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Ahmed, L. A., N. A. Shiha, and A. S. Attia, "Escitalopram Ameliorates Cardiomyopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats via Modulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Downstream Signaling Cascades.", Frontiers in pharmacology, vol. 11, pp. 579206, 2020. Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized as a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, studies have shown the prevalence of depression among people with diabetes. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the possible beneficial effects of escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on metabolic changes and cardiac complications in type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding the rats high fat-high fructose diet (HFFD) for 8 weeks followed by a subdiabetogenic dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg, i. p.). Treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/kg/day; p. o.) was then initiated for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, electrocardiography was performed and blood samples were collected for determination of glycemic and lipid profiles. Animals were then euthanized and heart samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological examinations. Escitalopram alleviated the HFFD/STZ-induced metabolic and cardiac derangements as evident by improvement of oxidative stress, inflammatory, fibrogenic and apoptotic markers in addition to hypertrophy and impaired conduction. These results could be secondary to its beneficial effects on the glycemic control and hence the reduction of receptor for advanced glycation end products content as revealed in the present study. In conclusion, escitalopram could be considered a favorable antidepressant medication in diabetic patients as it seems to positively impact the glycemic control in diabetes in addition to prevention of its associated cardiovascular complications.

Ahmed, L. A., A. A. Z. Obaid, H. F. Zaki, and A. M. Agha, "Role of oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide and transforming growth factor-beta in the protective effect of diosgenin in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.", European journal of pharmacology, vol. 740, pp. 379-87, 2014 Oct 05. Abstract

Pulmonary hypertension is a progressive disease of various origins that is associated with right ventricular dysfunction. In the present study, the protective effect of diosgenin was investigated in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). Diosgenin (100 mg/kg) was given by oral administration once daily for 3 weeks. At the end of the experiment, mean arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography and echocardiography were recorded. Rats were then sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of total nitrate/nitrite level. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth factor-beta contents. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities in addition to endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression were also determined. Moreover, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was performed. Diosgenin treatment provided a significant improvement toward preserving hemodynamic changes and alleviating oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by monocrotaline in rats. Furthermore, diosgenin therapy prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in nitric oxide production, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as histological analysis. These findings support the beneficial effect of diosgenin in pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats.

Ahmed, L. A., O. F. Hassan, O. Galal, D. I. N. A. F. Mansour, and A. El-Khatib, "Beneficial effects of benfotiamine, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.", PloS one, vol. 15, issue 5, pp. e0232413, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains the most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was directed to investigate the beneficial effects of benfotiamine pre- and post-treatments in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI in rats.

METHODS: Myocardial heart damage was induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (150 mg/kg) once daily for two consecutive days. Benfotiamine (100 mg/kg/day) was given orally for two weeks before or after ISO treatment.

RESULTS: ISO administration revealed significant changes in electrocardiographic recordings, elevation of levels of cardiac enzymes; creatinine kinase (CK-MB) and troponin-I (cTn-I), and perturbation of markers of oxidative stress; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and markers of inflammation; protein kinase C (PKC), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The apoptotic markers (caspase-8 and p53) were also significantly elevated in ISO groups in addition to histological alterations. Groups treated with benfotiamine pre- and post-ISO administration showed significantly decreased cardiac enzymes levels and improved oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers compared to the ISO groups.

CONCLUSION: The current study highlights the potential role of benfotiamine as a promising agent for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in myocardial damage in several cardiovascular disorders via NADPH oxidase inhibition.

