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Sherif, A. H., M. E. - S. El-Sharawy, S. I. El-Samannoudy, A. A. Seida, N. M. Sabry, M. Eldawoudy, M. Abdelsalam, and N. A. Younis, "The deleterious impacts of dietary titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the intestinal microbiota, antioxidant enzymes, diseases resistances and immune response of Nile tilapia", Aquaculture ResearchAquaculture Research, vol. 52, issue 12: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 6699 - 6707, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are used in numerous products, such as paints, pharmaceuticals, environmental sanitizing agents and even as a whitening food additive (E171). Residual TiO2 NPs are considered among the emerging contaminants of aquatic environments. However, the effect of such exposure on intestinal microbiota population, microbial disease resistance and the immune-related gene expression of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is largely obscure. Three groups of fish were nurtured on diets containing 1 mg/ml TiO2 NPs with three different sizes (53, 31 and 13 nm), beside the control group for four weeks before sampling fish tissues. Fish groups fed on TiO2NPs diets showed significantly increased higher levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6) and IL-1?, along with insignificant changes in IL-8 and IL-10 compared with the control group. These changes indicate a strong inflammatory response. Treated fish groups showed a marked decrease in the count of some intestinal microbiota, aeromonas, pseudomonas and lactobacillus. Fish were challenged against A. hydrophila, and a higher mortality rate was observed in the group fed on smaller TiO2 NPs (13 nm). The levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased in groups fed on TiO2 NPs, while metallothionein levels were only slightly changed. In conclusion, feeding fish with diets containing TiO2 NPs (13 and 31 nm) for 4 weeks alters the intestinal microbiota population and provides additional information on the toxic impacts of TiO2 NPs on the health and immune status of O. niloticus.

Attia, M. M., M. Y. Elgendy, M. Abdelsalam, A. Hassan, A. Prince, N. M. K. Salaeh, and N. A. Younis, Morpho-molecular identification of Heterophyes heterophyes encysted metacercariae and its immunological and histopathological effects on farmed Mugil cephalus in Egypt, , vol. 29, issue 3, pp. 1393 - 1407, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Molecular and immunological aspects of heterophyid infections in mullets are scanty. This study was initiated to identify heterophyid encysted metacercariae infecting gray mullet Mugil cephalus by morphological and molecular assays and to evaluate its immunological effects on infected mullets. Both farmed fish, from a private farm nearby Lake Manzala in Damietta, Egypt, and wild-caught fish, from the Mediterranean Sea in Alexandria, were investigated. The presence of heterophyid encysted metacercariae was significantly higher (80%) in wild than in farmed fish (30%). Morphological identification of metacercariae showed characteristic features of H. heterophyes. The result of sequences of 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions of Heterophyes EMC was consistent with the morphological data. The gene expression analysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tissues of infected fish qRT-PCR showed a significant increase (p < 0.05). Encysted metacercariae were detected microscopically in sections of infected fish with variable histopathological lesions.

Abdelsalam, M., M. M. Attia, and M. A. Mahmoud, "Comparative morphomolecular identification and pathological changes associated with Anisakis simplex larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) infecting native and imported chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in Egypt", Regional Studies in Marine Science, vol. 39, pp. 101469, 2020. Abstractanisakis.pdfWebsite

Native and imported Scomber Japonicus were collected from Egypt and found to be infected with the third stage larvae (L3) of Anisakidae. The Anisakidae larvae were found encapsulated tightly coiled in the mesenteries associated with pyloric ceca and the serosal surface of visceral organs and/or uncoiled larvae free in the abdominal cavity of infected S. japonicus. The prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance of L3 were 80%, 24.4, and 19.5 in imported fish, and they were 36%, 7.36, and 2.65 in native fish, respectively. These larvae were identified as Anisakis simplex type 1 based on their morphological and molecular characteristics. The larvae were cylindrical in shape, and the oral openings had a prominent boring tooth. The esophago-intestinal junction (ventriculus) was oblique. The bodies of the larvae were covered with a transversely striated cuticle. The posterior end of the larvae had a short mucron or spine. Subsequently, phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and COI gene of investigated larvae confirmed the identification of A. simplex when compared with relevant species sequences in GenBank. Histopathological examination revealed multiple A. simplex larvae in the abdominal cavity near the pyloric appendages, stomach, and under the visceral peritoneum, which appeared as a very thin and glistening capsule covering the larvae with a prominent adhesive fibrinous peritonitis together with mononuclear and eosinophilic granular cell infiltration. The importance of A. simplex infection in both native and imported S japonicus in Egypt is emphasized.

Mahmoud, M. A., H. A. Mansour, M. Abdelsalam, H. O. AbuBakr, S. H. Aljuaydi, and M. Afify, Evaluation of electrofishing adopted by Egyptian fish farmers, , vol. 498, pp. 380 - 387, 2019. AbstractWebsite

Upon the demand of a private fish farmer, this study was applied to assess the influence of electro-fishing adopted by some Egyptian fish farmers on the fish welfare and quality. Therefore, a total of 60 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were sampled; from which 30 were stunned by electrofishing and the remainders by conventional fishing. Biochemical analysis (oxidative stress and energy status), meat quality based on total bacterial count (TBC) and pathological alterations were assessed. Biochemical analysis in both liver and muscle tissue showed that electro-stunned fish exhibited low oxidative stress and high energy status. Meat of electro-stunned fish showed an acceptable limit of TBC (Max. limit 107) while the histopathological examination revealed various tissue reactions. These were in the form of congestion in branchial, hepatoportal, brain and splenic blood vessels with edema in brain and pericardium. In addition, there was mild inflammatory reaction together with the presence of eosinophilic granular cells and perivascular melanophores aggregation in both branchial and muscular tissue. As a consequence of this work, we recommend the use of electrofishing method in Egypt after modifying the current tool by reducing applied voltage. Further studies and more optimization are needed to cover both fish farmers and animal welfare issues, and take in consideration the human safety precautions.

Mahmoud, M. A., A. H. Abd El-Rahim, K. F. Mahrous, M. Abdelsalam, N. A. Abu-Aita, and M. Afify, "The impact of several hydraulic fracking chemicals on Nile tilapia and evaluation of the protective effects of Spirulina platensis.", Environmental science and pollution research international, 2019. Abstract

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) chemicals are used to maximize the extraction of hard-to-reach underground energy resources. Large amounts of fracking fluid could escape to the surrounding environments, including underground and surface water resources, during the chemical mixing stage of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle due to equipment failure or human error. However, the impact of pollution resulting from operational discharges is difficult to assess in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, pathological investigations, chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage, and biochemical and hematological parameters were used to evaluate the effects of such chemicals on Nile tilapia. Chromosomal aberrations are considered very sensitive genetic markers of exposure to genotoxic chemicals and are used as indicators of DNA damage. The appearance of different types of chromosomal aberrations (gaps and breaks) due to chemical exposure was significantly reduced by treatment with spirulina. Various deleterious findings in Nile tilapia, in the current study, could attributed to the presence of fracking chemicals in the aquatic environment. However, the presence of spirulina in the diet reduced the hazards of such chemicals. In addition, cytogenetic studies in the current work revealed the importance of spirulina in ameliorating the genotoxic effects of a mixture of some chemicals used in fracking.

Abdelsalam, M., M. Shaalan, and M. Moustafa, "Rapid identification of pathogenic streptococci isolated from moribund red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).", ActaVeterinaria Hungarica, vol. 65, issue 1, pp. 50-59, 2017.
, "Potential Role of Anaerobic Bacteria as Fish Pathogens", Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development, vol. 8, no. 7: OMICS International.,, pp. -, 2017. AbstractWebsite
Abdelsalam, M., M. M. A., O. A.Mahdy, M. Warda, and R. A. E. - H. A. El-Gaber, "Morphological, molecular and pathological appraisal of Callitetrarhynchus gracilis plerocerci (Lacistorhynchidae) infecting Atlantic little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) in Southeastern Mediterranean", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 317-326, 2016.
Mahmoud, M. A., M. Abdelsalam, O. A. Mahdy, H. M. F. E. Miniawy, Z. A. M. Ahmed, A. H. Osman, H. M. H. Mohamed, A. M. Khattab, and M. A. Z. Ewiss, "Infectious bacterial pathogens, parasites and pathological correlations of sewage pollution as an important threat to farmed fishes in Egypt.", Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), vol. 219, pp. 939-948, 2016. Abstract

This paper is a part of a multi-disciplinary research "Application of Decentralized On-Site Water Treatment System in Egypt for Use in Agriculture and Producing Safe Fish and Animal Proteins". The project aimed to investigate the environmental impact of implementing sewage water before and after treatment using the effluent of the on-site decentralized Japanese' Johkasou system, in agriculture and producing fish protein. The aim is to establish such system in Egypt to strengthen the sanitary conditions of water resources. In the present study, the impact of the sewage pollution in some fish farms at El-Fayyum, Port Said and El-Dakahlia governorates in Egypt was carried out. Water and fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Mugil cephalus) samples were collected from private fish farms of such localities. Bacteriological and chemical examination of water samples revealed the existence of coliforms and many other bacterial species of significant human health hazards. The chemical parameters of water showed a marked deviation from normal levels while examination of fish flesh specimens indicated contamination with Streptococcus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., and Salmonella in all examined localities. Other bacterial isolates of human health importance (Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas cepacia and Enterococcos durans) were identified. The parasitological examination revealed the presence of encysted metacercariae (EMC); Diplostomatidae, Prohemistomatidae and Heterphyidae. Moreover, two protozoan parasites (Mxyoboulus tilapiae and Ichthyophthirius multifilis) were also recorded. The histopathological examination revealed mild tissue reaction in case of bacterial infection and severe pathological lesions in different organs in case of EMC infection. Lamellar hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration in branchial tissue was common findings. In skeletal muscles, atrophy of muscle fibres, myolysis and myophagia were detected.

Abdelsalam, M., M. Fujino, A. E. Eissa, S. C. Chen, and M. Warda, "Expression, genetic localization and phylogenic analysis of NAPlr in piscine Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolates and their patterns of adherence", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 6, issue 5, pp. 747-755, 2015.
Abdelsalam, M., A. E. Eissa, and S. - C. Chen, "Genetic diversity of geographically distinct Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from fish.", Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 6, issue 2, pp. 233-238, 2015. 1-s2.0-s2090123213001471-main.pdf
Abdelsalam, M., Streptococcus dysgalactiae, a new fish pathogen, , Saarbrücken, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ( 2015-05-26 ) , 2015.
Abu-Elala, N., M. Abdelsalam, S. H. Marouf, and A. Setta, "Comparative analysis of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and gyrB-based phylogeny of motile Aeromonas species isolates from Nile tilapia and domestic fowl.", Letters in applied microbiology, vol. 61, issue 5, pp. 429-36, 2015. Abstractabu-elala_et_al-2015-letters_in_applied_microbiology1.pdf

UNLABELLED: The nucleotide sequence analysis of the gyrB gene indicated that the fish Aeromonas spp. isolates could be identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, whereas chicken Aeromonas spp. isolates identified as Aeromonas caviae. PCR data revealed the presence of Lip, Ser, Aer, ACT and CAI genes in fish Aer. hydrophila isolates, ACT, CAI and Aer genes in fish Aer. veronii bv sobria isolates and Ser and CAI genes in chicken Aer. caviae isolates. All chicken isolates showed variable resistance against all 12 tested antibiotic discs except for cefotaxime, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin, only one isolate showed resistance to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Fish Aeromonads were sensitive to all tested antibiotic discs except amoxicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and streptomycin.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Many integrated fish farms depend on the application of poultry droppings/litter which served as a direct feed for the fish and also acted as pond fertilizers. The application of untreated poultry manure exerts an additional pressure on the microbial world of the fish's environment. Aeromonas species are one of the common bacteria that infect both fish and chicken. The aim of this study was to compare the phenotypic traits and genetic relatedness of aeromonads isolated from two diverse hosts (terrestrial and aquatic), and to investigate if untreated manure possibly enhances Aeromonas dissemination among cohabitant fish with special reference to virulence genes and antibiotic resistant traits.

Eissa, A. E., M. Abdelsalam, N. Tharwat, and M. Zaki, "Detection of Saprolegnia parasitica in eggs of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cuvier–Valenciennes) with a history of decreased hatchability", International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 7-14, 2013.
Eissa, A. E., M. M. Zaki, S. Saeid, M. Abdelsalam, H. M. Ali, A. A. Moustafa, T. B. Ibrahim, and A. A. Abumhara, "In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of hemodialysate (Solcoseryl®) as a wound healing agent in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)", International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 57-64, 2013.
Abdelsalam, M., A. Asheg, and A. E. Eissa, "Streptococcus dysgalactiae: An emerging pathogen of fishes and mammals", International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 1-6, 2013.
Abdelsalam, M., S. - C. Chen, and T. Yoshida, "Dissemination of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin G (spegg) with an IS‐like element in fish isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae", FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 309, issue 1, pp. 105-113, 2010.
Abdelsalam, M., S. - C. Chen, and T. Yoshida, "Phenotypic and genetic characterizations of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from fish collected in Japan and other Asian countries", FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 302, issue 1, pp. 32-38, 2010.
Abdelsalam, M., K. Nakanishi, K. Yonemura, T. Itami, S. C. Chen, and T. Yoshida, "Application of Congo Red agar for detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolated from diseased fish", Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 25, issue 4, pp. 442-446, 2009.
Abdelsalam, M., S. - C. Chen, and T. Yoshida, "Surface properties of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from marine fish", Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, vol. 29, issue 1, pp. 16-24, 2009.
Marzouk, M., M. Ali, B. M. Shalaby, A. Mahmoud, and M. Abdelsalam, "A contribution on anaerobic bacterial infection in cultured freshwater fish", Journal of the Egyptian Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 65, issue 3, pp. 123-140, 2005.