{Variation of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils and Total Phenols Content in Natural Populations of Marrubium vulgare L.}

{Guedri Mkaddem}, M., A. Zrig, M. {Ben Abdallah}, M. Romdhane, M. K. Okla, A. Al-Hashimi, Y. A. Alwase, M. Y. Hegab, M. M. Y. Madany, A. H. A. Hassan, et al., "{Variation of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils and Total Phenols Content in Natural Populations of Marrubium vulgare L.}", Plants, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 612, feb, 2022.


Marrubium vulgare is a valuable source of natural bioactive molecules with high preventive and therapeutic effectiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to study the chemical polymorphism of natural populations of M. vulgare in Tunisia by quantitative chemical markers and the estimation of divergence between populations. Phytochemical analyses of the eight natural populations of Tunisian Marrubium vulgare prospected in different bioclimatic stages, revealed 42 compounds of essential oils representing 96.08% to 100% of the total oil. Hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes were the main fraction of all the populations studied and $\beta$-bisabolene was the major compound (from 30.11% to 71.35% of the total oil). The phytochemical investigation of the M. vulgare plant indicated the presence of essential oil with significant percentages of phenolic compounds. A significant quantitative and qualitative variation in the essential oils is detected for both major and minor compounds. The principal components analysis (PCA) performed in the single and combined traits provides a good distinction among populations, not according to their geographical and/or bioclimatic origins. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis of the leaves showed that the Tunisian populations, i.e., the populations of Kasserine, Kef, and Beja, were very rich in phenolic compounds (from 20.8 to 44.65 mg GAE/g DW). Flavonoids compounds were also the main class of total polyphenols present in all the tested populations (from 8.91 to 37.48 mg RE/g DW). The quantitative genetic diversity estimated by the population's structure, based on PCA analysis, was an adaptation to the changes in the environmental conditions. Overall, our study indicated that natural populations of M. vulgare had different chemotypes of essential oils and they were rich in phenolic compounds, particularly flavonoids, which opens a new prospect for industrial use and differential exploitation of this species.



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