Abdelsalam, M., R. Abdel-Gaber, M. A. Mahmoud, O. A. Mahdy, N. I. M. Khafaga, and M. Warda, "Morphological, molecular and pathological appraisal of Callitetrarhynchus gracilis plerocerci (Lacistorhynchidae) infecting Atlantic little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) in Southeastern Mediterranean.", Journal of advanced research, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 317-26, 2016. Abstract

The Atlantic little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus, is widely distributed in temperate and tropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Black and Mediterranean Seas. In this study, wild-caught little tunny from Egypt, were found to be naturally infected with trypanorhyncha metacestodes, and the overall prevalence rate of infection was 38.7%. The blastocysts were either loosely attached to the mesentery of infected fish, or firmly attached and deeply embedded within the hepatic parenchyma. These encysted plerocerci are identified as Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Trypanorhyncha, Lacistorhynchidae) based on its morphological and molecular characterization. The morphological characteristics of C. gracilis including scolex shape; the bothridia groove; the presence of frontal glands; the length of post-larval (appendix); metabasal armature; the existence of 'Chainette' and satellite hooks of different size were studied and described by Light and Scanning electron microscope. The phylogenetic analysis of lsrDNA gene of plerocerci confirmed the identification of the species to be deeply embedded in genus Callitetrarhynchus. The histopathological examination revealed severe pathological changes in the affected organs, including necrosis, inflammatory reactions, fibrosis and migratory tracts of the parasitic larvae together with marked visceral organs adhesions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the detection of C. gracilis in little tunny collected from the Abu Qir landing site in Alexandria, Egypt.

Ahmed-Farid, O. A., S. A. Haredy, R. M. Niazy, R. J. Linhardt, and M. Warda, "Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of oriental phyto-derived glycyrrhizin on experimental neuroterminal norepinephrine depletion in a rat brain model.", Chemico-biological interactions, 2019. Abstract

The dose-dependent neuroprotective role of licorice-derived glycyrrhizin during subacute neuroterminal norepinephrine (NE) depletion was studied in rat brain. Experimental design included thirty 5-week-old male rats randomly divided into five groups. Compared to the saline-injected control group, the group receiving daily intraperitoneal injection of fusaric acid (FA; 5 mg/kg/b.w.) for 30 days showed pharmacological depletion of NE. The neuroprotective effects of three successively increasing oral doses of glycyrrhizin were examined in FA-treated rats. Neurochemical parameters and histo-/immunohistopathological changes in the hippocampus were examined. FA generated global hippocampal stress with altered neurobiochemical parameters, accompanied by immune-confirmed inflammatory tissue damage, and noticeable behavioral changes. Although glycyrrhizin after FA-induced intoxication did not correct the recorded drop in the NE level, it decreased the dopamine levels to control levels. Similarly, glycyrrhizin at a high dose restored the serotonin level to its normal value and blocked the FA-induced increase in the level of its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The FA-induced rise in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and histamine was alleviated after administration of a high dose of glycyrrhizin. This was accompanied by improvements in the bioenergetic status and neuronal regenerative capacity through recovery of ATP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to the pre-intoxicated values. High doses of glycyrrhizin also ameliorated the FA-generated behavioral changes and oxidative damage, manifested by the reduction in the expression of cortical pro-apoptotic caspase 3 in the same group. This study suggests that glycyrrhizin can potentially mend most of the previously evoked neuronal damage induced by FA intoxication in the brain using a rat model.

Hoter, A., M. Amiri, M. Warda, and H. Y. Naim, "Molecular cloning, cellular expression and characterization of Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) endoplasmin.", International journal of biological macromolecules, vol. 117, pp. 574-585, 2018 Oct 01. Abstract

Endoplasmin, or GRP94, is an ER-located stress inducible molecular chaperone implicated in the folding and assembly of many proteins. The Arabian one-humped camel lives in an environment of thermal stress, nevertheless is able to encounter the risk of misfolded proteins. Here, the cDNA encoding camel GRP94 was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The isolated cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2412 bp encoding a protein of 803 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 92.5 kDa. Nucleotide and protein BLAST analysis of cGRP94 revealed strong conservation between camel and other domestic mammals. Overexpression of cGRP94 in COS-1 cells revealed multiple isoforms including one N-glycosylated species. Immunofluorescence colocalized cGRP94 with the ER resident protein calnexin. Interestingly, none of the cGRP94 isoforms expressed in CHO cells was N-glycosylated, presumably due to folding determinants that mask the N-glycosylation sites as proposed by in silico modelling. Surprisingly, isoforms of cGRP94 were detected in the culture media of transfected cells indicating that the protein, although an ER resident, also is trafficked and secreted into the exterior milieu. The overall striking structural homologies of GRP94s among mammalian reflect their pivotal role in the ER quality control and protein homeostasis.

