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Mahmoud, M. A., M. Abdelsalam, O. A. Mahdy, H. M. F. E. Miniawy, Z. A. M. Ahmed, A. H. Osman, H. M. H. Mohamed, A. M. Khattab, and M. A. Z. Ewiss, "Infectious bacterial pathogens, parasites and pathological correlations of sewage pollution as an important threat to farmed fishes in Egypt.", Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), vol. 219, pp. 939-948, 2016. Abstract

This paper is a part of a multi-disciplinary research "Application of Decentralized On-Site Water Treatment System in Egypt for Use in Agriculture and Producing Safe Fish and Animal Proteins". The project aimed to investigate the environmental impact of implementing sewage water before and after treatment using the effluent of the on-site decentralized Japanese' Johkasou system, in agriculture and producing fish protein. The aim is to establish such system in Egypt to strengthen the sanitary conditions of water resources. In the present study, the impact of the sewage pollution in some fish farms at El-Fayyum, Port Said and El-Dakahlia governorates in Egypt was carried out. Water and fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Mugil cephalus) samples were collected from private fish farms of such localities. Bacteriological and chemical examination of water samples revealed the existence of coliforms and many other bacterial species of significant human health hazards. The chemical parameters of water showed a marked deviation from normal levels while examination of fish flesh specimens indicated contamination with Streptococcus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., and Salmonella in all examined localities. Other bacterial isolates of human health importance (Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas cepacia and Enterococcos durans) were identified. The parasitological examination revealed the presence of encysted metacercariae (EMC); Diplostomatidae, Prohemistomatidae and Heterphyidae. Moreover, two protozoan parasites (Mxyoboulus tilapiae and Ichthyophthirius multifilis) were also recorded. The histopathological examination revealed mild tissue reaction in case of bacterial infection and severe pathological lesions in different organs in case of EMC infection. Lamellar hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration in branchial tissue was common findings. In skeletal muscles, atrophy of muscle fibres, myolysis and myophagia were detected.

Mahmoud, M. A., A. H. Abd El-Rahim, K. F. Mahrous, M. Abdelsalam, N. A. Abu-Aita, and M. Afify, "The impact of several hydraulic fracking chemicals on Nile tilapia and evaluation of the protective effects of Spirulina platensis.", Environmental science and pollution research international, 2019. Abstract

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) chemicals are used to maximize the extraction of hard-to-reach underground energy resources. Large amounts of fracking fluid could escape to the surrounding environments, including underground and surface water resources, during the chemical mixing stage of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle due to equipment failure or human error. However, the impact of pollution resulting from operational discharges is difficult to assess in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, pathological investigations, chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage, and biochemical and hematological parameters were used to evaluate the effects of such chemicals on Nile tilapia. Chromosomal aberrations are considered very sensitive genetic markers of exposure to genotoxic chemicals and are used as indicators of DNA damage. The appearance of different types of chromosomal aberrations (gaps and breaks) due to chemical exposure was significantly reduced by treatment with spirulina. Various deleterious findings in Nile tilapia, in the current study, could attributed to the presence of fracking chemicals in the aquatic environment. However, the presence of spirulina in the diet reduced the hazards of such chemicals. In addition, cytogenetic studies in the current work revealed the importance of spirulina in ameliorating the genotoxic effects of a mixture of some chemicals used in fracking.

Mahmoud, M. A., H. A. Mansour, M. Abdelsalam, H. O. AbuBakr, S. H. Aljuaydi, and M. Afify, Evaluation of electrofishing adopted by Egyptian fish farmers, , vol. 498, pp. 380 - 387, 2019. AbstractWebsite

Upon the demand of a private fish farmer, this study was applied to assess the influence of electro-fishing adopted by some Egyptian fish farmers on the fish welfare and quality. Therefore, a total of 60 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were sampled; from which 30 were stunned by electrofishing and the remainders by conventional fishing. Biochemical analysis (oxidative stress and energy status), meat quality based on total bacterial count (TBC) and pathological alterations were assessed. Biochemical analysis in both liver and muscle tissue showed that electro-stunned fish exhibited low oxidative stress and high energy status. Meat of electro-stunned fish showed an acceptable limit of TBC (Max. limit 107) while the histopathological examination revealed various tissue reactions. These were in the form of congestion in branchial, hepatoportal, brain and splenic blood vessels with edema in brain and pericardium. In addition, there was mild inflammatory reaction together with the presence of eosinophilic granular cells and perivascular melanophores aggregation in both branchial and muscular tissue. As a consequence of this work, we recommend the use of electrofishing method in Egypt after modifying the current tool by reducing applied voltage. Further studies and more optimization are needed to cover both fish farmers and animal welfare issues, and take in consideration the human safety precautions.

Marzouk, M., M. Ali, B. M. Shalaby, A. Mahmoud, and M. Abdelsalam, "A contribution on anaerobic bacterial infection in cultured freshwater fish", Journal of the Egyptian Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 65, issue 3, pp. 123-140, 2005.