Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of oriental phyto-derived glycyrrhizin on experimental neuroterminal norepinephrine depletion in a rat brain model.

Citation:
Ahmed-Farid, O. A., S. A. Haredy, R. M. Niazy, R. J. Linhardt, and M. Warda, "Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of oriental phyto-derived glycyrrhizin on experimental neuroterminal norepinephrine depletion in a rat brain model.", Chemico-biological interactions, 2019.

Abstract:

The dose-dependent neuroprotective role of licorice-derived glycyrrhizin during subacute neuroterminal norepinephrine (NE) depletion was studied in rat brain. Experimental design included thirty 5-week-old male rats randomly divided into five groups. Compared to the saline-injected control group, the group receiving daily intraperitoneal injection of fusaric acid (FA; 5 mg/kg/b.w.) for 30 days showed pharmacological depletion of NE. The neuroprotective effects of three successively increasing oral doses of glycyrrhizin were examined in FA-treated rats. Neurochemical parameters and histo-/immunohistopathological changes in the hippocampus were examined. FA generated global hippocampal stress with altered neurobiochemical parameters, accompanied by immune-confirmed inflammatory tissue damage, and noticeable behavioral changes. Although glycyrrhizin after FA-induced intoxication did not correct the recorded drop in the NE level, it decreased the dopamine levels to control levels. Similarly, glycyrrhizin at a high dose restored the serotonin level to its normal value and blocked the FA-induced increase in the level of its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The FA-induced rise in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and histamine was alleviated after administration of a high dose of glycyrrhizin. This was accompanied by improvements in the bioenergetic status and neuronal regenerative capacity through recovery of ATP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to the pre-intoxicated values. High doses of glycyrrhizin also ameliorated the FA-generated behavioral changes and oxidative damage, manifested by the reduction in the expression of cortical pro-apoptotic caspase 3 in the same group. This study suggests that glycyrrhizin can potentially mend most of the previously evoked neuronal damage induced by FA intoxication in the brain using a rat model.

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