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Elgebaly, S. A., C. Van Buren, R. Todd, R. Poston, R. K. Arafa, N. El-Khazragy, D. Kreutzer, M. A. Rabie, A. F. Mohamed, L. A. Ahmed, et al., "Cyclocreatine Phosphate: A Novel Bioenergetic/Anti-Inflammatory Drug That Resuscitates Poorly Functioning Hearts and Protects against Development of Heart Failure.", Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 16, issue 3, 2023. Abstract

Irreversible myocardial injury causes the exhaustion of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contributing to heart failure (HF). Cyclocreatine phosphate (CCrP) was shown to preserve myocardial ATP during ischemia and maintain cardiac function in various animal models of ischemia/reperfusion. We tested whether CCrP administered prophylactically/therapeutically prevents HF secondary to ischemic injury in an isoproterenol (ISO) rat model. Thirty-nine rats were allocated into five groups: control/saline, control/CCrP, ISO/saline (85 and 170 mg/kg/day s.c. for 2 consecutive days), and ISO/CCrP (0.8 g/kg/day i.p.) either administrated 24 h or 1 h before ISO administration (prophylactic regimen) or 1 h after the last ISO injection (therapeutic regimen) and then daily for 2 weeks. CCrP protected against ISO-induced CK-MB elevation and ECG/ST changes when administered prophylactically or therapeutically. CCrP administered prophylactically decreased heart weight, hs-TnI, TNF-α, TGF-β, and caspase-3, as well as increased EF%, eNOS, and connexin-43, and maintained physical activity. Histology indicated a marked decrease in cardiac remodeling (fibrin and collagen deposition) in the ISO/CCrP rats. Similarly, therapeutically administered CCrP showed normal EF% and physical activity, as well as normal serum levels of hs-TnI and BNP. In conclusion, the bioenergetic/anti-inflammatory CCrP is a promising safe drug against myocardial ischemic sequelae, including HF, promoting its clinical application to salvage poorly functioning hearts.

Mohamed, S. S., N. F. Abdeltawab, W. Wadie, L. A. Ahmed, R. M. Ammar, S. Rabini, H. Abdel-Aziz, and M. T. Khayyal, "Effect of the standard herbal preparation, STW5, treatment on dysbiosis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in experimental colitis.", BMC complementary medicine and therapies, vol. 21, issue 1, pp. 168, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The standardized herbal preparation, STW 5, is effective clinically in functional gastrointestinal disorders and experimentally in ulcerative colitis (UC). The present study explores whether the beneficial effect of STW 5 involves influencing the intestinal microbiota.

METHODS: UC was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Rats were treated concurrently with STW 5 and sacrificed 24 h after last drug administration. Fecal samples were used to determine changes in the abundance of selected microbial phyla and genera using real-time PCR.

RESULTS: Induction of UC led to dysbiosis and changes in the gut microbiota. The changes included an increase in some genera of the Firmicutes, namely Enterococcus, and a decrease in others, namely Blautia, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus. DSS further induced a marked increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria as well as in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and its genus Bifidobacterium. Methanobrevibacter levels (phylum Euryarchaeota) were also increased. Microbial dysbiosis was associated with changes in various parameters of colonic inflammation. STW 5 effectively guarded against those changes and significantly affected the indices of edema and inflammation in the UC model. Changes in colon length, colon mass index, inflammatory and apoptotic markers, and histological changes induced by DSS were also prevented.

CONCLUSIONS: Dysbiosis plays a contributing role in the development of DSS-induced UC. Derangements in the microbial flora and associated inflammatory processes were largely prevented by STW 5, suggesting that this effect might contribute towards its beneficial usefulness in this condition.

Rasheed, N. A. O., L. A. Ahmed, D. M. Abdallah, and B. M. El-Sayeh, "Nephro-toxic effects of intraperitoneally injected EGCG in diabetic mice: involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis", scientific reports, vol. 7, pp. 40617 , 2017.
Elgebaly, S. A., R. Todd, D. L. Kreutzer, R. Christenson, N. El-Khazragy, R. K. Arafa, M. A. Rabie, A. F. Mohamed, L. A. Ahmed, and N. S. El Sayed, "Nourin-Associated miRNAs: Novel Inflammatory Monitoring Markers for Cyclocreatine Phosphate Therapy in Heart Failure.", International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 22, issue 7, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cyclocreatine phosphate (CCrP) is a potent bioenergetic cardioprotective compound known to preserve high levels of cellular adenosine triphosphate during ischemia. Using the standard Isoproterenol (ISO) rat model of heart failure (HF), we recently demonstrated that the administration of CCrP prevented the development of HF by markedly reducing cardiac remodeling (fibrosis and collagen deposition) and maintaining normal ejection fraction and heart weight, as well as physical activity. The novel inflammatory mediator, Nourin is a 3-KDa formyl peptide rapidly released by ischemic myocardium and is associated with post-ischemic cardiac inflammation. We reported that the Nourin-associated (marker of cell damage) and (marker of inflammation) are significantly upregulated in unstable angina patients and patients with acute myocardial infarction, but not in healthy subjects.

