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Marzouk, M. S. M., M. M. Ali, M. Basma Shalaby, and M. I. Mahmoud, A.M. and ABD EL-Salam, "A contribution on anaerobic bacterial infection in cultured freshwater fish", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Assoc. , vol. 65, no.3, pp. 123-140 , 2005. Abstract

In this work, the incidence and occurance of anaerobic bacterial pathogen in different freshwater fish farms have been investigated. The results indicated the presence of C. perfrengens, C. sporogenes, C. birfermentans, Actinomyces species and peptostreptococcus species in Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus), C. carpio in soil of earthen ponds using poultry droopings as organic fertilizers, while nile tilapia ( O. niloticus) collected from concrete ponds were negative for isolation of anaerobic bacteria.Typing of isolated C. perfringens indicated that the isolates were belonging to the toxogenic A and D types. Examination of water samples revealed the presence of great alterations in the physicochemical and microbiological parameters, particularly, in samples collected from earthen ponds.
The histopathological changes of experimentally inoculated fishes with toxogenic isolates of C. perfringens were fully demonstrated.