Ahmed, L. A., and K. Al-Massri, "New Approaches for Enhancement of the Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in Cardiovascular Diseases.", Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, 2022. Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain a major health concern worldwide, where mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy gives great promise in their management through their regenerative and paracrine actions. In recent years, many studies have shifted from the use of transplanted stem cells to their secreted exosomes for the management of various CVDs and cardiovascular-related diseases including atherosclerosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, peripheral arterial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. In different models, MSC-derived exosomes have shown beneficial outcomes similar to cell therapy concerning regenerative and neovascular actions in addition to their anti-apoptotic, anti-remodeling, and anti-inflammatory actions. Compared with their parent cells, exosomes have also demonstrated several advantages, including lower immunogenicity and no risk of tumor formation. However, the maintenance of stability and efficacy of exosomes after in vivo transplantation is still a major concern in their clinical application. Recently, new approaches have been developed to enhance their efficacy and stability including their preconditioning before transplantation, use of genetically modified MSC-derived exosomes, or their utilization as a targeted drug delivery system. Herein, we summarized the use of MSC-derived exosomes as therapies in different CVDs in addition to recent advances for the enhancement of their efficacy in these conditions.

Ahmed, L. A., H. A. Salem, M. N. Mawsouf, A. S. Attia, and A. M. Agha, "Cardioprotective effects of ozone oxidative preconditioning in an in vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.", Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation, vol. 72, issue 5, pp. 345-54, 2012 Sep. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of ozone oxidative preconditioning in several pathologies characterized by cellular oxidative and inflammatory burden. The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of oxidative preconditioning in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.

METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 were normal and I/R groups, respectively. Two of the other groups received two different doses of ozone therapies by rectal insufflations. The last group received vehicle (oxygen). Rats were subjected to myocardial I/R (40 min/10 min). Heart rate and ventricular arrhythmias were recorded during I/R progress. At the end of reperfusion, plasma creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity and total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) were determined. In addition, lactate, adenine nucleotides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were estimated in the heart left ventricle. Histological examination was also performed to visualize the protective cellular effects.

RESULTS: Both doses of ozone therapy were equally protective in reducing CK-MB release. However, the higher dose was more effective in reducing oxidative stress, lactate accumulation, elevated MPO activity and plasma NO(x) as well as preserving myocardial adenine nucleotides. Histological examination also revealed better improvement with a higher dose of ozone therapy compared to the I/R group.

CONCLUSION: Ozone therapy can afford significant cardioprotection against biochemical and histological changes associated with I/R injury.

Ahmed, L. A., and K. F. Al-Massri, "Directions for Enhancement of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Different Neurodegenerative and Cardiovascular Diseases: Current Status and Future Perspectives.", Current stem cell research & therapy, vol. 16, issue 7, pp. 858-876, 2021. Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising therapeutic effects in a wide variety of medical conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Although preliminary research has emphasized the ability of MSCs to engraft at sites of injury, several studies have revealed that MSCs mediate their effects through the release of various paracrine factors and through their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. The clinical implications of MSCs application are limited due to their low survival rate in conditions of inflammation, oxidative stress, and nutrient restriction in damaged areas. Furthermore, the function of isolated MSCs is usually affected by the patient's health. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new methods to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs under pathophysiological conditions. This review provides an overview of the general properties of MSCs, their therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease, as well as cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy, and their related mechanisms. In addition, this review also discusses potential problems and side effects, as well as current and future directions for improvement of MSCs therapy and their implications and applications.

Ahmed, L. A., H. A. Salem, A. S. Attia, and M. E. El-Sayed, "Enhancement of amlodipine cardioprotection by quercetin in ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats.", The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, vol. 61, issue 9, pp. 1233-41, 2009 Sep. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible modification of the cardioprotective effect of amlodipine when co-administered with quercetin in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion-induced functional, metabolic and cellular alterations in rats.

METHODS: Oral doses of amlodipine (15 mg/kg) and quercetin (5 mg/kg), alone or in combination, were administered once daily for 1 week. Rats were then subjected to myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (35(min)/10(min)). Heart rates and ventricular arrhythmias were recorded during ischaemia/reperfusion progress. At the end of reperfusion, activities of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and cardiac myeloperoxidase were determined. In addition, cardiac contents of lactate, ATP, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) were estimated. Finally, histological examination was performed to visualize the protective cellular effects of different pretreatments.