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that Nourin-associated and are upregulated in ISO-induced "HF rats" and that the administration of CCrP prevents myocardial injury (MI) and reduces Nourin gene expression in "non-HF rats".

METHODS: 25 male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were used: ISO/saline ( = 6), ISO/CCrP (0.8 g/kg/day) ( = 5), control/saline ( = 5), and control/CCrP (0.8 g/kg/day) ( = 4). In a limited study, CCrP at a lower dose of 0.4 g/kg/day ( = 3) and a higher dose of 1.2 g/kg/day ( = 2) were also tested. The Rats were injected SC with ISO for two consecutive days at doses of 85 and 170 mg/kg/day, respectively, then allowed to survive for an additional two weeks. CCrP and saline were injected IP (1 mL) 24 h and 1 h before first ISO administration, then daily for two weeks. Serum CK-MB (U/L) was measured 24 h after the second ISO injection to confirm myocardial injury. After 14 days, gene expression levels of and were measured in serum samples using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR).

RESULTS: While high levels of CK-MB were detected after 24 h in the ISO/saline rats indicative of MI, the ISO/CCrP rats showed normal CK-MB levels, supporting prevention of MI by CCrP. After 14 days, gene expression profiles showed significant upregulation of and by 8.6-fold and 8.7-fold increase, respectively, in the ISO/saline rats, "HF rats," compared to the control/saline group. On the contrary, CCrP treatment at 0.8 g/kg/day markedly reduced gene expression of miR-137 by 75% and of by 44% in the ISO/CCrP rats, "non-HF rats," compared to the ISO/Saline rats, "HF rats." Additionally, healthy rats treated with CCrP for 14 days showed no toxicity in heart, liver, and renal function.

CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a role of Nourin-associated and in the pathogenesis of HF and that CCrP treatment prevented ischemic injury in "non-HF rats" and significantly reduced Nourin gene expression levels in a dose-response manner. The Nourin gene-based mRNAs may, therefore, potentially be used as monitoring markers of drug therapy response in HF, and CCrP-as a novel preventive therapy of HF due to ischemia.

Rasheed, N. A. O., L. A. Ahmed, D. M. Abdallah, and B. M. El-Sayeh, "Paradoxical cardiotoxicity of intraperitoneally-injected epigallocatechin gallate preparation in diabetic mice", Scientific reports, vol. 8, pp. 7880, 1979 Oct, 2018. Abstract

It has been found that NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of dimethylaniline, aniline, p- and o-nitroanisol and lipid peroxidation is inhibited by the tyrosine-copper (II) complex (low molecular weight analog of superoxide dismutase), which is indicative of a possibility of superoxide radicals formation in these reactions. The inhibition of the above-mentioned reactions with Tyr2-Cu2+ is less pronounced or absent, if cumole hydroperoxide is used as cosubstrate instead of NADPH. Differences in the Tyr2-Cu2+ complex effects on the cumule hydroperoxide-dependent xenobiotics hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation catalyzed by various forms of cytochrome P-450, e. g. microsomal, soluble and incorporated into liposomes, have been found. The data obtained suggest that the efficiency of the inhibitory effect of the Tyr2-Cu2+ complex depends on the type of cosubstrates (NADPH, cumole hydroperoxide) and substrates used as well as on the form of cytochrome P-450.

Ahmed, L. A., S. M. Rizk, and S. A. EL-Maraghy, "Pinocembrin ex vivo preconditioning improves the therapeutic efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.", Biochemical pharmacology, vol. 138, pp. 193-204, 2017 Aug 15. Abstract

Pulmonary hypertension is still not curable and the available current therapies can only alleviate symptoms without hindering the progression of disease. The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of pinocembrin on endothelial progenitor cells transplanted in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60mg/kg). Endothelial progenitor cells were in vitro preconditioned with pinocembrin (25mg/L) for 30min before being i.v. injected into rats 2weeks after monocrotaline administration. Four weeks after monocrotaline administration, blood pressure, electrocardiography and right ventricular systolic pressure were recorded. Rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of endothelin-1 and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta contents as well as caspase-3 activity. Moreover, protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in addition to myocardial connexin-43 was assessed. Finally, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and right ventricular hypertrophy was performed and cryosections were done for estimation of cell homing. Preconditioning with pinocembrin provided a significant improvement in endothelial progenitor cells' effect towards reducing monocrotaline-induced elevation of inflammatory, fibrogenic and apoptotic markers. Furthermore, preconditioned cells induced a significant amelioration of endothelial markers and cell homing and prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in right ventricular function and histological analysis compared with native cells alone. In conclusion, pinocembrin significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

Ahmed, L. A., S. A. EL-Maraghy, and S. M. Rizk, "Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats.", Scientific reports, vol. 5, pp. 14043, 2015 Sep 25. Abstract

This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity.