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Ahmed, O., M. A. Arafa, W. Sallam, and A. M. A. E. Zaid, "Assess the Relation between Agricultural exports and Agriculture GDP in Egypt", Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 15, issue 4, pp. 156-170, 2016.
Fouad, A. A., and A. A. Mahmoud, "Assessing The local Market Mechanisms For The Most Important Fruit Crops In Giza Governorate", Journal of Economics and Law, vol. 6, issue 2, pp. 220-250, 2016.
Zaid, A. M. A. E., and A. A. Mahmoud, "A comparative study for food consumption patterns and poverty lines in Egypt", Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 26, issue 1, pp. 281-296, 2016.
Arafa, M. A., "Impact of Food Patterns, Economic Factors, and Population Growth on Water Resource in Egypt", Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 71-83, 2015.
Arafa, M. A., "Studying Determinants of agricultural Productivity and productivity growth across districts", Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 59-69, 2015.
Mahmoud, A. A., An Analytical Economic Study For The Optimal Water Resources Use Based On Virtual Water Trade In Egypt, , Giza, Cairo, 2012. Abstractabstract.pdf4.lmhtwyt_wqym_ljdwl_wlshkl.pdf

The main objective of this study is to estimate the volume of virtual water trade to Egypt with the world and assess the total water footprint. As the study aims also to explore the possibility of using the ​​virtual water concept as an effective tool in the management and raise the efficiency of water use in Egypt in order to reach the optimal use of water in various uses. The estimation was appreciated according to the theory of Tony Allan. The results of the study show that the agricultural virtual water trade in Egypt was estimated at 37.8 BCM in 2009, of which about 32.4 BCM represents the volume of virtual water imports, and about 5.4 BCM represents the volume of virtual water exports, thereby realizing net virtual water imports was estimated at 27 BCM, and with the knowledge that the available water in Egypt as much as about 72 BCM, and the total water footprint was estimated at 107.8 BCM, of which about 75.4 BCM represents the internal water footprint , and about 32.4 BCM represents the external water footprint, was estimated of water scarcity index to Egypt about 150%, while the percent of water security index by about 70% , and as much water dependency index by about 30%. The virtual water trade between Egypt and the world has been addressed in the study by commodity groups and by country blocs again. And for the study of virtual water trade by commodity groups have been estimated net virtual water imports of the crops and its products at about 22.9 BCM, while as much as for an animal production around 4.1 BCM thus achieving net agricultural virtual water imports estimated at 27 BCM in 2009. As for the virtual water trade by country blocs has led the Group of Arab States list of countries in terms of virtual water imports from Egypt with about 3.2 BCM, while the least of which is Australia's total imports of water a default estimated 0.7 BCM, but for the world's virtual water exports to Egypt the default group has achieved the highest amount of Eastern Europe's virtual water exports to Egypt about 11.4 BCM annually, while Central America, a group less virtual water exports to Egypt, about 0.16 BCM in 2009. Per capita water footprint was estimated in Egypt from a survey study about 1297 m 3 per capita per year which is higher than the world average is estimated at about 1240 m 3 per capita per year and less than the likes of the United States of America which estimated at about 2183 m 3 per capita per year, per capita water footprint divided as goods and services consumed to food, industry, and household consumption water footprint. and then work one tenth scenarios for the Total water Footprint differ according to different factors including income and the style of life and the degree of awareness and the cultural level of individuals.

Key words: Total Water Footprint, Virtual Water Trade, Water Availability, Water Dependency, Water Security, Water Scarcity, Per Capita Water Footprint, External Water Footprint, Internal Water Footprint, Blue Water Footprint, Green Water Footprint, Gray Water Footprint.

Mahmoud, A. A., A. - H. M. Hamza, and M. S. M. Mashaal, "Studying Alternative Plans for Cropping Patterns under Water and Land Resource Available Using Linear Programming Methodology", Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 20, issue 3: Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, pp. 1011-1020, 2010. Abstract
Mahmoud, A. A., An Analytical Economic Study for Efficiency of Water Resources use in Egyptian Agricultural, , Giza, Cairo, 2007. Abstractabstract.pdf

The agricultural sector inEgyptis considered the primary leading sector in economic development since it contributes largely to the total national income, increasing the tax revenue, and raising the value of exports, in addition to filling the major part of the nutritional gap. Water is one of the agricultural production resources without which production could not be complete. In fact, agriculture and water are the cornerstones for economic development.

This study aims to achieve the best strategy for the usage of water and specifically irrigation water which makes up the major part of the total water consumption inEgyptsince the agricultural sector consumes around 85% of total water consumption. The best usage strategy for water in agriculture could be achieved in several ways; this study has used the methodology of linear programming to achieve the crop construction necessary for the maximization of the net revenue of the water unit.

Two alternative plans for crop construction included the plan laid by the Ministry of Agriculture & Land Reclamation until year 2017 which has previously been discussed

The first alternative plan aims at maximizing the net revenue of the water unit in view of new organizational boundaries. It was revealed that the quantity of water that could be saved by implementing this alternative plan is estimated at around 3657 million m3, representing around 10.91% of the total currently used amount. The increase rate of the total net revenue of irrigation water and land for the suggested crop construction reached around 0.44% and 8.68% respectively over the current crop construction. Moreover, irrigation costs for this alternative plan decreased by 0.93% from the current crop construction.

Second alternative plans for crop construction have been studied, all of them governed by organizational laws. In the fifth and sixth alternatives, the analysis was performed based on certain organizational laws or boundaries in which the land area of some major and strategic agricultural crops has been fixed in accordance with certain goals. The analysis results for these alternatives revealed the increase of the total net revenue of the feddan in the first and second alternatives by an increase rate of 4% and 3% respectively upon the current construction, and also a decrease in the total net revenue of the feddan for the remaining alternative plans suggested.

The study recommends the opening of gateways for training personnel necessary for the maintenance of irrigation and drainage networks, and the importance of the participation of local authorities plus political and youth institutions everywhere in the guiding of people everywhere in the best and most economical use of water. Also all kinds of media must help in this guiding process for citizens in the most efficient and people-friendly way, aiming to alter their consumption habits of irrigation water in all fields.

Key Words: Water Resources, agricultural, Egypt, Economics, alternative plans , Linear Programming.

Mahmoud, A. A., "Efficiency of Water Transfer in Nile River and its losses in Egypt", Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 21, issue 8b: EJAS in Collaporation with Zagazig University, pp. 534-545, 2006. Abstract