Vancomycin-resistant isolated from camel meat and slaughterhouse workers in Egypt.

Al-Amery, K., M. Elhariri, A. Elsayed, G. El-Moghazy, R. Elhelw, H. El-Mahallawy, M. El Hariri, and D. Hamza, "Vancomycin-resistant isolated from camel meat and slaughterhouse workers in Egypt.", Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, vol. 8, pp. 129, 2019.


Background: The emergence of vancomycin-resistant (VRSA) represents a challenge for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in both human and animals worldwide. Although VRSA has been detected in several animal species worldwide, data on the bacterial prevalence in dromedary camels and workers in camel slaughterhouses are scarce.

Methods: We investigated meat samples from 200 dromedary camel carcasses from three different abattoirs that were being prepared to be sent to the markets. Twenty hand swabs were voluntarily collected from the workers in the same abattoirs. Isolation and identification of the bacterial specimens from the samples were performed using conventional cultural techniques and biochemical identification and were confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility against nine antimicrobial agents commonly used in human and camels was tested using the disc diffusion method, and genetic analysis was performed by evaluating the gene in phenotypically oxacillin (OXA)- and cefoxitin (FOX)-resistant isolates. The resistance of to vancomycin (VAN) was tested by broth microdilution and confirmed by PCR targeting the and genes. The and genes were sequenced.

Result: was detected in both camel meat (29/200, 14.5%) and in abattoir workers (11/20, 55%). Of the collected samples, 27% (8/29, camel) and 54% (6/11, human) were identified as VRSA.All VRSA isolates carried both the and genes. Additionally, all VRSA isolates were also classified as methicillin-resistant (MRSA). The amplicons of the isolates from human and camel meat were homologous and clustered with a Chinese reference isolate sequence.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that VRSA is present in camel abattoirs in Egypt. Zoonotic transmission between animals and human is probable and reflects both a public health threat and a food safety concern.