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2013
Kassem, M. A. A., E. R. Bendas, M. H. M. El-Komy, and H. Abdullah, "Hydroxychloroquine niosomes: A new trend in topical management of oral lichen planus", International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 458, issue 2, pp. 287-295, 2013. Abstracthydroxychloroquine_niosomes.doc

Hydroxychloroquine niosomes: A new trend in topical management of oral lichen planus
A b s t r a c t
The work aimed at studying a novel topical niosomal gel formulation of hydroxychloroquine for the management of oral lichen planus. Niosomes have been reported as conceivable vesicles to deliver drug molecules to the desired mucous membrane or skin layers. Hydroxychloroquine niosomes were designed using different methods of preparation. Tween 20 and cholesterol in molar ratio (1:0.5) were used. The prepared systems were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size and in vitro drug release. Different factors affecting the encapsulation of hydroxychloroquine in niosomes were studied vs. varying the type of surfactant, the cholesterol:surfactant molar ratio and the amount of the drug. The selected noisome formulation was dispersed in different gel formulations and evaluated according to the in vitro drug release and the physical stability. The results showed that the type of surfactant, cholesterol ratio and incorporated amount of drug altered the entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release of hydroxychloro-quine from niosomes. The optimum formulation was prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique using Brij 98:cholesterol molar ratio (1:1.5) and containing 20 mg of hydroxychloroquine and incorpo-rated in 20% w/v Pluronic F-127 gel. A double-blind, controlled clinical study was performed using two groups of patients. Group A (n = 11) who received hydroxychloroquine niosomal gel formulation, one application-a-day over 4 months showed 64.28% reduction in the size of lesions and the average score of pain was reduced from “4” to “1”. Compared to placebo group B (n = 5), who showed only 3.94% reduction in the lesion size and the average score of pain was remained “3”. Our results suggest that these niosomal formulations could constitute a promising approach for the topical treatment of oral lichen planus in short time with less side effects and no recurrence after stopping the treatment.

2014
Kassem, M. A., A. Ali, S. Farid, and M. Amin, "Clinical Study on the Therapeutic Role of Midodrine in Non azotemic Cirrhotic Patients with Tense Ascites: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial", Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 61, issue 1915, pp. 1915-1924, 2014. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Midodrine is an α-agonist prodrug of des¬glymidodrine used for the management of hypotension. Midodrine has demonstrated usefulness in hepatore¬nal syndrome. Objective: The objective of the present work was to study the role of midodrine in patients with non-azotemic cirrhosis with tense ascites. Meth¬ods: This prospective randomized double blind place¬bo-controlled study was conducted on 67 non azotemic inpatients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites (52 men and 15 women; age range, 45-72). One patient declined to participate in the study, 33 patients were randomly assigned to take midodrine hydrochloride, and 33 pa¬tients were randomly assigned to take placebo. Out of 67 enrolled patients, 60 patients (30: in midodrine group; 30: in placebo group) completed the study and 6 patients lost to follow up. Patients were assessed for patients’ characteristics, history of tapping their ascitic fluid, laboratory values, and Doppler parameters before and after the study. Average 24-h urine volume was as¬sessed before and after the start of the study. Results: significant reduction in body weight and abdominal girth was observed after 2 weeks of midodrine therapy. Conclusion: Midodrine appeared to be effective in low¬ering body weights and abdominal girths of non azo¬temic cirrhotic patients with tense ascites.

Kassem, M. A., S. U. Z. A. N. AMIN, A. M. I. R. I. B. R. A. H. I. M. MOHAMED, and O. A. A. Ahmed, "Glyceryl mono oleate cubosome / ca-alginate microparticulate system: a new matrix to improve the release properties of a water-soluble model drug", International journal of pharmaceutical research and bio-science, vol. 3 (5), issue 2277-8713, pp. 177-193, 2014. Abstractglyceryl_mono_oleate_cubosome.doc

Objective: Alginate polymers suffer from rapid release of water soluble drugs in physiologic salt concentration. In this study, a new microsphere delivery system composed of GMO-cubosome embedded in Ca-alginate was designed to improve the release properties of a water-soluble model drug (Clindamycin). Methods: GMO-alginate based microspheres were prepared by w/o emulsion method, and formulation variables such as alginate molecular weight, concentration, surfactant ratio, and homogenization speed were fixed, while alginate:GMO ratio and drug concentration were investigated. Results: Alginate:GMO ratio significantly affected the particle size and morphology. Microparticles with low GMO contents (1:0.25) were spherical in shape with average diameter of 35.2 μm, with increasing GMO contents (1:0.5 to 1:1), microparticles become more flattened, collapsed and larger in size. Degradation study revealed that the erosion of microspheres decreased significantly by GMO-cubosomes addition as compared to blank Ca-alginate microspheres. 50% weight loss was reached at approximately 8hrs for 1:0.25 GMO containing microspheres as compared to 5.5hrs for blank microspheres without cubosomes, indicating that the presence of cubosomes increased the stability of Ca-alginate microspheres. Additionally, the extent of Clindamycin release from the Alginate:GMO(1:0.25) microspheres was 47% lower than the release from the conventional microspheres. Conclusions: These novel microparticles have a uniform structure, confined size distribution, satisfactory entrapment efficiency, and acceptable sustained release properties.

Kassem, M. A., M. M.I, and M. E. I. Assal, "Post Marketing Bioequivalence Study of Six Brands of Ciprofloxacin HCL in Egyptian Market and Evaluation as a Treatment of Human Periodontal Pockets", Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Innovation, vol. 1 (6) , issue 2347-8136 , pp. 35-43, 2014. Abstractpost_marketing_bioequivalence_study_of_six_brands_of_ciprofloxacin_hcl_in_egyptian_market_and_evaluation_as_a_treatment_of_human_periodontal_pockets.doc

ABSTRACT
The availability of numerous brands of ciprofloxacin HCl in our drug market today places clinicians and pharmacists in a difficult situation of choice of a suitable brand or the possibility of alternative use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate physical standards of six brands of ciprofloxacin HCl tablets marketed in Egypt using in-vitro tests and then in vivo bioequivalence of best two brands of ciprofloxacin HCL, finally their evaluation in treatment of human periodontal pockets. The in-vitro dissolution study was carried out on six brands of ciprofloxacin HCl tablets using basket method according to US pharmacopoeia guidelines. Other general quality assessment tests like Weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity y and disintegration were also determined. Then brands of ciprofloxacin HCl were subjected to in-vivo efficacy studies in treatment of human periodontal pockets. Significant results were obtained with respect to both microbiological and clinical parameters. For evaluation of bioequivalence of best two brands of ciprofloxacin HCl, blood samples were taken, plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl brands were determined by simple HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters, Including peak plasma concentrations and time needed to reach the peak were obtained directly from plasma concentration–time profiles. The area under the curve was calculated using noncompartmental methods. Statistical analysis of in-vitro and in-vivo studies shows that ciprofloxacin brands are effective in treating periodontal pockets in order of ciprobay, cipromax, mifoxin, ciprocin, rancif and ciprofar. Statistical analysis of main parameters confirm the bioequivalence of the ciprofloxacin formulations in terms of pharmacokinetic characteristic, the results from this study demonstrate that Ciprobay and Cipromax are interchangeable in the clinical setting.

2015
Kassem, M. A., A. A. Ali, S. F. Faridd, and M. A. Al-Ghobashy, "Development and validation of LC–MS/MS assay for thedetermination of the prodrug Midodrine and its active metaboliteDesglymidodrine in plasma of ascitic patients: Application toindividualized therapy and comparative pharmacokineticsAhmed", Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 991 , pp. 34–40, 2015. Abstract