Hoter, A., M. Amiri, A. Prince, H. Amer, M. Warda, and H. Y. Naim, "Differential Glycosylation and Modulation of Camel and Human HSP Isoforms in Response to Thermal and Hypoxic Stresses.", International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 19, issue 2, 2018 Jan 30. Abstract

Increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) following heat stress or other stress conditions is a common physiological response in almost all living organisms. Modification of cytosolic proteins including HSPs by -GlcNAc has been shown to enhance their capabilities for counteracting lethal levels of cellular stress. Since HSPs are key players in stress resistance and protein homeostasis, we aimed to analyze their forms at the cellular and molecular level using camel and human HSPs as models for efficient and moderate thermotolerant mammals, respectively. In this study, we cloned the cDNA encoding two inducible HSP members, HSPA6 and CRYAB from both camel () and human in a Myc-tagged mammalian expression vector. Expression of these chaperones in COS-1 cells revealed protein bands of approximately 25-kDa for both camel and human CRYAB and 70-kDa for camel HSPA6 and its human homologue. While localization and trafficking of the camel and human HSPs revealed similar cytosolic localization, we could demonstrate altered glycan structure between camel and human HSPA6. Interestingly, the glycoform of camel HSPA6 was rapidly formed and stabilized under normal and stress culture conditions whereas human HSPA6 reacted differently under similar thermal and hypoxic stress conditions. Our data suggest that efficient glycosylation of camel HSPA6 is among the mechanisms that provide camelids with a superior capability for alleviating stressful environmental circumstances.

Zheng, W., J. - A. Park, A. M. Abd El-Aty, S. - K. Kim, S. - H. Cho, J. - M. Choi, M. Warda, J. Wang, J. - H. Shim, and H. - C. Shin, "Development and validation of a simple solid-phase extraction method coupled with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of lincomycin, tylosin A and tylosin B in royal jelly.", Biomedical chromatography : BMC, vol. 32, issue 4, 2018 Apr. Abstract

We have developed an analytical method for the determination of lincomycin, tylosin A and tylosin B residues in royal jelly using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry analysis. For extraction and purification, we employed 1% trifluoroacetic acid and 0.1 m Na EDTA solutions along with an Oasis HLB cartridge. The target antibiotics were well separated in a Kinetex EVO C reversed-phase analytical column using a combination of 0.1% formate acid in ultrapure water (A) and acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase. Good linearity was achieved over the tested concentration range (5-50 μg/kg) in matrix-matched standard calibration. The coefficients of determination (R ) were 0.9933, 0.9933 and 0.996, for tylosin A, tylosin B and lincomycin, respectively. Fortified royal jelly spiked with three different concentrations of the tested antibiotics (5, 10 and 20 μg/kg) yielded recoveries in the range 80.94-109.26% with relative standard deviations ≤4%. The proposed method was applied to monitor 11 brand of royal jelly collected from domestic markets and an imported brand from New Zealand; all the samples tested negative for lincomycin, tylosin A and tylosin B residues. In conclusion, 1% trifluoroacetic acid and 0.1 m Na EDTA aqueous solvents combined with solid-phase extraction could effectively complete the sample preparation process for royal jelly before analysis. The developed approach can be applied for a routine analysis of lincomycin, tylosin A and tylosin B residues in royal jelly.