KEY FINDINGS: Combined therapy provided significant improvement in the amlodipine effect toward preserving cardiac electrophysiologic functions, ATP and GSH contents as well as reducing the elevated plasma CK, cardiac TBARS and NO(x) contents.

CONCLUSION: Quercetin could add benefits to the cardioprotective effect of amlodipine against injury induced in the heart by ischaemia/reperfusion.

Ahmed, L. A., and K. F. Al-Massri, "Exploring the Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in Diabetic and Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.", Molecular neurobiology, 2024. Abstract

Diabetic and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies are known for long-term complications that are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and cancer treatment, respectively. Peripheral neuropathy often requires long-term therapy and could persist after treatment provoking detrimental effects on the patient's quality of life. Despite continuous drug discoveries, development of efficient therapies is still needed for the significant management of diabetic and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles that show great promise recently in tissue regeneration and injury repair compared to their parent stem cells. Herein, we provided a summary for the use of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes in diabetic and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in addition to recent advancements and ways proposed for the enhancement of their efficacy in these diseases.

Ahmed, L. A., H. A. Darwish, R. M. Abdelsalam, and H. A. A. Amin, "Role of Rho Kinase Inhibition in the Protective Effect of Fasudil and Simvastatin Against 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Striatal Neurodegeneration and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats.", Molecular neurobiology, vol. 53, issue 6, pp. 3927-38, 2016 Aug. Abstract

3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity is an experimental model which mimics the pathology and motor abnormalities seen in Huntington's disease (HD) in human. The present investigation was directed to estimate the role of rho kinase (ROCK) inhibition in the possible protective effect of fasudil and simvastatin in 3-NP-induced striatal neurodegeneration in rats. Animals were injected s.c. with 3-NP (20 mg/kg/day) for 1 week with or without administration of fasudil (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.). At the end of experiment, motor and behavioral abnormalities were evaluated. Animals were then sacrificed for measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and caspase-3 activities in striatum. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level and protein expressions of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), ROCK, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS), Bax, and Bcl-2 were estimated. Finally, histological changes as demonstrated by striatum injury score, glial activation, and percentage of altered mitochondria were assessed. Both fasudil and simvastatin effectively inhibited 3-NP-induced behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes through inhibition of ROCK activity. However, fasudil provided more amelioration in histological changes, mitochondrial membrane potential and SDH activity in addition to p-Akt and PGC-1α protein expressions. The present study highlights a significant role of ROCK/p-Akt/eNOS pathway in the protective effects of fasudil and simvastatin on neurotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by 3-NP in rats. Thus, specific inhibition of ROCK may be considered a promising new approach in the management of HD.

Ahmed, L. A., A. A. Z. Obaid, H. F. Zaki, and A. M. Agha, "Naringenin adds to the protective effect of L-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats: favorable modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation and nitric oxide.", European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 62, pp. 161-70, 2014 Oct 01. Abstract

The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of naringenin when co-administered with L-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). L-arginine (500 mg/kg) and naringenin (50 mg/kg) were orally administered daily, alone and in combination, for 3 weeks. Mean arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography and echocardiography were then recorded and rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of total nitrate/nitrite level. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth factor-beta. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities in addition to endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression were also determined. Moreover, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was performed. Combined therapy provided a significant improvement in L-arginine protective effect toward preserving hemodynamic changes and alleviating oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by monocrotaline treatment. Furthermore, combined therapy prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as histological analysis compared with either treatment alone. In conclusion, naringenin significantly adds to the protective effect of L-arginine in pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats.

Ahmed, L. A., "Protective effects of magnesium supplementation on metabolic energy derangements in lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.", European journal of pharmacology, vol. 694, issue 1-3, pp. 75-81, 2012 Nov 05. Abstract

Metabolic derangements and bioenergetic failure are major contributors to sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunctions. Due to the well known role of magnesium (Mg) as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions that involve energy creation and utilization, the present investigation was directed to estimate the cardioprotective effect of Mg supplementation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced metabolic energy changes in mice. Oral doses of Mg aspartate (20 or 40 mg/kg) were administered once daily for 7 day. Mice were then subjected to a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (2 mg/kg). Plasma was separated 3 h after LPS injection for determination of creatine kinase-MB activity. Animals were then sacrificed and the hearts were separated for estimation of tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, lactate, pyruvate, adenine nucleotides, creatine phosphate and cardiac Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Finally, electron microscopic examination was performed to visualize the protective effects of Mg pretreatment on mitochondrial ultrastructure. In general, the higher dose of Mg was more effective than the lower dose in ameliorating creatine kinase-MB elevation and the state of oxidative stress, lactate accumulation, pyruvate reduction as well as preserving creatine phosphate, adenine nucleotides and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Moreover, the higher dose of Mg provided a significant cardioprotection against the mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Mg therapy can afford a significant protection against metabolic energy derangements and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes induced by LPS cardiotoxicity in mice.

Ahmed, L. A., H. A. Salem, A. S. Attia, and A. M. Agha, "Pharmacological preconditioning with nicorandil and pioglitazone attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.", European journal of pharmacology, vol. 663, issue 1-3, pp. 51-8, 2011 Aug 01. Abstract

The present investigation was designed to study the cardioprotective effects of nicorandil and pioglitazone preconditioning in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced hemodynamic, biochemical and histological changes in rats. Oral doses of nicorandil (3 or 6 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 or 20mg/kg) were administered once daily for 5 consecutive days. Rats were then subjected to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (40 min/10 min). Heart rate and ventricular arrhythmias were recorded during ischemia/reperfusion progress. At the end of reperfusion, plasma creatine kinase-MB activity and total nitrate/nitrite were determined. In addition, lactate, adenine nucleotides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione and myeloperoxidase activity were estimated in the heart left ventricle. Finally, histological examination was performed to visualize the protective cellular effects of different pretreatments. Nicorandil (3 or 6 mg/kg) was effective in attenuating the ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias, creatine kinase-MB release, lactate accumulation and oxidative stress. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg) was more effective in improving the energy production and lowering the elevated myeloperoxidase activity. Both doses of pioglitazone (10 or 20 mg/kg) were equally effective in reducing lactate accumulation and completely counteracting the oxidative stress. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) was more effective in improving energy production and reducing ventricular arrhythmias, plasma creatine kinase-MB release and total nitrate/nitrite. It seems that selective mitochondrial K(ATP) channel opening by lower doses of nicorandil and pioglitazone in the present study provided more cardioprotection against ventricular arrhythmias and biochemical changes induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Histological examination revealed also better improvement by the lower dose of nicorandil than that of pioglitazone.

Ahmed, L. A., S. M. Rizk, and S. A. EL-Maraghy, "Pinocembrin ex vivo preconditioning improves the therapeutic efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.", Biochemical pharmacology, vol. 138, pp. 193-204, 2017 Aug 15. Abstract

Pulmonary hypertension is still not curable and the available current therapies can only alleviate symptoms without hindering the progression of disease. The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of pinocembrin on endothelial progenitor cells transplanted in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60mg/kg). Endothelial progenitor cells were in vitro preconditioned with pinocembrin (25mg/L) for 30min before being i.v. injected into rats 2weeks after monocrotaline administration. Four weeks after monocrotaline administration, blood pressure, electrocardiography and right ventricular systolic pressure were recorded. Rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of endothelin-1 and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta contents as well as caspase-3 activity. Moreover, protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in addition to myocardial connexin-43 was assessed. Finally, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and right ventricular hypertrophy was performed and cryosections were done for estimation of cell homing. Preconditioning with pinocembrin provided a significant improvement in endothelial progenitor cells' effect towards reducing monocrotaline-induced elevation of inflammatory, fibrogenic and apoptotic markers. Furthermore, preconditioned cells induced a significant amelioration of endothelial markers and cell homing and prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in right ventricular function and histological analysis compared with native cells alone. In conclusion, pinocembrin significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

Ahmed, L. A., R. H. Abd El-Rhman, A. M. Gad, S. K. Hassaneen, and M. F. El-Yamany, "Dibenzazepine combats acute liver injury in rats via amendments of Notch signaling and activation of autophagy.", Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology, vol. 394, issue 2, pp. 337-348, 2021. Abstract

Paracetamol is a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug. Nevertheless, an overdose of paracetamol leads to hepatic necrosis that can be lethal. This study aimed to assess the potential hepatoprotective effects of dibenzazepine, a Notch inhibitor, against acute liver injury in rats via interfering with oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and Notch signaling. Silymarin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) or dibenzazepine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered to rats for 5 days before a single hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol (800 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment with silymarin and dibenzazepine significantly mitigated oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by paracetamol hepatotoxicity where dibenzazepine showed greater repression of inflammation. Furthermore, dibenzazepine was found to be significantly more efficacious than silymarin in inhibiting Notch signaling as represented by expression of Notch-1 and Hes-1. A significantly greater response was also demonstrated with dibenzazepine pretreatment with regard to the expression of autophagic proteins, Beclin-1 and LC-3. The aforementioned biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological examination. Autophagy and Notch signaling seem to play a significant role in protection provided by dibenzazepine for paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, which could explain its superior results relative to silymarin. Graphical abstract.

Ahmed, L. A., S. A. EL-Maraghy, and S. M. Rizk, "Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats.", Scientific reports, vol. 5, pp. 14043, 2015 Sep 25. Abstract

This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity.

Ahmed, L. A., "Nicorandil: A drug with ongoing benefits and different mechanisms in various diseased conditions.", Indian journal of pharmacology, vol. 51, issue 5, pp. 296-301, 2019. Abstract

Nicorandil is a well-known antianginal agent, which has been recommended as one of the second-line treatments for chronic stable angina as justified by the European guidelines. It shows an efficacy equivalent to that of classic antianginal agents. Nicorandil has also been applied clinically in various cardiovascular diseases such as variant or unstable angina and reperfusion-induced damage following coronary angioplasty or thrombolysis. Different mechanisms have been involved in the protective effects of nicorandil in various diseases through either opening of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel or donation of nitric oxide (NO). The predominance or participation of any of these proposed mechanisms depends on the dose of nicorandil used, the location of diseased conditions, and if this mechanism is still functioning or not. The protection afforded by nicorandil has been shown to be mainly attributed to KATP channel opening in experimental models of myocardial and pulmonary fibrosis as well as renal injury or glomerulonephritis, whereas NO donation predominates as a mechanism of protection in hepatic fibrosis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Therefore, in different diseased conditions, it is important to know which mechanism plays the major role in nicorandil-induced curative or protective effects. This can bring new insights into the proper use of selected medication and its recommended dose for targeting certain disease.

Ahmed, L. A., A. A. Z. Obaid, H. F. Zaki, and A. M. Agha, "Role of oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide and transforming growth factor-beta in the protective effect of diosgenin in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.", European journal of pharmacology, vol. 740, pp. 379-87, 2014 Oct 05. Abstract

Pulmonary hypertension is a progressive disease of various origins that is associated with right ventricular dysfunction. In the present study, the protective effect of diosgenin was investigated in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). Diosgenin (100 mg/kg) was given by oral administration once daily for 3 weeks. At the end of the experiment, mean arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography and echocardiography were recorded. Rats were then sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of total nitrate/nitrite level. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth factor-beta contents. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities in addition to endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression were also determined. Moreover, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was performed. Diosgenin treatment provided a significant improvement toward preserving hemodynamic changes and alleviating oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by monocrotaline in rats. Furthermore, diosgenin therapy prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in nitric oxide production, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as histological analysis. These findings support the beneficial effect of diosgenin in pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats.

Ahmed, L. A., M. B. Salem, S. H. Seif El-Din, N. M. El-Lakkany, H. O. Ahmed, S. M. Nasr, O. A. Hammam, S. S. Botros, and S. Saleh, "Gut microbiota modulation as a promising therapy with metformin in rats with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Role of LPS/TLR4 and autophagy pathways.", European journal of pharmacology, vol. 887, pp. 173461, 2020. Abstract

Gut microbiota is a crucial factor in pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therefore, targeting the gut-liver axis might be a novel therapeutic approach to treat NASH. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of a probiotic (Lactobacillus reuteri) and metronidazole (MTZ) (an antibiotic against Bacteroidetes) either alone or in combination with metformin (MTF) in experimentally-induced NASH. NASH was induced by feeding rats high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. MTF (150 mg/kg/day) or L. reuteri (2x10 colony forming unit/day) were given orally for 8 weeks; meanwhile, MTZ (15 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered for 1 week. Treatment with L. reuteri and MTZ in combination with MTF showed additional benefit compared to MTF alone concerning lipid profile, liver function, oxidative stress, inflammatory and autophagic markers. Furthermore, combined regimen succeeded to modulate acetate: propionate: butyrate ratios as well as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes fecal contents with improvement of insulin resistance (IR). Yet, the administration of MTF alone failed to normalize Bacteriodetes and acetate contents which could be the reason for its moderate effect. In conclusion, gut microbiota modulation may be an attractive therapeutic avenue against NASH. More attention should be paid to deciphering the crosstalk mechanisms linking gut microbiota to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to identify new therapeutic targets for this disease.

Ahmed, L. A., and K. F. Al-Massri, "Gut Microbiota Modulation for Therapeutic Management of Various Diseases: A New Perspective Using Stem Cell Therapy.", Current molecular pharmacology, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 43-59, 2023. Abstract

Dysbiosis has been linked to various diseases ranging from cardiovascular, neurologic, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and metabolic illnesses to cancer. Restoring of gut microbiota balance represents an outstanding clinical target for the management of various multidrug-resistant diseases. Preservation of gut microbial diversity and composition could also improve stem cell therapy which now has diverse clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Gut microbiota modulation and stem cell therapy may be considered a highly promising field that could add up towards the improvement of different diseases, increasing the outcome and efficacy of each other through mutual interplay or interaction between both therapies. Importantly, more investigations are required to reveal the cross-talk between microbiota modulation and stem cell therapy to pave the way for the development of new therapies with enhanced therapeutic outcomes. This review provides an overview of dysbiosis in various diseases and their management. It also discusses microbiota modulation via antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplant to introduce the concept of dysbiosis correction for the management of various diseases. Furthermore, we demonstrate the beneficial interactions between microbiota modulation and stem cell therapy as a way for the development of new therapies in addition to limitations and future challenges regarding the applications of these therapies.

Ahmed, L. A., and S. A. EL-Maraghy, "Nicorandil ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced heart failure in rats: possible mechanism of cardioprotection.", Biochemical pharmacology, vol. 86, issue 9, pp. 1301-10, 2013 Nov 01. Abstract

Despite of its known cardiotoxicity, doxorubicin is still a highly effective anti-neoplastic agent in the treatment of several cancers. In the present study, the cardioprotective effect of nicorandil was investigated on hemodynamic alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by cumulative administration of doxorubicin in rats. Doxorubicin was injected i.p. over 2 weeks to obtain a cumulative dose of 18 mg/kg. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day) was given orally with or without doxorubicin treatment. Heart rate and aortic blood flow were recorded 24 h after receiving the last dose of doxorubicin. Rats were then sacrificed and hearts were rapidly excised for estimation of caspase-3 activity, phosphocreatine and adenine nucleotides contents in addition to cytochrome c, Bcl2, Bax and caspase 3 expression. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, creatine kinase activity and oxidative stress markers were measured together with the examination of DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes. Nicorandil was effective in alleviating the decrement of heart rate and aortic blood flow and the state of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Nicorandil also preserved phosphocreatine and adenine nucleotides contents by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity and creatine kinase activity. Moreover, nicorandil provided a significant cardioprotection via inhibition of apoptotic signaling pathway, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, nicorandil did not interfere with cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma. In conclusion, nicorandil was effective against the development of doxorubicin-induced heart failure in rats as indicated by improvement of hemodynamic perturbations, mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural changes without affecting its antitumor activity.

Ahmed, L. A., A. F. Mohamed, E. A. Abd El-Haleim, and D. M. El-Tanbouly, "Boosting Akt Pathway by Rupatadine Modulates Th17/Tregs Balance for Attenuation of Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure in Rats.", Frontiers in pharmacology, vol. 12, pp. 651150, 2021. Abstract

Disruption of Th17/Tregs homeostasis plays a crucial role in governing the immune response during myocardial fibrosis and its progression to heart failure. The present study aimed to assess for the first time the possible protection afforded by rupatadine against isoproterenol-induced heart failure in rats. It also explored the role of PI3k/Akt as a possible mechanistic pathway, through which rupatadine could modulate Th17/Tregs balance to display its effect. Isoproterenol (85 and 170 mg/kg/day) was injected subcutaneously for 2 successive days, respectively and rupatadine (4 mg/kg/day) was then given orally for 14 days with or without wortmannin (PI3K/Akt inhibitor). Rupatadine succeeded to completely ameliorate isoproterenol-induced cardiac dysfunction as demonstrated by improvements of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic measurements. Moreover, rupatadine prevented the marked elevation of PAF and oxidative stress in addition to Th17 promoting cytokines (IL-6, IL-23, and TGF-β). Accordingly, rupatadine prevented Th17 stimulation or expansion as indicated by increased Foxp3/RORγt ratio and decreased production of its pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-17). Rupatadine treatment mitigated isoproterenol-induced activation of STAT-3 signaling and the imbalance in -Akt/total Akt ratio affording marked decrease in atrogin-1 and apoptotic biomarkers. Finally, this therapy was effective in averting cardiac troponin loss and reverting the histological alterations as assessed by myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy grading. Contrariwise, co-administration of wortmannin mostly attenuated the protective effects of rupatadine affording more or less similar results to that of isoproterenol-untreated rats. In conclusion, rupatadine could be an effective therapy against the development of isoproterenol-induced heart failure where PI3K/Akt pathway seems to play a crucial role in its protective effect.

Abd El Aal, H. A., L. A. Ahmed, W. A. Hassan, H. M. Fawzy, and H. Moawad, "Combination of carvacrol with simvastatin improves the lipid-lowering efficacy and alleviates simvastatin side effects.", Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology, vol. 31, issue 12, 2017 Dec. Abstract

The present investigation was designed to examine the possible additive hypolipidemic effect of carvacrol (CARV) in combination with simvastatin (SIM) on poloxamer 407 (P407)-induced hyperlipidemia. Rats were injected with P407, (500 mg/ kg; i.p.), twice a week, for 30 days. Treatment was carried out by administration of SIM (20 mg/kg/day; p.o.) or CARV (50 mg/kg/day; p.o.) or combination of them. Treatment with CARV significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, leptin, and increased high-density lipoprotein and adiponectin. Moreover, CARV potentiated the hypolipidemic effect of SIM. Both SIM and CARV alleviated the oxidative stress induced by P407. Interestingly, CARV, when combined with SIM, significantly ameliorated SIM-induced liver and muscle injury by reducing the level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and myoglobin and restoring the normal histological picture of both liver and muscle as well as apoptosis.