Molecular cloning, cellular expression and characterization of Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) endoplasmin.

Hoter, A., M. Amiri, M. Warda, and H. Y. Naim, "Molecular cloning, cellular expression and characterization of Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) endoplasmin.", International journal of biological macromolecules, vol. 117, pp. 574-585, 2018 Oct 01.


Endoplasmin, or GRP94, is an ER-located stress inducible molecular chaperone implicated in the folding and assembly of many proteins. The Arabian one-humped camel lives in an environment of thermal stress, nevertheless is able to encounter the risk of misfolded proteins. Here, the cDNA encoding camel GRP94 was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The isolated cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2412 bp encoding a protein of 803 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 92.5 kDa. Nucleotide and protein BLAST analysis of cGRP94 revealed strong conservation between camel and other domestic mammals. Overexpression of cGRP94 in COS-1 cells revealed multiple isoforms including one N-glycosylated species. Immunofluorescence colocalized cGRP94 with the ER resident protein calnexin. Interestingly, none of the cGRP94 isoforms expressed in CHO cells was N-glycosylated, presumably due to folding determinants that mask the N-glycosylation sites as proposed by in silico modelling. Surprisingly, isoforms of cGRP94 were detected in the culture media of transfected cells indicating that the protein, although an ER resident, also is trafficked and secreted into the exterior milieu. The overall striking structural homologies of GRP94s among mammalian reflect their pivotal role in the ER quality control and protein homeostasis.