Ahmed-Farid, O., B..Abd El-Motelp, E. Essa, and M. Warda, "Synergistic renoprotective effect of a compiled branched-chain amino acids and Cymbopogon schoenanthus extract against experimentally induced oxido-nitrosative renal insult ", Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 11, issue 5, pp. 342-349, 2018. incentive_2.pdf
Park, W. S., Y. K. Son, N. Kim, J. B. Youm, M. Warda, J. - H. Ko, E. A. Ko, S. H. Kang, E. Kim, Y. E. Earm, et al., "Direct modulation of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current by H-89 in rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells.", Vascular pharmacology, vol. 46, issue 2, pp. 105-13, 2007 Feb. Abstract

The effects of H-89, a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA) on Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells were examined using a patch-clamp technique. In inside-out configuration, H-89 increased the NP(o) of the BK(Ca) channel, but it reduced the dwell time of BK(Ca) currents. In whole-cell configuration, H-89 markedly increased BK(Ca) currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC(50) was 0.470+/-0.0741 microM based on dwell time, 0.582+/-0.0691 microM based on the NP(o), and 0.519+/-0.0295 microM based on the whole-cell current, respectively. H-85, which is an inactive form of H-89, increased BK(Ca) currents, similar to the result of H-89. The other PKA inhibitors (Rp-8-CPT-cAMPs and KT 5720) and protein phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid, 1 microM) had little effect on BK(Ca) currents and did not significantly alter the stimulatory effects of 1 microM H-89. These findings suggest that H-89 increases the BK(Ca) current independently of PKA.

Kang, S. H., W. S. Park, N. Kim, J. B. Youm, M. Warda, J. - H. Ko, E. A. Ko, and J. Han, "Mitochondrial Ca2+-activated K+ channels more efficiently reduce mitochondrial Ca2+ overload in rat ventricular myocytes.", American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, vol. 293, issue 1, pp. H307-13, 2007 Jul. Abstract

We investigated the role of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel, the mitochondrial big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel, and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the ouabain-induced increase of mitochondrial Ca(2+) in native rat ventricular myocytes by loading cells with rhod 2-AM. To overload mitochondrial Ca(2+), we pretreated cells with ouabain before applying mitochondrial K(ATP) or BK(Ca) channel and/or MPTP opener. Ouabain (1 mM) increased the rhod 2-sensitive fluorescence intensity (160 +/- 5.0% of control), which was dramatically decreased to the control level on application of diazoxide and NS-1619 in a dose-dependent manner (half-inhibition concentrations of 78.3 and 7.78 muM for diazoxide and NS-1619, respectively). This effect was reversed by selective inhibition of the mitochondrial K(ATP) channel by 5-hydroxydecanoate, the mitochondrial BK(Ca) channel by paxilline, and the MPTP by cyclosporin A. Although diazoxide did not efficiently reduce mitochondrial Ca(2+) during prolonged exposure to ouabain, NS-1619 reduced mitochondrial Ca(2+). These results suggest that although mitochondrial BK(Ca) and K(ATP) channels contribute to reduction of ouabain-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload, activation of the mitochondrial BK(Ca) channel more efficiently reduces ouabain-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload in our experimental model.

Park, W. S., Y. K. Son, N. Kim, J. - H. Ko, S. H. Kang, M. Warda, Y. E. Earm, I. D. Jung, Y. - M. Park, and J. Han, "Acute hypoxia induces vasodilation and increases coronary blood flow by activating inward rectifier K(+) channels.", Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology, vol. 454, issue 6, pp. 1023-30, 2007 Sep. Abstract

We examined the effects of acute hypoxia on vascular tone and coronary blood flow (CBF) in rabbit coronary arteries. In the pressurized arterial preparation of small arteries (<100 mum) and the Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, hypoxia induced coronary vasodilation and increased CBF in the presence of glibenclamide (K(ATP) channel blocker), Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPs [cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, Rp-cGMPs], and methionyl transfer RNA synthetase (MRS) 1334 (adenosine A(3) receptor inhibitor); these increases were inhibited by the inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channel inhibitor, Ba(2+). These effects were blocked by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536 and by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors Rp-8-CPT-cAMPs (Rp-cAMPs) and KT 5720. However, cGMP-dependent protein kinase was not involved in the hypoxia-induced increases of the vascular diameter and CBF. In summary, our results suggest that acute hypoxia can induce the opening of Kir channels in coronary artery that has small diameter (<100 mum) by activating the cAMP and PKA signalling pathway, which could contribute to vasodilation and, therefore, increased CBF.