Midodrine (MD) is a prodrug that is converted after oral administration to Desglymidodrine (DMD). In this study, an LC–MS/MS assay was developed and validated for investigation of the pharmacokinetics of MD and DMD in non azotemic patients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites. Results were compared to those noted with healthy volunteers following the adminstration of a single oral dose of MD. Sample preparation was performed by liquid–liquid extraction using t-butyl methyl ether. HPLC separation was carried out using RP C18 column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 5 μm). Isocratic elution was performed using methanol:0.2% formic acid (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. Tandem mass spectrometric detection was employed at positive electrospray ionization in MRM mode for the determination of MD and DMD. Analysis was carried out within 1.0 min over a concentration range of 0.50–40.00 ng/mL for the prodrug and its active metabolite. The assay was validated according to FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation and satisfactory results were obtained. The applicability of the assay for the determination of the pharmacokinetic parameters of MD and DMD and personalized therapy was demonstrated in healthy volunteers and ascitic patients. Results revealed significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters among the studied groups. Such differences were explained on the basis of the medical condition and co-adminstered medications exerting possible drug–drug interaction. Results confirmed the need for implementation of reliable analysis tools for therapeutic dose adjustment.

Kassem, M. A. A., A. A. Swealem, and Z. R. Abd-El Aziz, "Formulation and Availability of Loxoprofen Sodium Emulgel", Egypt.J.Biomed.Sci., vol. 46, issue March, pp. 73-83, 2015. Abstract

Loxoprofen sodium is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the propionic acid group. It is used for the management of pain and inflammation associated with musculoskeletal and joint disorders or operative procedures.
The aim of this work was to formulate and optimize an emulgel formulation of loxoprofen sodium as drug delivery system to provide a prompt effect while avoiding its gastric irritant properties.
Nine different types of gelling agents were used vis., hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), Methyl 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (Tylose® MH 300), methyl cellulose (MC), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMCS), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), Carbopol 934, Carbopol 940, Pluronic F 127 and xanthan gum.
In addition, different excipients were used for performing multiple purposes.
The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical properties and rheological behavior. The influence of the type of the gelling agent on the drug release from the valid emulgels was also investigated.
Most of the prepared emulgels showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, and pH value. Rheological studies revealed that the formulations exhibited a shear-thinning behavior with thixotropy. The drug release from the valid formulations was found to follow diffusion-controlled mechanism.

Kassem, M. A., A. M. I. R. I. B. R. A. H. I. M. MOHAMED, S. U. Z. A. N. AMIN, and O. A. A. Ahmed, "In-vivo evaluation of clindamycin release from glyceryl monooleate-alginate microspheres by NIR spectroscopy", International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 494 , pp. 127–135, 2015. Abstractin-vivo_evaluation_of_clindamycin_release_from_glyceryl_monooleate-alginate_microspheres_by_nir_spectroscopy.pdf

The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared (NIR) transmission spectroscopic technique to determine clindamycin plasma concentration after oral administration of clindamycin loaded GMO-alginate microspheres using rabbits as animal models. Lyophilized clindamycin–plasma standard samples at a concentration range of 0.001–10 mg/ml were prepared and analyzed by NIR and HPLC as a reference method. NIR calibration model was developed with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. Then, a single dose in-vivo evaluation was carried out and clindamycin–plasma concentration was estimated by NIR. Over 24 h time period, the pharmacokinetic parameters of clindamycin were calculated for the clindamycin loaded GMO-alginate microspheres (F3) and alginate microspheres (F2), and compared with the plain drug (F1). PLS calibration model with 7-principal components (PC), and 8000–9200 cm _1 spectral range shows a good correlation between HPLC and NIR values with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), and calibration coefficient (R2) values of 0.245, 1.164, and 0.9753, respectively, which suggests that NIR transmission technique can be used for drug-plasma analysis without any extraction procedure. F3 microspheres exhibited controlled and prolonged absorption Tmax of 4.0 vs. 1.0 and 0.5 h; Cmax of 2.37 _ 0.3 vs. 3.81 _0.8 and 5.43 _ 0.7 mg/ml for F2 and F1, respectively. These results suggest that the combination of GMO and alginate (1:4 w/w) could be successfully employed for once daily clindamycin microspheres formulation which confirmed by low Cmax and high Tmax values.

2016
Kassem, M. A., A. Ali, S. Farid, and M. Al-Ghobashy, "Comparative Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Midodrine and Its Active Metabolite Desglymidodrine in Cirrhotic Patients with Tense Ascites Versus Healthy Volunteers", Clinical Drug Investigation, vol. 36, issue 2, pp. 147–155, 2016. Abstract

Abstract
Objective Midodrine is an a-agonist prodrug of desglymidodrine
used for the management of hypotension, and
can also be used for hepatorenal syndrome and cirrhotic
patients with tense ascites. The objective of the present
work was to study the clinical pharmacokinetic parameters
of midodrine and its active metabolite desglymidodrine in
cirrhotic patients with tense ascites, which may help in
dose selection and improve treatment outcome.
Method This was a prospective, open-label, single-dose,
parallel-group study. At first, a pilot study was performed on
one healthy volunteer by taking serial blood samples at
scheduled time intervals to validate the method of analysis
and sampling times. The full study was then conducted by
selecting 12 cirrhotic patients with tense ascites in one group
and taking nine blood samples. We also selected five healthy
volunteers as the control group and took 11 blood samples.
Results Statistically significant differences were observed
between the healthy volunteer group and the patients group
in the area under the concentration versus time curve
(AUC0–t) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values
of midodrine and desglymidodrine. Based on the
results of the pharmacokinetic analysis, the patient group
was further subdivided into those receiving the interacting
drug ranitidine (five patients) and those not receiving the
interacting drug (seven patients).
Conclusions Pharmacokinetic parameters of midodrine
can differ significantly in cirrhotic patients with tense
ascites from those in healthy individuals. Drug monitoring,
dose adjustments, and drug–drug interactions should all be
considered during therapy in this vulnerable patient group.

2017
Kassem, M., A. Ali, M. El-Assal, and A. El-badrawy, "FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VIVO APPLICATION OF ORAL INSULIN NANOTECHNOLOGY USING DIFFERENT BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS: ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM.", International journal of advanced research (IJAR), vol. 5(11), pp. 1028-1044, 2017. AbstractWebsite

The overall objective of this research is to improve the oral bioavailability of insulin through encapsulation in nanoparticles formulated by "ionotropic pre-gelation followed by polyelectrolyte complexation technique". The preparation variables such as initial drug concentration, polymer: polymer ratios, crosslinker concentration, stirring speed, stirring time, pH of drug / polymer mixture were investigated to study the effect of variables on nanoparticles size and drug entrapment efficiency. The optimum formula of insulin loaded nanoparticles was tested for insulin release in different pH media. The pharmacological activity of insulin loaded nanoparticles was evaluated following oral dosage in diabetic rats and then study whether insulin loaded nanoparticles would induce hypoglycemic effect after oral administration to diabetic rats. The optimum formula of nanoparticles improved insulin release characteristics. Thus, the polymer matrix provided protection for insulin in acidic gastric medium and allowed prolonged insulin release in alkaline intestinal medium. In vivo results indicated that nanoparticles kept insulin bioactivity and its hypoglycemic effect after oral administration of insulin loaded nanoparticles to diabetic rat model. It was found that natural biodegradable nanoparticles are a promising device for oral insulin delivery.

Kassem, M. A., H. S. El-Sawy, F. I. Abd-Allah, and T. M. Abdelghany, "Maximizing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Imatinib MesylateeLoaded Niosomes on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Using Box-Behnken Design", Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 106, pp. 111-122, 2017. Abstractmaximizing_the_therapeutic_efficacy_of_imatinib_niosomes.pdf

This research purposed to formulate an optimized imatinib mesylate (IM)eloaded niosomes to improve its chemotherapeutic efficacy. The influence of 3 formulation factors on niosomal vesicular size (Y1), zeta potential (Y2), entrapment capacity percentage (Y3), the ercentage of initial drug release after 2 h (Y4), and the percentage of cumulative drug release after 24 h (Y5) were studied and optimized using Box-Behnken design. Optimum desirability was ecified and the optimized formula was prepared, stability tested, morphologically examined, checked for vesicular bilayer formation and evaluated for its in vitro cytotoxicity on 3 different cancer cell lines namely MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG-2 in addition to 1 normal cell line to ensure its selectivity against cancer cells. The actual responses of the optimized IM
formulation were 425.36 nm, 62.4 mV, 82.96%, 18.93%, and 89.45% for Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, and Y5, respectively.
The optimized IM-loaded niosomes confirmed the spherical vesicular shape imaged by both light and electron microscopes and further proven by differential scanning calorimetry. Moreover, the optimized formula exhibited improved stability on storage at 4 ± 2C and superior efficacy on MCF7, HCT-116, and HepG2 as IC50 values were 6.7, 16.4, and 7.3 folds less than those of free drug, respectively. Interestingly, IC50 of the optimized formula against normal cell line was ranged from 3 to 11 folds higher than in different cancer cells indicating a higher selectivity of the optimized formula to cancer cells. In conclusion, the incorporation of IM in niosomes enhanced its efficacy and selectivity toward cancer cells,
presenting a promising tool to fight cancer using this approach.

2018
Kassem, M., A. Ali, and A. El-badrawy, " FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN-VIVO APPLICATION OF ORAL INSULIN NANOTECHNOLOGY USING DIFFERENT BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS: ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM", IJPSR, vol. Vol. 9, issue (9), pp. 3664-3677., 2018. Abstractbhth_l_lbdrw_lthn_dktwrh.pdf

ABSTRACT: The overall objective of this research is to improve the oral bioavailability of insulin through encapsulation in nanoparticles formulated by "ionotropic pre-gelation followed by polyelectrolyte complexation technique". The preparation variables such as initial drug concentration, polymer: polymer ratios, crosslinker concentration, stirring speed, stirring time, pH of drug / polymer mixture were investigated to study the effect of variables on nanoparticles size and drug entrapment efficiency. The optimum formula of insulin-loaded nanoparticles was tested for insulin release in three different pH media. The pharmacological activity of insulin-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated following oral dosage in diabetic rats and then study whether insulin-loaded nanoparticles would induce hypoglycemic effect after oral administration to diabetic rats. The optimum formula of nanoparticles improved insulin release characteristics. Thus, the polymer matrix provided protection for insulin in acidic gastric medium and allowed prolonged insulin release in alkaline intestinal medium. In-vivo results indicated that nanoparticles kept insulin bioactivity and its hypoglycemic effect after oral administration of insulin-loaded nanoparticles to diabetic rat model. It was found that natural biodegradable nanoparticles are a promising device for oral insulin delivery.

Kassem, M. A., M. H. Aboul-Einien, and M. M. E. Taweel, "Dry Gel Containing Optimized Felodipine-Loaded Transferosomes: a Promising Transdermal Delivery System to Enhance Drug Bioavailability", AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. Vol. 19, issue No. 5,, pp. 2155-2173, 2018. Abstractdrygel-felod.pdf

Abstract. Felodipine has a very low bioavailability due to first-pass metabolism. The aim
of this study was to enhance its bioavailability by transdermal application. Felodipine-loaded
transferosomes were prepared by thin-film hydration using different formulation variables.
An optimized formula was designed using statistical experimental design. The independent
variables were the used edge activator, its molar ratio to phosphatidylcholine, and presence
or absence of cholesterol. The responses were entrapment efficiency of transferosomes, their
size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percent drug released after 8 h. The optimized
formula was subjected to differential scanning calorimetry studies and its stability on storage
at 4°C for 6 months was estimated. This formula was improved by incorporation of different
permeation enhancers where ex vivo drug flux through mice skin was estimated and the best
improved formula was formulated in a gel and lyophilized. The prepared gel was subjected to
in vivo study using Plendil® tablets as a reference. According to the calculated desirability,
the optimized transferosome formula was that containing sodium deoxycholate as edge
activator at 5:1 M ratio to phosphatidylcholine and no cholesterol. The thermograms of this
formula indicated the incorporation of felodipine inside the prepared vesicles. None of the
tested parameters differed significantly on storage. The lyophilized gel of labrasol-containing
formula was chosen for in vivo study. The relative bioavailability of felodipine from the
designed gel was 1.7. In conclusion, topically applied lyophilized gel containing felodipineloaded
transferosomes is a promising transdermal delivery system to enhance its
bioavailability.

