·0; 1·33-2·99], and for three factors [3·66, 2·12-6·33]); respiratory support (high flow oxygenation [2·72; 1·46-5·08]; continuous positive airway pressure [3·93; 2·13-7·26]; invasive mechanical ventilation [15·27; 8·51-27·37]); cardiorespiratory arrest within 24 h of admission (4·43; 2·25-8·73); and vasopressor requirements (3·67; 2·77-4·86). Steroid therapy was associated with survival (0·55; 0·37-0·81). There was no difference in outcome associated with female sex (0·86; 0·69-1·06).

INTERPRETATION: Mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is higher in African countries than reported from studies done in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Increased mortality was associated with insufficient critical care resources, as well as the comorbidities of HIV/AIDS, diabetes, chronic liver disease, and kidney disease, and severity of organ dysfunction at admission.

FUNDING: The ACCCOS was partially supported by a grant from the Critical Care Society of Southern Africa.

2020
Abdelhalim, H., M. Khairy, A. Amir, and M. Essam, "Assessment of protective serum anti-HBsab levels among previously HBV vaccinated medical residents and its relation to duration and doses of vaccine – single center study", CONFERENCE ON LIVER DISEASE IN AFRICA 2020(COLDA), South Africa, 11 September, 2020.
Khorshid, M., N. Bakheet, S. Abdallah, M. Essam, and A. Cordie, "COVID-19: A strong call for remote medicine in inflammatory bowel disease.", Journal of digestive diseases, vol. 21, issue 10, pp. 597-599, 2020.
Mogawer, M. - S., A. Abdel-Maqsod, M. El-Shazly, A. Salah, O. Abdelaziz, A. Abdel-Ghani, M. Essam, and A. A. Abdellatif, Tacrolimus-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome presenting as left upper limb monoplegia, convulsions, and sudden blindness: case report, , 2020. s43066-020-00064-6.pdf
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