Kassem, M. A. A., A. N. ElMeshad, and A. R. Fares, "Enhancement of dissolution and oral bioavailability of lacidipine via pluronic P123/F127 mixed polymeric micelles: formulation, optimization using central composite design and in vivo bioavailability study", DRUG DELIVERY, vol. VOL. 25, issue NO. 1, pp. 132–142, 2018. Abstract4-enhancement_of_dissolution_and_oral_bioavailability_of_lacidipine_via_pluronic_p123_f127_mixed_polymeric_micelles_formulation_optimization_using.pdf

ABSTRACT
This study aims at preparing and optimizing lacidipine (LCDP) polymeric micelles using thin film hydration
technique in order to overcome LCDP solubility-limited oral bioavailability. A two-factor three-level
central composite face-centered design (CCFD) was employed to optimize the formulation variables to
obtain LCDP polymeric micelles of high entrapment efficiency and small and uniform particle size (PS).
Formulation variables were: Pluronic to drug ratio (A) and Pluronic P123 percentage (B). LCDP polymeric
micelles were assessed for entrapment efficiency (EE%), PS and polydispersity index (PDI). The
formula with the highest desirability (0.959) was chosen as the optimized formula. The values of the
formulation variables (A and B) in the optimized polymeric micelles formula were 45% and 80%,
respectively. Optimum LCDP polymeric micelles had entrapment efficiency of 99.23%, PS of 21.08nm
and PDI of 0.11. Optimum LCDP polymeric micelles formula was physically characterized using transmission
electron microscopy. LCDP polymeric micelles showed saturation solubility approximately 450
times that of raw LCDP in addition to significantly enhanced dissolution rate. Bioavailability study of
optimum LCDP polymeric micelles formula in rabbits revealed a 6.85-fold increase in LCDP bioavailability
compared to LCDP oral suspension.

Kassem, M. A., M. A. Megahed, S. A. K. Elyazid, and F. I. Abd-Allah, "Enhancing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Tamoxifen Citrate Loaded Span-Based Nano-Vesicles on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells", AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. Vol. 19, issue No. 4, May , pp. 1529-1543, 2018. Abstractefficacy_of_tamoxifen_mhmd_dl_mjhd-_2018.pdf

Abstract. Serious adverse effects and low selectivity to cancer cells are the main obstacles
of long term therapy with Tamoxifen (Tmx). This study aimed to develop Tmx-loaded spanbased
nano-vesicles for delivery to malignant tissues with maximum efficacy. The effect of
three variables on vesicle size (Y1), zeta potential (Y2), entrapment efficiency (Y3) and the
cumulative percent release after 24 h (Y4) were optimized using Box-Behnken design. The
optimized formula was prepared and tested for its stability in different storage conditions.
The observed values for the optimized formula were 310.2 nm, − 42.09 mV, 75.45 and 71.70%
for Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. The examination using electron microscopy confirmed
the formation of rounded vesicles with distinctive bilayer structure. Moreover, the cytotoxic
activity of the optimized formula on both breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal cells
(BHK) showed enhanced selectivity (9.4 folds) on cancerous cells with IC50 values 4.7 ± 1.5
and 44.3 ± 1.3 μg/ml on cancer and normal cells, respectively. While, free Tmx exhibited
lower selectivity (2.5 folds) than optimized nano-vesicles on cancer cells with IC50 values of
9.0 ± 1.1 μg/ml and 22.5 ± 5.3 μg/ml on MCF-7 and BHK cells, respectively. The promising
prepared vesicular system, with greater efficacy and selectivity, provides a marvelous tool to
overcome breast cancer treatment challenges.

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